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Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium. Symptoms include sudden onset of sharp chest pain; the pain may be felt in the shoulders, neck, or back. It is better sitting up and worse when lying down or breathing deeply. Other symptoms may include fever, weakness and shortness of breath. Onset of symptoms is gradual; the cause of pericarditis is believed to be most due to a viral infection. Other causes include bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, uremic pericarditis, following a heart attack, autoimmune disorders, chest trauma; the cause remains unknown. Diagnosis is based on the chest pain, a pericardial rub, specific electrocardiogram changes, fluid around the heart. Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include a heart attack. Treatment in most cases is with NSAIDs and colchicine. Steroids may be used. Symptoms improve in a few days to weeks but can last months. Complications can include cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis, it is a less common cause of chest pain.

About 3 per 10,000 people are affected per year. Those most affected are males between the ages of 20 and 50. Up to 30% of those affected have more than one episode. Substernal or left precordial pleuritic chest pain with radiation to the trapezius ridge is the characteristic pain of pericarditis; the pain is relieved by sitting up or bending forward, worsened by lying down or by inspiration. The pain may resemble that of angina but differs in that pericarditis pain changes with body position, where heart attack pain is constant and pressure-like. Other symptoms of pericarditis may include dry cough, fever and anxiety. Due to its similarity to the pain of myocardial infarction, pericarditis can be misdiagnosed as a heart attack. Acute myocardial infarction can cause pericarditis, but the presenting symptoms differ enough to warrant diagnosis; the following table organizes the clinical presentation of pericarditis differential to myocardial infarction: The classic sign of pericarditis is a friction rub heard with a stethoscope on the cardiovascular examination on the lower left sternal border.

Other physical signs include a person in positional chest pain, diaphoresis. Pericarditis can progress to pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; this can be seen in people who are experiencing the classic signs of pericarditis but show signs of relief, progress to show signs of cardiac tamponade which include decreased alertness and lethargy, pulsus paradoxus, low blood pressure, distant heart sounds on auscultation, equilibration of all the diastolic blood pressures on cardiac catheterization due to the constriction of the pericardium by the fluid. In such cases of cardiac tamponade, EKG or Holter monitor will depict electrical alternans indicating wobbling of the heart in the fluid filled pericardium, the capillary refill might decrease, as well as severe vascular collapse and altered mental status due to hypoperfusion of body organs by a heart that can not pump out blood effectively; the diagnosis of tamponade can be confirmed with trans-thoracic echocardiography, which should show a large pericardial effusion and diastolic collapse of the right ventricle and right atrium.

Chest X-ray shows an enlarged cardiac silhouette and clear lungs. Pulmonary congestion is not seen because equalization of diastolic pressures constrains the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure to the intra-pericardial pressure. Pericarditis may be caused by bacterial, or fungal infection. In the developed world, viruses are believed to be the cause of about 85% of cases. In the developing world tuberculosis is a common cause but it is rare in the developed world. Viral causes include coxsackievirus, mumps virus, HIV among others. Pneumococcus or tuberculous pericarditis are the most common bacterial forms. Anaerobic bacteria can be a rare cause. Fungal pericarditis is due to histoplasmosis, or in immunocompromised hosts Aspergillus and Coccidioides; the most common cause of pericarditis worldwide is infectious pericarditis with tuberculosis. Idiopathic: No identifiable cause found after routine testing. Autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic fever, IgG4-related disease Myocardial infarction Trauma to the heart Uremia Cancer Side effect of some medications, e.g. isoniazid, hydralazine and heparin Radiation induced Aortic dissection Postpericardiotomy syndrome—such as after CABG surgery Laboratory values can show increased urea, or increased blood creatinine in cases of uremic pericarditis.

However, laboratory values are normal, but if there is a concurrent myocardial infarction or great stress to the heart, laboratory values may show increased cardiac markers like Troponin, CK-MB, LDH1. The preferred initial diagnostic testing is the ECG, which may demonstrate a 12

John Rinehart Blue

John Rinehart Blue was a Democratic member of the West Virginia House of Delegates representing Hampshire County, West Virginia from 1953 through 1959. Blue was a prominent schoolteacher, variety store owner, community leader in his hometown of Romney. John Rinehart Blue was born on October 13, 1905 in Romney, West Virginia to John David Blue and his wife Mary Buckner Rinehart Blue. Blue's father John was a son of Lieutenant John Monroe Blue, a prominent member of the 11th Virginia Cavalry of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Blue received his primary education in the public schools of Romney and earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Presbyterian College in Clinton, South Carolina and completed graduate studies at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia. On September 6, 1938, Blue married Madeline McDowell, daughter of Angus and Madeline Stanford McDowell of Camden and Montgomery, Alabama. Blue and his wife Madeline had three children: John Angus McDowell Blue, Julia Tait Blue Weir and David Standford Blue.

Blue served in the United States Army during World War II. He enlisted as a private in the U. S. Army at the age of 37 on November 20, 1942 in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Following his enlistment, Blue was inducted into the U. S. Army in Columbus, Ohio. In the early 1950s, Blue opened dime variety store in Romney; the store was located in a building owned by his father, John David Blue, razed for the construction of the Pioneer Restaurant. Blue relocated the store between 1955 and 1956 to a three-story building that had housed Romney's theater. Following Blue's death, the Ben Franklin store was owned and operated by his wife, until it ceased operation and closed in 1991. Blue was the superintendent of the West Virginia Schools for the Blind for 20 years. Following the resignation of William L. Thompson from the West Virginia House of Delegates on August 28, 1953, West Virginia Governor William C. Marland appointed Blue to fill Thompson's vacant delegate seat representing Hampshire County on September 23, 1953.

Blue was nominated for re-election to his delegate seat by Hampshire County Democratic voters in August 1954, a primary election in which he received 729 votes compared to 536 votes for James W. Short and 517 votes for Harold L. Welker, both Democratic opponents from the Romney area. Blue subsequently ran in the general election on November 2, 1954 for his delegate seat and won, receiving 1859 votes compared to 1355 votes for his opponent, Republican candidate Earl A. Loy of Augusta. Blue filed for inclusion on the ballot in the Democratic Party primary election in 1958, but lost in the primary to William Basil Slonaker of Dillons Run who went on to win Blue's delegate seat in the 1958 general election. Blue attempted recapturing his delegate seat in 1962, but was defeated in the Democratic Party primary election by incumbent Slonaker, 579 to 1430 votes. Blue died on May 27, 1965 of coronary thrombosis caused by coronary artery disease on his farm in Augusta, his funeral service were conducted by Rev. L. T.

West at the Romney Presbyterian Church, he was interred at Indian Mound Cemetery in Romney on May 29, 1965. Blue was survived by his wife, his three children, his sisters Mrs. Bruce Whitfield and Mrs. Henry Hollenberg. Blue was a member of the Romney Presbyterian Church affiliated with Presbyterian Church, he served on his church's board of deacons. In addition to his church, Blue was a member of the Moose Lodge, Lions Club, Hampshire Post 91 of the American Legion. Munske, Roberta R.. Hampshire County, West Virginia, 1754–2004. Romney, West Virginia: The Hampshire County 250th Anniversary Committee. ISBN 978-0-9715738-2-6. OCLC 55983178. West Virginia Legislature. West Virginia Blue Book, Volume 41. West Virginia Legislature. ISSN 0364-7323. OCLC 1251675. West Virginia Legislature. West Virginia Blue Book, Volume 64. West Virginia Legislature. ISSN 0364-7323. OCLC 1251675. Media related to John Rinehart Blue at Wikimedia Commons John Rinehart Blue at Find a Grave The Blue Estate Auction - Part 1 on YouTube The Blue Estate Auction - Part 2 on YouTube

Elsie K. Powell House

Powell House, named after Elsie K. Powell Sr. is the Quaker conference and retreat center of the New York Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, located in Old Chatham, New York. Powell House is used for religious conferences and similar gatherings of members and attenders of meetings belonging to New York Yearly Meeting, it is used for meetings of Yearly Meeting committees or conferences sponsored by them. The programs include a wide variety of educational and organizational activities for youth and adults related to the religious and social concerns of the Religious Society of Friends; the facilities are available for use by affiliated Friends’ organizations and other religious or educational groups having interests compatible with those of Friends. Short-term sojourners are sometimes accommodated. In 1960 Elsie Powell donated residential property to New York Yearly Meeting; the yearly meeting decided to establish a retreat center on the property. Powell House held a 40th anniversary celebration in 2000.

During 2008 and 2009 the Anna Curtis Center underwent renovation. The renovation included several energy-saving improvements such as the installation of solar panels and a radiant floor heating system, it increased the sleeping capacity of the facility. It made the facility handicapped accessible. Powell House's campus now consists of Pitt Hall, the Anna Curtis Center, a director’s residence, a youth directors’ residence, fifty-seven acres of land with a campground and two wildlife ponds. Pitt Hall is; the Anna Curtis Center known as the Youth Center, is where youth conferences are held. The youth program has conferences designed for several age groups. There are conferences for 4th and 5th graders, 6th through 8th, 9th through 12th graders. Most youth conferences have around 40 attenders. WinterSong and EarthSong are special youth conferences for which both buildings are required because there are nearly double the usual number of attendees. Earthsong celebrates the spring and the seniors who are graduating from the program.

Wintersong celebrates warmth and light in winter. Youth from 7th to 12th grades are invited to these conferences. Typical conferences consist of the following elements: Session: A time when the whole group gathers for discussion, games, or other activities. Small group discussions Free time Meals and snacks: The youth help with dishes, cooking and other tasks and learn a good work ethic. Work projects: The attenders are asked to help with some project that needs doing on the campus. Workshops: Attenders choose to attend a workshop. Adults from the Quaker community are asked to lead workshops for the youth. Self space: A period in the middle of the conference set aside for relaxation and alone time. Quiet time: Just before bed time the group gathers to here a story and say good night. At most youth conferences there are only one adult presence; because most of the youth want to be there and enjoy the program immensely there is little need for authoritative figures, however several Junior Councilors are chosen for every 4th and 5th grade and 6th through 8th grade conference.

JCs are youth older than the youth attending the conference, who attend conferences themselves. Once a year there is a JC training conference during which attenders learn leadership and mediation skills. JCs lead small group discussions, work projects, games and snack crews, workshops, they are expected to set an example for the other youth and help maintain the community's safety and order


Wansbeck was a local government district in south-east Northumberland, England. Its main population centres were Ashington and Newbiggin-by-the-Sea; the area, bounded by the district is urban, on the North Sea coast north of the Tyneside conurbation. It bordered Blyth Valley district to the border being the River Blyth, it was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of the urban districts of Ashington and Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. It is named after the River Wansbeck; the district council was abolished as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England effective from 1 April 2009 with responsibilities being transferred to Northumberland County Council, a unitary authority. Sean Taylor, professional footballer Statistics about the Wansbeck district from the Office for National Statistics Census 2001

Henry Seibels

Henry Goldthwaite "Diddy" Seibels was a prominent American college football and baseball player and golfer for the Sewanee Tigers of Sewanee: The University of the South, a small Episcopal school in the Tennessee mountain town of Sewanee. Seibels was born in Montgomery to Colonel Emmett Seibels and Anne Goldthwaite. Seibels is best known as the running back and captain on the undefeated 1899 Sewanee Tigers football team. Known as the "Iron Men," they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M. Recalled memorably with the phrase "..and on the seventh day they rested." The biggest fear of the road trip was injuries, as players who left a game were not allowed to return. In the first game of that road trip, with Texas, Seibels got a gash on his forehead, stuck together with "sticking plaster." Seibels scored two touchdowns in that game, only missed the Tulane game. He scored a Sewanee record 19 touchdowns in 1899, he was nominated. Seibels captained the baseball team that year, he was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1973, is a member of the Sewanee Athletics Hall of Fame.

After college, he was headmaster of Sewanee Grammar School and moved to Birmingham and was in the insurance business. Seibels' athleticism was vast. Seibels had Henry "Buzz" Seibels, Jr. and Kelly Seibels. He once told them and an inquiring newsman the best player on the 1899 Sewanee Tigers football team was not he but Ormond Simkins. Henry "Ditty" Seibels at the College Football Hall of Fame

Cognate linkage

In kinematics, cognate linkages are linkages that ensure the same input-output relationship or coupler curve geometry, while being dimensionally dissimilar. In case of four-bar linkage coupler cognates, the Roberts–Chebyschev Theorem, after Samuel Roberts and Pafnuty Chebyshev, states that each coupler curve can be generated by three different four-bar linkages; these four-bar linkages can be constructed using similar triangles and parallelograms, the Cayley diagram. Overconstrained mechanisms can be obtained by connecting two or more cognate linkages together; the theorem states for a given coupler-curve there exist three four-bar linkages, three geared five-bar linkages, more six-bar linkages which will generate the same path. The method for generating the additional two four bar linkages from a single four-bar mechanism is described below, using the Cayley diagram. From original triangle, ΔA1,D,B1 Sketch Cayley diagram Using parallelograms, find A2 and B3 //OA,A1,D,A2 and //OB,B1,D,B3 Using similar triangles, find C2 and C3 ΔA2,C2,D and ΔD,C3,B3 Using a parallelogram, find OC //OC,C2,D,C3 Check similar triangles ΔOA,OC,OB Separate left and right cognate Put dimensions on Cayley diagram The lengths of the four members can be found by using the law of sines.

Both KL and KR are found. K L = sin ⁡ sin ⁡ K R = sin ⁡ sin ⁡ If and only if the original is a Class I chain < Both 4-bar cognates will be class I chains. If the original is a drag-link, both cognates will be drag links. If the original is a crank-rocker, one cognate will be a crank-rocker, the second will be a double-rocker. If the original is a double-rocker, the cognates will be crank-rockers. Chebychev Linkage Four-bar linkage Kinematic pair Uicker, John J.. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515598-X. Samuel Roberts "On Three-bar Motion in Plane Space", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, vol 7. Hartenberg, R. S. & J. Denavit Kinematic synthesis of linkages, p 169, New York: McGraw-Hill, weblink from Cornell University. Four- and six-bar function cognates and overconstrained mechanisms Applications of Watt II function generator cognates Coupler cognate mechanisms of certain parallelogram forms of Watt's six-link mechanism