Limyra was a small city in ancient Lycia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, on the Limyrus River, twenty stadia from the mouth of that river. It was a prosperous city, one of the oldest cities in lycia; the city had rich and abundant soil, became one of the finest trade settlements in Greece. Pericles adopted it as the capital of the Lycian League; the city came under control of the Persian Empire. He annexed Lydia and its territories after a decisive victory at the Battle of Thymbra and the Siege of Sardis, where he defeated armies twice as large as his. Cyrus got his greatest general: Harpagus of Media to conquer the much smaller kingdoms in Anatolia, while he went to conquer the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Anatolia would become an important place for the Persian monarchs; the massive Royal road constructed by Darius went from the Persian capital of Persepolis, to the Anatolian city of Sardis. Limyra would stay under Persian control until the end of its days, when it was conquered and sacked by Alexander the Great.
It is mentioned by Strabo and several Latin authors. Gaius Caesar, adopted son of Augustus, died there; the ruins of Limyra are about 5 km northeast of the town of Finike in Turkey. They consist of a theatre, sarcophagi, bas-reliefs and Lycian inscriptions etc. About 3 km east of the site is the Roman Bridge at Limyra, one of the oldest segmental arch bridges of the world. Limyra is mentioned as a bishopric in Notitiæ Episcopatuum down to the 12th and 13th centuries as a suffragan of the metropolitan of Myra. Six bishops are known: Diotimus, mentioned by St. Basil. In the Annuario Pontificio it is listed as a titular see of the Roman province of Lycia
Cyrus I or Cyrus I of Anshan or Cyrus I of Persia, was King of Anshan in Persia from c. 600 to 580 BC or, according to others, from c. 652 to 600 BC. Cyrus I of Anshan is the grandfather of Cyrus the Great known as Cyrus II, his name in Modern Persian is کوروش, while in Greek he was called Κῦρος, Kȳros. Cyrus was an early member of the Achaemenid dynasty, he was a grandson of its founder Achaemenes and son of Teispes, king of Anshan. Teispes' sons divided the kingdom between them after his death. Cyrus reigned as king of Anshan; the chronological placement of this event is uncertain. This is due to his suggested, but still debated identification, with the monarch known as "Kuras of Parsumas". Kuras is first mentioned c. 652 BC. In that year Shamash-shum-ukin, king of Babylon, revolted against his older brother and overlord Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria. Cyrus is mentioned being in a military alliance with the former; the war between the two brothers ended in 648 BC with the defeat and reported suicide of Shamash-shum-ukin.
Cyrus is mentioned again in 639 BC. At that year Ashurbanipal managed to defeat Elam and became overlord to several of its former allies. Kuras was among them, his elder son "Arukku" was sent to Assyria to pay tribute to its King. Kuras seems to vanish from the historical record, his suggested identification with Cyrus would help connect the Achaemenid dynasty to the major events of the 7th century BC. Ashurbanipal died in 627 BC. Cyrus continued paying tribute to his sons and successors Ashur-etil-ilani and Sin-shar-ishkun, they were both opposed by an alliance led by Cyaxares of Nabopolassar of Babylon. In 612 BC the two managed to capture the Assyrian capital Nineveh; this was the end of the Neo-Assyrian Empire though remnants of the Assyrian Army under Ashur-uballit II continued to resist from Harran. Media and Babylon soon shared the lands controlled by the Assyrians. Anshan fell under the control of the former. Cyrus is considered to have ended his days under the overlordship of either Cyaxares or his son Astyages.
Cyrus was succeeded by his son Cambyses I. His grandson would come to be known as founder of the Persian Empire, it has been noted that this account of his life and reign would place his early activities more than a century before those of his grandson. This would place his fathering of Cambyses late in life and his death at an advanced age, it has been argued that Cyrus were separate figures of uncertain relation to each other. The latter would have reigned in the early 6th century BC and his reign would seem rather uneventful. Due to the current lack of sufficient records for this historical period it remains uncertain which theory is closer to the facts, it has been suggested by Louis Vandenberg that the Gur-e-Dokhtar is the tomb of Cyrus I. This is because all Achaemenid kings after Darius the Great were buried in rock-cut tombs, because a similar building has been attributed to Cyrus the Great, it seemed logical to assume that a tomb like this must have been erected prior to the reign of Cyrus.
However, other experts have claimed that it is the burial place of Mandane, mother of Cyrus the Great, while other scholars claim that the Gur-e-Dokhtar was the mausoleum of Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great and the wife and queen of Darius the Great. When the iron clamps were studied, it became clear that this building was erected in the 5th century BC, so it may have been for prince Cyrus the Younger. A. Shapur Shahbazi: Cyrus I. In: Encyclopædia Iranica, vol. 6, p. 516
Oroetus, or Oroetes, was a Persian Satrap of Lydia from ca. 530-520 BC, during the reigns of Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, succeeding Harpagus, being followed by Bagaeus. He is described by Herodotus in the third book of his Histories, where he achieved notoriety for the death of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos: What I will now relate happened about the time of Cambyses' sickness; the viceroy of Sardis appointed by Cyrus was a Persian. This man purposed to do a great wrong; the reason alleged by most was this: — As Oroetes and another Persian, Mitrobates by name, governor of the province of Dascyleium, sat by the king's door, they fell from talk to wrangling and comparing of their several achievements: and Mitrobates taunted Oroetes, saying, "You are not to be accounted a man. Some say that Oroetes, angered by this taunt, was less desirous of punishing the utterer of it than of by all means destroying the reason of the reproach, namely Polycrates. Oroetus became the first satrap recorded as demonstrating insubordination with respect to the central power of Persia.
When Cambyses, who succeeded his father Cyrus, the Persian Empire was in chaos prior to Darius the Great securing control. Oroetus defied Darius' orders to assist him, whereupon Bagaeus was sent by Darius to arrange his murder. After Cambyses had died and the Magians won the kingship, Oroetes stayed in Sardis, where he in no way helped the Persians to regain the power taken from them by the Medes, but contrariwise. So when Darius became king he was minded to punish Oroetes for all his wrongdoing, chiefly for the killing of Mitrobates and his son. Jona Lendering. Oroetus From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Pierre Briant, Eisenbrauns: 2002, ISBN 978-1-57506-031-6
Ariaramnes was a great uncle of Cyrus the Great and the great-grandfather of Darius I, the king of Parsumash, the ancient core kingdom of Persia. Ariaramnes was most the brother of Cyrus I of Anshan and son of Teispes, but this is not certain. In any case, he was a member of the Achaemenid House; as supported by the relief at Bisitun he was the first king of a separate Achaemenid branch that ran parallel to the reigns of Cyrus I and his son Cambyses I. As the grandfather of Darius the Great, this line absorbs the Dynasty and dominates the Persian Empire; some time in the first half of the 20th Century two gold tablets relating to Ariaramnes were found in Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. These gold tablets documented the reigns of Ariaramnes and his son Arsames and were written in Old Persian in the first person; this is the only evidence we have from the time documenting his reign and thus this branch of the Achaemenid royal family. Another attestation of his reign is the Behistun Inscription, where his great grandson Darius I states that eight Achaemenid kings preceded him - and he must be counting Ariaramnes as a king.
His English name is derived - via Latin - from the Greek Ἀριαράμνης. In Modern Persian, his name is spelled اریارمنه. Akbarzadeh, D.. The Behistun Inscriptions. Khaneye-Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. ISBN 964-8499-05-5. Kent, Ronald Grubb. Old Persian: Grammar, Glossary. Translated into Persian by S. Oryan. ISBN 964-421-045-X. A. Sh. Shahbazi: "Ariyaramna", in Encyclopaedia Iranica. Livius.org article on Ariamnes
Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there; the inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians; the Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status. Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is based on ancient sources.
The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic layering consistent with the known colonization. Coastal Caria begins with Didyma south of Miletus, but Miletus had been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. South of it is the Iassicus Sinus and the towns of Iassus and Bargylia, giving an alternative name of Bargyleticus Sinus to Güllük Körfezi, nearby Cindye, which the Carians called Andanus. After Bargylia is Caryanda or Caryinda, on the Bodrum Peninsula Myndus, 56 miles from Miletus. In the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown. On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula is Termera, on the other side Ceramicus Sinus, it "was crowded with numerous towns." Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns: Theangela, Medmasa, Pedasa or Pedasum, Telmissus. These with Myndus and Synagela constitute the eight Lelege towns. On the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus. On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus.
At the base of the peninsula is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Doulopolis. South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris", the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. There are three bays in it: Bubassius and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, an island: Elaeus or Elaeussa near Loryma. On the south shore is Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi. South of there is a section of the coast under Rhodes, it includes Loryma or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion with Physicus, Physca or Physcus called Cressa. Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River. On the other side is Caunus, with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between. Follow some cities that some assign to Lydia and some to Caria: Calynda on the Indus River, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus, the Glaucus River being the border. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Lydae and Aenus.
At the base of the east end of Latmus near Euromus, near Milas where the current village Selimiye is, was the district of Euromus or Eurome Europus Idrieus and Chrysaoris. The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria, its towns are Tauropolis and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated into Mylasa. Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Around Stratonicea is Lagina or Lakena as well as Tendeba and Astragon. Further inland towards Aydin is Alabanda, noted for its marble and its scorpions, Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluence of the Maeander and the Harpasus is Harpasa. At the confluence of the Maeander and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeander and on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia, Gordiutichos near Geyre. Founded by the Leleges and called Ninoe it became Megalopolis and Aphrodisias, sometime capital of Caria. Other towns on the Orsinus are Plarasa. Tabae was at various times attributed to Phrygia and Caria and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals.
Caria comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra. The name of Caria appears in a number of early languages: Hittite Karkija, Babylonian Karsa and Old Persian Kurka. According to Herodotos, the legendary King Kar, son of Zeus and Creta, founded Caria and named it after him, his brothers Lydos and Mysos founded Lydia and Mysia, respectively. Caria arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom around the 11th century BC; the coast of Caria was part of the Doric hexapolis when the Dorians arrived after the Trojan War, in c. 13th century BC, in the last and southernmost waves of Greek migration to western Anatolia's coastline and occupied former Mycenaean settlements such us Knidos and Halicarnassos. Herodotus, the famous historian was born in Halicarnassus during the 5th century BC. Greek apoikism
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ruled the Achaemenid Empire from 530 until his death in 522 BC. Cambyses' grandfather was king of Anshan. Following Cyrus the Great's conquest of the Near East and Central Asia, Cambyses II further expanded the empire into Egypt during the Late Period by defeating the Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik III during the battle of Pelusium in 525 BC. After the Egyptian campaign and the truce with Libya, Cambyses invaded the Kingdom of Kush, but with little success. Though numerous scholars link Cambyses to the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja there are a few scholars who suggest an Elamite origin of the name. Jean Przyluski had sought to find an Austric affinity for Kamboja. Friedrich von Spiegel, Sten Konow, Ernst Herzfeld, James Hope Moulton, Wojciech Skalmowski and some other scholars think that Kambūjiya is adjectival form of the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja. Spiegel regards Kamboja/Kambujiya and Kuru/Kyros as the names of two prehistoric legendary heroes of the Indo-Iranians who were revived in the royal family of the Achaemenes and further opines that the myths about Cyrus the Great were due to the confusion between the historical and the legendary heroes of prehistory.
James Hope Moulton regards Spiegel's suggestions as the best of other etymological explanations of these two names. On the other hand, Arnold J. Toynbee discusses the issue of two Persian names Kambujiya as well as Kurush elaborately and regards them both as derived from two groups of Eurasian nomads, the Kambojas and the Kurus, mentioned in the Sanskrit texts and who, according to him, had entered India and Iran in the Migration Period of the eighth and seventh century BC. Toynbee concludes that the conquest of the world by the elder branch of the House of Achaemenes had been achieved by the valor of the Kuru and Kamboja Nomad reinforcements; when Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious ceremonies. In the cylinder which contains Cyrus' proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses' name is joined to his father's in the prayers to Marduk. On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been ephemeral.
Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, did Cyrus associate Cambyses with the throne. Numerous Babylonian tablets of the time date from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was "king of the countries". After the death of his father in 530 BC, Cambyses became sole king; the tablets dating from his reign in Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in 522 BC. Herodotus, who dates his reign from the death of Cyrus, gives his reign a length of seven years five months, from 530 BC to the summer of 523 BC; the traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources. One, which forms the main part of the account of Herodotus, is of Egyptian origin. Cambyses is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries named Nitetis, whose death he avenges on the successor of the usurper Amasis; the Persians corrected this tradition: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.
His great crime is the killing of the Apis bull, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the thigh, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal. Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; these traditions are found in different passages of Herodotus, in a form, but with some trustworthy detail about his household, in the fragments of Ctesias. With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, no contemporary evidence exists about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius I in the Behistun Inscription, it is difficult to form a correct picture of Cambyses's character from the inscriptions. It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state in that part of the world.
The war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by forming an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a large supply of water to the stations. King Amasis had hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian attack through his alliance with the Greeks. However, this hope failed, as the Cypriot towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus went over to them. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, shortly afterwards Memphis was taken; the captive king Psammetichus was executed. The Egyptian inscriptions show
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan is the god of the wild and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, companion of the nymphs. He has the hindquarters and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is recognized as the god of fields, wooded glens and affiliated with sex; the ancient Greeks considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. The word panic derives from the god's name. In Roman religion and myth, Pan's counterpart was Faunus, a nature god, the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe and in the 20th-century Neopagan movement. Many modern scholars consider Pan to be derived from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European god *Péh2usōn, whom these scholars believe to have been an important pastoral deity; the Rigvedic god Pushan is believed to be a cognate of Pan. The connection between Pan and Pushan was first identified in 1924 by the German scholar Hermann Collitz.
According to Edwin L. Brown, the name Pan is a cognate with the Greek word ὀπάων "companion". In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar's Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess Rhea or Cybele. The worship of Pan began in Arcadia, always the principal seat of his worship. Arcadia was a district of mountain people, culturally separated from other Greeks. Arcadian hunters used to scourge the statue of the god. Being a rustic god, Pan was not worshipped in temples or other built edifices, but in natural settings caves or grottoes such as the one on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens; these are referred to as the Cave of Pan. The only exceptions are the Temple of Pan on the Neda River gorge in the southwestern Peloponnese – the ruins of which survive to this day – and the Temple of Pan at Apollonopolis Magna in ancient Egypt. In the 4th century BCE Pan was depicted on the coinage of Pantikapaion; the parentage of Pan is unclear. In some early sources such as Pindar, his father is Apollo via the wife of Odysseus.
Herodotus, Cicero and Hyginus all make Hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, gave birth to Pan as a result. According to Robert Graves, his mother was called a nymph who consorted with Hermes. In some accounts, two Pans were distinguished, one being the son of Zeus and Thymbreus and the other the son of Hermes and Penelope; this myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name with the Greek word for "all". In the mystery cults of the syncretic Hellenistic era, Pan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos, Zeus and Eros. Accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. Pan might be multiplied as the Paniskoi. Kerenyi notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas, one a son of Cronus.
"In the retinue of Dionysos, or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but little Pans, who played the same part as the Satyrs". The goat-god Aegipan was nurtured by Amalthea with the infant Zeus in Crete. In Zeus' battle with Typhon and Hermes stole back Zeus' "sinews" that Typhon had hidden away in the Corycian Cave. Pan aided his foster-brother in the battle with the Titans by letting out a horrible screech and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, Aegipan was the son of Pan, rather than his father. One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his pan flute, fashioned from lengths of hollow reed. Syrinx was a lovely wood-nymph of daughter of Ladon, the river-god; as she was returning from the hunt one day, Pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph didn't stop to hear his compliments, he pursued from Mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody.
The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, cut seven pieces, joined them side by side in decreasing lengths, formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved Syrinx. Henceforth Pan was seen without it. Echo was a nymph, a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man; this angered Pan, a lecherous god, he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all ove