Sophocles is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His first plays were than those of Aeschylus. He competed in 30 competitions, won 18, and was never judged lower than second place, Aeschylus won 14 competitions, and was sometimes defeated by Sophocles, while Euripides won 5 competitions. Sophocles influenced the development of drama, most importantly by adding a third actor and he developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus. Sophocles, the son of Sophilus, was a member of the rural deme of Hippeios Colonus in Attica, which was to become a setting for one of his plays. Sophocles was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, Sophocles was born into a wealthy family and was highly educated. Sophocles first artistic triumph was in 468 BC, when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the master of Athenian drama. According to Plutarch, the victory came under unusual circumstances, instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest.
Plutarch further contends that following this loss Aeschylus soon left for Sicily, although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles first production, it is now thought that his first production was probably in 470 BC. Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival, in 480 BC Sophocles was chosen to lead the paean, celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. Early in his career, the politician Cimon might have one of his patrons, although if he was, there was no ill will borne by Pericles, Cimons rival. In 443/2 he served as one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, in 420 BC, he welcomed and set up an altar for the image of Asclepius at his house, when the deity was introduced to Athens. For this, he was given the posthumous epithet Dexion by the Athenians and he was elected, in 413 BC, one of the commissioners who responded to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War.
Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety-one in the winter of 406/5 BC, as with many famous men in classical antiquity, his death inspired a number of apocryphal stories. The most famous is the suggestion that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his Antigone without pausing to take a breath, another account suggests he choked while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. A third holds that he died of happiness after winning his final victory at the City Dionysia, one of his sons, and a grandson, called Sophocles, became playwrights. Several ancient sources mention Sophocles homosexuality or bisexuality, Athenaios reported that Sophocles loved boys like Euripides loved women. The poet Ion of Chios relates an anecdote involving Sophocles seducing a serving boy at a symposium, who dominated Athenian playwriting during Sophocles early career, followed suit and adopted the third character into his own work towards the end of his life
Lachenalia is a genus of bulbs in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae, which are usually found in Namibia and South Africa. Most of these plants have a period, and the new roots of these plants will always grow every year. Lachenalia is named after the Swiss botanist Werner de Lachenal, species are sometimes known as Cape cowslip though they are not directly related to the true cowslip Primula veris
In Greek mythology, Tydeus was an Aeolian hero of the generation before the Trojan War. He was one of the Seven Against Thebes, and the father of Diomedes, Tydeus was a son of Oeneus and either Periboea, Oeneuss second wife, or Gorge, Oeneuss daughter. He was the husband of Deipyle, the mother of Diomedes, Tydeus was banished from Calydon by his uncle Agrius, because he killed either his brother or a different uncle or six of his cousins. He travelled to Argos, where he married Deipyle, daughter of king Adrastus, while housing Tydeus, King Adrastus of Argos lodged Polynices, the exiled son of Oedipus who had shared the rule of Thebes with his brother Eteocles before he was expelled by the latter. Late one night, the two young exiles got into a dispute over the guest room in Adrastus’s palace. Awakened by the clamor, Adrastus rushed to the hall to find the two men locked in a brawl and it was that Adrastus recalled a prophecy that had instructed him to “yoke his daughters to a boar and a lion”.
Adrastus recognized Tydeus as the boar and Polynices as the lion and wed his daughters to them, through marriage into Adrastus’s family and Tydeus became princes of Argos, had children, and generally lived well. Adrastus promised that he would restore their kingdoms to them ). The armies were raised from Argolis, the largest army that had appeared in Greece till that time. Shortly after the arrived in Nemea, the young son of King Lycourgos was killed by a snake. In turn, Adrastus’s men killed the serpent, buried the boy, Tydeus won the boxing event at these games. When the expedition reached Cithaeron, Tydeus was sent ahead to demand that the Thebans reinstate Polynices, frustrated with being ignored by Eteocles, Tydeus issued one-on-one challenges to multiple men and vanquished each one with power granted to him by Athena. While Tydeus returned to his allies, the Thebans amassed a force of fifty men, led by Maeon and Polyphontes, Tydeus killed every man with the exception of Maeon, whom he allowed to live due to signs from the gods.
Tydeus is mentioned multiple times in the Iliad, one of the most notable mentions is in Book IV where Agamemnon reminds Diomedes of the deeds of his father Tydeus. In Agamemnons story, when Tydeus entered Thebes with an embassy from the Argive camp, Eteocles sent Polyphontes and Maion with fifty men to ambush Tydeus on his way back to his army, but Tydeus killed all of them except Maion. Tydeus appears in Aeschyluss play Seven against Thebes, as one of the Seven and he faced off with the defender Melanippus and killed Melanippus, but was mortally wounded himself. In other versions of the myth, the detail is added that the goddess Athena had planned to make him immortal, the 7th century poet Mimnermus attributes the murder of Ismene, the sister of Antigone, to Tydeus. No other Classical writer mentions the story, but the scene is represented on a 6th-century Corinthian black-figure amphora now housed in the Louvre
Giants (Greek mythology)
According to Hesiod, the Giants were the offspring of Gaia, born from the blood that fell when Uranus was castrated by his Titan son Cronus. Archaic and Classical representations show Gigantes as man-sized hoplites fully human in form, representations show Gigantes with snakes for legs. In traditions, the Giants were often confused with other opponents of the Olympians, particularly the Titans, the vanquished Giants were said to be buried under volcanoes and to be the cause of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The name Gigantes is usually taken to imply earthborn, and Hesiods Theogony makes this explicit by having the Giants be the offspring of Gaia, According to Hesiod, Gaia mating with Uranus bore many children, the first generation of Titans, the Cyclopes and the Hundred-Handers. But Uranus hated his children and, as soon as they were born, he imprisoned them inside of Gaia, and so Gaia made a sickle of adamant which she gave to Cronus, the youngest of her Titan sons, and hid him to wait in ambush.
And when Uranus came to lie with Gaia, Cronus castrated his father, and the drops that gushed forth received. From these same drops of blood came the Erinyes and the Meliai, there are three brief mentions of Gigantes in Homers Odyssey, though its not entirely clear that Homer and Hesiod understood the term to mean the same thing. Elsewhere in the Odyssey, Alcinous says that the Phaiakians, like the Cyclopes, and Odysseus describes the Laestrygonians as more like Giants than men. Pausanias, the 2nd century AD geographer, read these lines of the Odyssey to mean that, for Homer, the 6th–5th century BC lyric poet Bacchylides calls the Giants sons of the Earth. Later the term became a common epithet of the Giants. Hyginus has the Giants being the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus, Homer describes the Giant king Eurymedon as great-hearted, and his people as insolent and froward. Hesiod calls the Giants strong and great which may or may not be a reference to their size, though a possible addition, the Theogony has the Giants born with gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hands.
Other early sources characterize the Giants by their excesses, Pindar describes the excessive violence of the Giant Porphyrion as having provoked beyond all measure. Bacchylides calls the Giants arrogant, saying that they were destroyed by Hybris, Homers comparison of the Giants to the Laestrygonians is suggestive of similarities between the two races. Rocks huge as a man could lift, certainly possessed great strength, over time, descriptions of the Giants make them less human, more monstrous and more gigantic. According to Apollodorus the Giants had great size and strength, an appearance, with long hair and beards. Ovid makes them serpent-footed with a hundred arms, and Nonnus has them serpent-haired, the most important divine struggle in Greek mythology was the Gigantomachy, the battle fought between the Giants and the Olympian gods for supremacy of the cosmos. It is primarily for battle that the Giants are known
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology, andrew Stewart assesses him as, A careful, pedestrian writer. interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless, or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, and to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids, while at the temple of Ammon, in Macedonia, he appears to have seen the alleged tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. Crossing over to Italy, he had something of the cities of Campania.
He was one of the first to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Pausanias Description of Greece is in ten books, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. He begins his tour in Attica, where the city of Athens, subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris. He famously leaves out key portions of Greece such as Crete, the project is more than topographical, it is a cultural geography. Pausanias digresses from description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them and his work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece. He is not a naturalist by any means, though he does from time to comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape. He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the boars in the oak woods of Phelloe. Pausanias is most at home in describing the art and architecture of Olympia.
Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of gods, holy relics, Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary. Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not even mentioned. While he never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he criticizes the myths. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned and they bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance, when he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so
Aura, in ancient Greek and ancient Roman religion, is the divine personification of the breeze. The plural form, Breezes, is often found and they are the daughters of the Anemoi, the god of the north wind. Eurus, the god of the east wind, the god of the west wind. Notus, the god of the south wind The most well-known Aurae is Chione, the velificatio, a billowing garment that forms an arch overhead, is the primary attribute by which an Aura can be identified in art. A pair of velificantes that appear on the Augustan Altar of Peace have sometimes identified as Aurae. Pliny describes statues of the Aurae velificantes sua veste, making a sail with their garment, Aurae can resemble Nereids, from whom they are distinguishable mainly by the absence of marine imagery. The Dionysiaca of Nonnus presents the most extended mythology of Aura, in the Dionysiaca, Aura was the daughter of Lelantos and Periboa and mother of Iacchus by Dionysus. Aurae are said to resemble ghosts, and can become part of the breeze.
They appear to disappear into the air, along with the fact that they glide, is why they are mistaken for spirits of the departed. They are said to work with Aeolus, Master of Winds. Aura, the goddess of such breezes, appears in Sandro Botticellis painting The Birth of Venus, aurai Grimal, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell,1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London
In Homers Odyssey, Penelope is the wife of Odysseus, who is known for her fidelity to Odysseus while he was absent, despite having many suitors. Her name has traditionally been associated with marital fidelity, and so it was with the Greeks and Romans and her character is beyond what was available to most women at the time, and she is considered a match for Odysseus due to her immense strength and intelligence. The origin of her name is believed by Robert S. P. Penelope is the wife of the character, the king of Ithaca, Odysseus. She only has one son by Odysseus, who was born just before Odysseus was called to fight in the Trojan War and she waits twenty years for the final return of her husband, during which she devises various strategies to delay marrying one of the 108 suitors. On Odysseuss return, disguised as an old beggar, he finds that Penelope has remained faithful, every night for three years, she undoes part of the shroud, until Melantho, one of twelve unfaithful serving women, discovers her chicanery and reveals it to the suitors.
Because of her efforts to put off remarriage, Penelope is often seen as a symbol of connubial fidelity, as Irene de Jong comments, As so often, it is Athena who takes the initiative in giving the story a new direction. She simply feels an impulse to meet the men she so loathes. Adding that she might take this opportunity to talk to Telemachus and she is ambivalent, variously asking Artemis to kill her and, considering marrying one of the suitors. For the plot of the Odyssey, of course, her decision is the turning point, there is debate as to whether Penelope is aware that Odysseus is behind the disguise. On the other hand, because Odysseus seems to be the person who can actually use the bow. When the contest of the bow begins, none of the suitors are able to string the bow, but Odysseus does, Odysseus protests that this cannot be done since he made the bed himself and knows that one of its legs is a living olive tree. Penelope finally accepts that he truly is her husband, a moment that highlights their homophrosýnē, homer implies, that from on, Odysseus would live a long and happy life together with Penelope and Telemachus, wisely ruling his kingdom and enjoying wide respect and much success.
In some early sources such as Pindar, Pans father is Apollo via Penelope, Cicero and Hyginus all make Hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, other sources report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result. This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pans name with the Greek word for all, Latin references to Penelope revolved around the sexual loyalty to her absent husband. It suited the marital aspect of Roman society representing the tranquility of the worthy family and she is mentioned by various classical authors including Plautus, Horace, Ovid and Statius. The use of Penelope in Latin texts provided a basis for her use in the Middle Ages. This was reinforced by her named by Saint Jerome among pagan women famed for their chastity
Locris was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts. The city of Locri in Calabria, known in antiquity as Epizephyrian Locris, was a founded by the Locrians in Magna Graecia. There is some disagreement over whether it was those from Opuntian Locris or from Ozolian Locris who were responsible, the territory of the Locrians was divided into three by Doris and Phocis, perhaps due to an early invasion of a contiguous Locrian state. This fact, combined with the regions infertility, meant that the Locrians tended to be dominated by their neighbours, to the south-west of Phocis was Ozolian Locris, situated on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, between Naupactus and Crisa. The main cities of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus which was its seaport, to the north east of Phocis was Opuntian Locris, named after its main city, Opus. Finally, to the north of Phocis was Epicnemidian Locris, situated near the pass of Thermopylae, the territories of the Opuntian Locri and the Epicnemidian Locri were not a continuous unit but were separated from one another by Phocis The main towns of Ozolian Locris were Amphissa and Naupactus.
Today, the area is part of Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis, the main towns of Opuntia Locris were Opus and Larymna. Today, Opuntian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, main article, Epicnemidian Locris The main towns of Epicnemidian Locris were Nicaea and Thronium. Today, Epicnemidian Locris is part of modern Phthiotis, the province of Locris was one of the provinces of the Phthiotis Prefecture. Its capital was the town Atalanti and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Amfikleia-Elateia and Molos-Agios Konstantinos
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama
Salamis, is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile off-coast from Piraeus and about 16 kilometres west of Athens. The chief city, lies in the core of the crescent on Salamis Bay. On the Eastern side of the island is its port, Paloukia, in size second in Greece only to Piraeus. The traditional etymology of Salamis derives it from the eponymous nymph Salamis, the mother of Cychreus, a more modern theory considers Salamis to come from the root sal salt and -amis middle, thus Salamis would be the place amid salt water. Some scholars connect it to the Semitic root Š-L-M health, peace, from at least the 13th century until the 19th century, the town, the island, and the bay of Salamis were called Koulouri, presumably because it was round like the bread called koulouri. The ancient name was revived in the 19th century, the name Koulouri is still used informally for the town. Salamis is mentioned in Homers writings, according to Homers Iliad, Salamis took part in the Trojan War with twelve ships under the leadership of Ajax.
Salamis island is known for the Battle of Salamis, the naval victory of the allied Greek fleet, led by Themistocles. It is said to be the birthplace of Ajax and Euripides, in modern times, it is home to Salamis Naval Base, headquarters for the Hellenic Navy. The oldest known counting board was discovered on Salamis Island in 1899 and it is thought to have been used by the Babylonians in about 300 BC and is more of a gaming board rather than a calculating device. It is marble, about 150 x 75 x 4.5 cm, during the German invasion of Greece in World War II, the harbor was bombed by the Luftwaffe on April 23,1941, sinking the Greek battleships Kilkis and Lemnos. In the 1960s and 1970s, during the military junta period and this opened the island to massive unplanned and unregulated urban and suburban development, including many weekend homes, especially along the northern and eastern coasts. The lack of corresponding investment in infrastructure, combined with industry, has led to sea. There are, ongoing initiatives such as help from the European Union’s Cohesion Fund toward improving sewerage by 2008, Salamis has an area of 36 square miles, its highest point is Mavrovouni at 1,325 feet.
A significant part of Salamis Island is rocky and mountainous, on the southern part of the island a pine forest is located, which is unusual for western Attica. Unfortunately, this forest is often a target for fires, while the inland inhabitants are mainly employed within the agricultural sector, the majority of Salamis inhabitants work in maritime occupations or commute to work in Athens. Salamis Island is very popular for holiday and weekend visits from the Athens and Piraeus area and this supports a strong service industry sector, with many cafes, ouzeries and consumer goods shops throughout the island. Salamis Island belongs to the Islands regional unit of the Attica region, since the 2011 local government reform the island is administered as one municipality
Pindar was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes. Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved and his poems can also, seem difficult and even peculiar. The Athenian comic playwright Eupolis once remarked that they are reduced to silence by the disinclination of the multitude for elegant learning. His poetry, while admired by critics, still challenges the casual reader, Pindar was the first Greek poet to reflect on the nature of poetry and on the poets role. A dream of a shadow Is our mortal being, but when there comes to men A gleam of splendour given of heaven, Then rests on them a light of glory And blessed are their days. His poetry illustrates the beliefs and values of Archaic Greece at the dawn of the classical period, five ancient sources contain all the recorded details of Pindars life. One of them is a short biography discovered in 1961 on an Egyptian papyrus dating from at least 200 AD and it has been claimed that biographical interpretations of the poems are due to a fatal conjunction of historicism and Romanticism.
In other words, we know almost nothing about Pindars life based on traditional sources or his own poems. However, the pendulum of fashion has begun to change direction again. He was probably born in 522 BC or 518 BC in Cynoscephalae and his fathers name is variously given as Daiphantus, Pagondas or Scopelinus, and his mothers name was Cleodice. It is reported that he was stung on the mouth by a bee in his youth, Pindar was about twenty years old in 498 BC when he was commissioned by the ruling family in Thessaly to compose his first victory ode. He studied the art of poetry in Athens, where his tutor was Lasos of Hermione. The early-to-middle years of Pindars career coincided with the Persian invasions of Greece in the reigns of Darius and it is possible that Pindar spent much of this time at Aegina. Thrasybulus had driven the winning chariot and he and Pindar were to form a lasting friendship, Pindar seems to have used his odes to advance his, and his friends, personal interests. In 462 BC he composed two odes in honour of Arcesilas, king of Cyrene, pleading for the return from exile of a friend, Demophilus.
In the latter ode Pindar proudly mentions his own ancestry, which he shared with the king, as an Aegeid or descendent of Aegeus, the historian Herodotus considered the clan important enough to deserve mention. Pindar might not actually claim to be an Aegeid since his I statements do not necessarily refer to himself. He was possibly the Theban proxenos or consul for Aegina and/or Molossia, as indicated in another of his odes, Nemean 7, in which he glorifies Neoptolemus, a national hero of Aegina and Molossia