Katherine Mary Dunham was an African-American dancer, author, educator and social activist. Dunham had one of the most successful dance careers in African-American and European theater of the 20th century, directed her own dance company for many years, she has been called the "matriarch and queen mother of black dance."While a student at the University of Chicago, Dunham took leave and went to the Caribbean to study dance and ethnography. She returned to graduate and submitted a master's thesis in anthropology, she did not complete the other requirements for the degree, however. She realized. At the height of her career in the 1940s and 1950s, Dunham was renowned throughout Europe and Latin America and was popular in the United States; the Washington Post called her "dancer Katherine the Great". For 30 years she maintained the Katherine Dunham Dance Company, the only self-supported American black dance troupe at that time. Over her long career, she choreographed more than ninety individual dances.
Dunham was an innovator in African-American modern dance as well as a leader in the field of dance anthropology, or ethnochoreology. She developed the Dunham Technique, a method of movement to support her dance works. Katherine Mary Dunham was born on June 22, 1909, in a Chicago hospital and taken as an infant to her parents' home in Glen Ellyn, about 25 miles west of Chicago, her father, Albert Millard Dunham, was a descendant of slaves from West Madagascar. Her mother, Fanny June Dunham, of mixed French-Canadian and Native American heritage, died when Dunham was three years old, she had Albert Jr. with whom she had a close relationship. After her father married again a few years the family moved to a predominantly white neighborhood in Joliet, Illinois. There her father ran a dry-cleaning business. Dunham became interested in both dance at a young age. In 1921, a short story she wrote when she was 12 years old, called "Come Back to Arizona", was published in volume 2 of The Brownies' Book, she graduated from Joliet Central High School in 1928, where she played baseball, tennis and track.
In high school she joined the Terpsichorean Club and began to learn a kind of modern dance based on the ideas of Europeans Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf von Laban. At the age of 15, she organized "The Blue Moon Café", a fundraising cabaret to raise money for Brown's Methodist Church in Joliet, where she gave her first public performance. While still a high school student, she opened a private dance school for young black children. After completing her studies at Joliet Junior College, Dunham moved to Chicago to join her brother Albert, attending the University of Chicago as a student of philosophy. In a lecture by Robert Redfield, a professor of anthropology, she learned that much of black culture in modern America had begun in Africa, she decided to study dances of the African diaspora. Besides Redfield, she studied under anthropologists such as A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, Edward Sapir, Bronisław Malinowski. Under their tutelage, she showed great promise in her ethnographic studies of dance. In 1935, Dunham was awarded travel fellowships from the Julius Rosenwald and Guggenheim foundations to conduct ethnographic study of the dance forms of the Caribbean as manifested in Vodun practice of Haiti.
Fellow anthropology student Zora Neale Hurston did field work in the Caribbean. Dunham received a grant to work with Professor Melville Herskovits of Northwestern University, whose ideas about retention of African culture among African Americans served as a base for her research in the Caribbean, her field work in the Caribbean began in Jamaica, where she lived for several months in the remote Maroon village of Accompong, deep in the mountains of Cockpit Country. She traveled to Martinique and to Trinidad and Tobago for short stays to do an investigation of Shango, the African god, still considered an important presence in West Indian religious culture. Early in 1936, she arrived in Haiti, where she remained for several months, the first of her many extended stays in that country through her life. While in Haiti, Dunham investigated Vodun rituals and made extensive research notes on the dance movements of the participants. Years after extensive studies and initiations, she became a mambo in the Vodun religion.
She became friends with, among others, Dumarsais Estimé a high-level politician, who became president of Haiti in 1949. Somewhat she assisted him, at considerable risk to her life, when he was persecuted for his progressive policies and sent in exile to Jamaica after a coup d'état. Dunham returned to Chicago in the late spring of 1936. In August she was awarded a bachelor's degree, a Ph. B. Bachelor of philosophy, with her principal area of study named as social anthropology, she was one of the first African-American women to earn these degrees. In 1938, using materials collected during her research tour of the Caribbean, Dunham submitted a thesis, The Dances of Haiti: A Study of Their Material Aspect, Organization and Function, to the Department of Anthropology at the University of Chicago in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree, but she never completed her course work or took required examinations to complete the degree. Devoted to dance performance, as well as to anthropological research, she realized that she had to choose be
The Gardens at SIUE
The Gardens at SIUE is a botanical garden on the campus of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. They originated as an arboretum and occupy a 35 acres tract of the university's 2,660 acres campus at Edwardsville, Illinois, they serve a twofold function as a living laboratory dedicated in support of the educational and research missions of the University and as a place of beauty for the university community to share with the general public. In light of this duality, The Gardens' master plan calls for the creation of a "public garden featuring spectacular horticulture, event spaces, areas for social gatherings and contemplative gardens" to be continuously enhanced over the coming years; the Gardens at SIUE is recognized by the Missouri Botanical Gardens as a "Signature Garden." In April, 1990, Donal Myer, dean of the former SIUE School of Sciences announced that planning had begun for the creation of a campus arboretum, to be sited north of the parking area for the Tower Lake recreation area.
The arboretum had been a part of the plans for the university from its beginnings but nothing had been done until Frank Kulfinski, professor of Environmental Sciences, suggested that it was time to start. Following Dr. Myers' death that August, the SIU Board of Trustees named the arboretum in his honor, Dr. Kulfinski became its first director. In the ensuing years, the tree collection was broadened and diversified, the arboretum saw much use as both an educational tool and as a recreational destination for the SIUE community. In the late Nineties, funds were raised to further develop the site. Among the improvements, a permanent sign was erected and a bridge was built across Turtle Pond. In 1998, the Donal G. Myer Arboretum was rededicated. In 2003, the Missouri Botanical Gardens' president Dr. Peter Raven created the Metro-east Outreach Advisory Committee, chaired by SIUE alumnus Ralph Korte and directed with discovering ways to amplify the Missouri Botanical Gardens' image in the Metro East region.
This committee created the concept of "Signature Gardens", the Donal Myer Arboretum was chosen as one of three Signature Gardens in the Metro East. In 2004, Terra Design Studios of Pittsburgh was hired to assist a planning team, consisting of SIUE Foundation staff; this process established a plan for the site which more resembled a public botanical garden than a conventional arboretum, resulting in the conclusion that the Myer Arboretum would become a part of a larger entity--- The Gardens at SIUE. In 2005, SIUE hired Doug Conley as the first full-time director of The Gardens. In April, 2006 the 1st Annual Arbor Day event hosted 30 volunteers. In May of the same year, Rita Hardy donated a set of wind sculptures to The Gardens, in September, The Hardy Family Wind Forest was dedicated at a "Garden Party" attended by more than 200 guests and featuring comments by Dr. Raven and SIUE Chancellor Vaughn Vandergrift. With the completion of The Gardens Master Plan, The Friends of The Gardens at SIUE was formed in 2007.
The 2nd Annual Arbor Day event was attended by 30 visitors. Through the efforts of Doug Conley, the University, the Friends of The Gardens, generous benefactors and enhancement has continued, turning The Gardens at SIUE into a welcoming destination for all visitors. In January 2012, Jane Drake was appointed as The Gardens second director and served in that post until March 2014. On September 1, 2014, the directorship of The Gardens was added to the duties of James Pennekamp, special assistant to the chancellor for Regional Economic Development and executive director of University Park at SIUE. In 2016, the Illinois state budget crisis brought about reduced funding for The Gardens; because of The Gardens' increasing popularity, the mayor of Edwardsvile proposed that the city take over the site's care and a survey was done of the Edwardsville citizens. In August, the city and the university entered into a one-year lease agreement for the city to maintain The Gardens. Among the features of The Gardens at SIUE are: The Butterfly Garden--- Added in 2014, designed with plants that attract local butterfly species.
The Garden Path wanders for half leading visitors to its many features. The Donal Myer Arboretum--- Established in 1990 and named in honor of the late Donal G. Myer, a biologist and dean of the former SIUE School of Sciences, the Arboretum is a collection of labeled trees and shrubs native to the region in a natural setting; the Donal Myer Arboretum Plaza --- A plaza surrounded with bench seating at the south entrance to The Gardens. The Prairie Portal --- A 1 acre garden created by the Edwardsville Rotary Club that will function as a portal from the Garden Path to a not yet constructed path, the Prairie Loop; the Hardy Family Wind Forest--- A set of kinetic sculptures by Lyman Whitaker are set in motion by the wind, creating ever-changing images. The set includes The Double Spinner, The Fleur-de-Lis, the Double Helix, The Desert Flame, the Double Dancer; the sculptures were donated by Rita Hardy of Highland. The Lantern--- A path over the bridge and through the pines leads to a plaza were a small amphitheater faces the oriental influenced pergola sited on the edge of Turtle Pond.
A place for small gatherings or quiet contemplation, the Lantern was conceived by students in SIUE's nationally recognized Senior Capstone project of the School of Engineering and designed by Jamie Henderson of Henderson Associates Architects. Constructed of stone and cedar, the Lantern looks out upon the
East St. Louis, Illinois
East St. Louis is a city in St. Clair and with a small portion in Madison counties in southwestern Illinois, United States, it is located across the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri, in what is defined as the Metro-East region of Southern Illinois. Once a bustling industrial center, like many cities in the Rust Belt, East St. Louis has been affected by loss of jobs due to industrial restructuring during the second half of the 20th century. In 1950, East St. Louis was the fourth-largest city in Illinois when its population peaked at 82,366; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of less than one-third of the 1950 census. A recent addition to the city's waterfront is the Gateway Geyser. Located on the grounds of Malcolm W. Martin Memorial Park, the fountain is the second-tallest in the world. Designed to complement the Gateway Arch across the river in St. Louis, it shoots water to a height of 630 feet, the same height as the Arch. Native Americans had long inhabited both sides of the Mississippi River.
The Mississippian culture rulers organized thousands of workers to construct complex earthwork mounds at what became St. Louis and East St. Louis; the center of this culture was the urban complex of Cahokia, located to the north of present-day East St. Louis within Collinsville, Illinois. Before the Civil War, settlers reported up to 50 mounds in the area that became East St. Louis, but most were lost to 19th-century development and roadbuilding. East St. Louis lies within the fertile American Bottom area of the present day Metro-East area of St. Louis, Missouri; this name was given after the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, more European Americans began to settle in the area. The village was first named "Illinoistown". East St. Louis was founded in 1797 by a Revolutionary War veteran. In that year Piggott began operating a ferry service across the Mississippi River, connecting Illinoistown with St. Louis, founded by ethnic French families; when Piggott died in 1799, his widow sold the ferry business, moved to St. Louis County and remarried.
One of the Piggotts' great-great-granddaughters became known as actress Virginia Mayo. The municipality called East St. Louis was established on April 1, 1861. Illinoistown residents voted on a new name that day, 183 voted to rename the town East St. Louis. Though it started as a small town, East St. Louis soon grew to a larger city, influenced by the growing economy of St. Louis, which in 1870 was the fourth-largest city in the United States. A period of extensive industrial growth followed the American Civil War. Industries in East St. Louis made use of the local availability of Illinois coal as fuel. Another early industry was meatpacking and stockyards, concentrated in one area to limit their nuisance to other jurisdictions. In the expansion, many businessmen became overextended in credit, a major economic collapse followed the Panic of 1873; this was due to railroad and other manufacturing expansion, land speculation, general business optimism caused by large profits from inflation. The economic recession began in the East and moved West crippling the railroads, the main system of transportation.
In response, railroad companies began lowering workers' wages, forcing employees to work without pay, cutting jobs and paid work hours. These wage cuts and additional money-saving tactics prompted massive unrest. While most of the strikes in the eastern cities during 1877 were accompanied by violence, the late July 1877 St. Louis strike was marked by a bloodless and quick take-over by dissatisfied workers. By July 22, the St. Louis Commune began to take shape, as representatives from all the railroad lines met in East St. Louis, they soon issued General Order No. 1, halting all railroad traffic other than mail trains. John Bowman, the mayor of East St. Louis, was appointed arbitrator of the committee, he helped. The strike and the new de facto workers' government, while given encouragement by the German-American Workingmen's Party and the Knights of Labor, were run by no organized labor group; the strike closed packing industry houses surrounding the National Stock Yards. At one plant, workers allowed processing of 125 cattle in return for 500 cans of beef for the workers.
Though the East St. Louis strike continued in an orderly fashion, across the river in St. Louis there were isolated incidents of violence. Harry Eastman, the East St. Louis workers' representative, addressed the mass of employees: Go home to your different wards and organize your different unions, but don't keep coming up here in great bodies and stirring up excitement. Ask the Mayor, as we did, to close up all the saloons... keep sober and orderly, when you are organized, apply to the United Workingmen for orders. Don't plunder... don't interfere with the railroads here... let us attend to that. The strikers held the railroads and city for about a week, without the violence that took place in Chicago and other cities; the federal government intervened, on July 28 US troops took over the Relay Depot, the Commune's command center, the strike ended peacefully. On May 27, 1896, a tornado struck East St. Louis, it stands as the deadliest tornado to hit the cities. In twenty minutes, this tornado resulted in destruction that killed 137 people in St. Louis and 118 in East St. Louis.
The tornado's destruction spanned ten miles, including into the railyards and commercial districts of East St. Louis
Mississippi River Festival
The Mississippi River Festival was a summer outdoor concert series held during the years 1969-1980 on the campus of Southern Illinois University in Edwardsville, Illinois. The Festival was notable due to its central midwest location, the natural ambience of its outdoor venue, the consistent high quality of performers. On May 22, 1981, officials at SIU announced there would be no Mississippi River Festival in the upcoming summer. MRF consisted of a variety of popular rock, folk and classical music performers; the more popular groups, such as The Who, Chicago and the Grateful Dead shows were attended. Some shows attracting crowds in excess of 30,000, it is noteworthy that Jackson Browne appeared as both a backup band and as a lead act in 1977. He wrote two of his songs for the live Running on Empty album in a nearby Holiday Inn at the intersection of I-270 and Illinois Route 157, it is estimated. In July 1969, Bob Dylan did a short surprise gig, together with The Band, it was his first performance since his notorious motorcycle accident in 1966.
The outdoor venue was located on a hill forming a natural amphitheater characterized by a large circus like tent and an acoustic shell at the bottom of the hill and a single entrance area at the top of the hill. Students were able to attend shows at a student discount; the MRF site was designed by George Dickie. The tent area contained 1,900 director's style chairs arranged on a white gravel rock surface. Although there was a minimal amount of permanent structures at the venue, the entrance, concession stands, restroom areas were decorated with large canvas sails designed by Gyo Obata; the mini-roadtrip to the site and meeting friends in the parking areas around the venue were favorite parts of the experience. The parking experience being a 70s youth version of tailgating; the majority of audience sat on "the lawn" on blankets. Two pathways flanked the lawn area running from the entrance area to the stage area providing a permanent pathway for movement and finding your "spot" in an otherwise sea of blankets.
There were restrooms on either side of the venue. For those who attended, there are fond memories of all day outdoor parties with friends and the opportunity to see top concert talent. In 1978, the Nederlander Organization was contracted to manage the book acts. In 1980, SIUE officials requested that the Nederlander Organization book more eclectic entertainment including classical symphonies and operas instead of just popular music bands. Nederlander refused and after a breakdown in negotiations the University decided to close the venue. Since the Nederlander Organization held a ten-year lease, the facility could not be used. Bob Heil and founder of Heil Sound as well as production adviser to national touring groups provided sound production for seven years. Ed Drone, of Heil Sound mixed the house sound 6 nights a week for seven years. Efforts to resurrect this popular event have been met with challenges due to funding and other limitations of producing such an event in today's environment; the history of the event and an extensive collection of black-and-white photos has been captured in the book The Mississippi River Festival.
Additional history and video assembled by Dr. Stephen Kerber is available on a virtual exhibit of MRF located on the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville website. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville commemorated the 40th anniversary of the first season of the Mississippi River Festival with a picnic and dedication of a plaque at the festival site on June 13, 2009Artist, Steve Hartman, commemorated the event in a painting titled, Mississippi River Festival: Shadows at Dusk; the painting was commissioned by the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Alumni Association as a gift to the former director of alumni services. List of historic rock festivals Walter Susskind The MRF in the SIUE Archives
WSIE is a public radio station in Edwardsville, across the Mississippi River from St. Louis. Owned by Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, it is the primary jazz station for the Greater St. Louis area. Rebranding as "The Sound" in August 2016, WSIE broadcasts jazz, smooth jazz, R&B along with news and student programming, is the anchor station for SIUE Sports' Cougar Network. Licensed by the Federal Communications Commission in January 1969, WSIE operates with 50,000 watts of effective radiated power at 88.7 megahertz in the FM band. A long time member of National Public Radio, they do not broadcast NPR anymore; the station's studios are in Dunham Hall, the transmitter and 420 feet tower are located near the Supporting Services Building on the SIUE campus. WSIE is used as a training ground for students of the SIUE Mass Communications Department. Among broadcasters who received training at WSIE are Frank O Pinion; the current General Manager is Jason Church. WSIE streams its programming on the internet.
A separately programmed web-radio operation was run by WSIE, but it is now operated independently, although it remains a University activity. In 2016, WSIE faced the potential loss of its state appropriation due to the Illinois state budget crisis; the SIUE administration ordered WSIE to become self-sustaining by 2017. The station received tax-deductible donations on its website, its budget is made up of underwriting and donations. Today, the station receives no state funding. List of jazz radio stations in the United States WSIE official website SIUE official website Campus map SIUE Web Radio Query the FCC's FM station database for WSIE Radio-Locator information on WSIE Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WSIE
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, is a coeducational, public doctoral/professional university in Edwardsville, United States about 20 miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri. SIUE was established in 1957 as an extension of Southern Illinois University Carbondale, it is the younger of the two major institutions of Southern Illinois University system, and, as of 2018, has the larger enrollment. The University offers graduate programs through its Graduate School. Fielding athletic teams known as the SIU Edwardsville Cougars, the university participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division I level as a member of Ohio Valley Conference; the majority of SIUE's students are from Illinois, with out-of-state and international students accounting for 18% of enrollment. As of 2018, for nearly all of its academic programs, SIUE does not charge out-of-state tuition and fee rates, such that the standard rates are the same for all U. S. residents. The university offers numerous extracurricular activities to its students, including athletics, honor societies, student clubs and organizations, as well as fraternities and sororities.
The university has an alumni base of more than 101,000. During the Post–World War II economic expansion, a lack of public higher education was noticeable in the growing Metro-East area. Organizations from across the area took it upon themselves to relieve this lack. Southern Illinois University, over 100 miles to the region's south, opened a residence center in Belleville in 1949. In 1955, the Edwardsville Chamber of Commerce founded the Southwestern Illinois Council for Higher Education, tasked with creating a more permanent solution to the problem. SWICHE and the SIU Board of Trustees met and stated their agreement in goals in 1956, that same year, an Executive Committee from the Board of Education in Alton invited Dr. Alonzo Myers, Chairman of the Department of Higher Education for Higher Education at New York University, to perform a study of the need for higher education in the Metro-East. Dr. Myers's 1957 report, The Extent and the Nature of Needs for Higher Education in Madison and St. Clair Counties, outlined the precise need: the 1950 census showed that students in the region in question were only half as as those in other regions of the country to finish a four-year college degree program.
Businesses in the area were in need of college-trained employees, but were forced to hire outside of the area in the fields of business administration, nursing and industrial technology. Myers concluded that, rather than more residence centers, private schools, or junior colleges, a branch of a four-year public university would best serve the needs of the area, he recommended the closest large public university, as the best candidate. Acting on the report, in 1957, SIU purchased both a former building of East St. Louis High School and the campus of Shurtleff College in Alton as temporary facilities. With all of the research and planning that had gone before, the true need had been underestimated; when the new campuses opened, officials planned on having about 800 students. The dual campus solution was temporary because both facilities were in urban areas with little room for expansion at the time of purchase. Land for the permanent campus was purchased in 1960—2,660-acre of farmland. Money for the purchase came from A) contributions from individuals, industries, labor unions, civic organizations, PTAs.
The location, west of Edwardsville, was chosen due to its accessibility via highways, its usability as an educational campus, its proximity to the major urban areas of the Metro-East. In 1960, a bond issue was voted upon by the residents of Illinois. A conference entitled Environmental Planning-Edwardsville Campus took place in 1961, highlighting the architectural and spatial design of the future campus; the campus was designed by architects Hellmuth and Kassabaum. Ground was broken in 1963 and, with the first two buildings completed, classes were first held on the Edwardsville campus in fall 1965. A series of dedication ceremonies from 1966 to 1969 highlighted the ongoing growth of the campus. Prior to the development of the Edwardsville campus, six "Divisions of Academic Programs" were established for the SIU Residential Centers in Alton and East St. Louis on March 4, 1960; when the move was made to the new campus in 1965, the "Divisions" became the Schools of Business, Fine Arts, Humanities and Technology, Social Sciences.
The nursing program, to become the School of Nursing when the new campus opened, was established in March 29, 1964. On April 18, 1969, the Board of Trustees voted to establish the School of Dental Medicine, which opened in 1972; the School of Engineering originated as the Engineering Department of the School of Science and Technology and was elevated to School status in 1982. Between September 9, 1993 and July 1, 1995 the Schools of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences and the University College merged to become the College of Arts and Sciences; the newest of SIUE's schools, the School of Pharmacy, began classes in 2005. In 2014, the School of Education was renamed to School of Education and Human Behavior to better represent the
Lovejoy Library at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville opened in 1965 and is located on the Stratton Quadrangle of the SIUE campus. The library was named for Elijah Parish Lovejoy, American Presbyterian minister and newspaper editor who, in 1837, was murdered by a mob in nearby Alton for his abolitionist views. Business hours are 7:30 a.m.-1 a.m. Mondays-Thursdays. Sundays. Lovejoy Library houses a collection of more than 800,000 copies of nearly 600,000 book titles. Additionally, Lovejoy Library has been a selective depository in the Federal Depository Library Program for U. S. government documents since 1965, selectively adding to its general collection some 500,000 government publications that are a complement to the University's curriculum. Among the numerous special collections to be found in the Lovejoy Library are: The National Ragtime and Jazz Archive includes recordings and research materials on and about jazz musicians from the St Louis area. Items in the collection include audio and videotapes, sheet music, piano rolls and oral history materials.
Included within the NRJA are the NJRA Record Collection of more than 20,000 recordings including the John Randolph Collection The Eugene B. Redmond Collection: the poet has donated a collection including his personal library, photographs and other items; the Louisa H. Bowen University Archives and Special Collections compiled by the late university archivist, preserves materials pertaining to SIU Edwardsville and to the history of Southwestern Illinois; the Rare Books Collection was acquired by John Cushman Abbott, the Lovejoy Library's first director. Music and Music-related Collections: Some seventeen separate collections, including those of composer/conductor Walter Damrosch, violinist/educator Shinichi Suzuki, pianist/educator Ruth Slenczynska; the Albert Richard Mohr Collection is said to be the world's largest collection of music manuscripts and miscellany of modern European composers, with dozens of composers from nineteen countries represented. The library is supported by the Friends of Lovejoy Library.
Since 1965, the group has contributed more than $2.6 million to enhance library collections and programs. Establishing 31 endowments worth more than $800,000, the group was recognized nationally in 1991 and 1995 as the top academic friends' group in the country by Friends of Libraries U. S. A. A consortium of library friends organizations now known as the Association of Library Trustees, Advocates and Foundations Lovejoy Library Homepage United for Libraries Friends of Lovejoy Library Official SIUE web site Campus map SIUE Lovejoy Library