Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound, human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the Labium superius oris and Labium inferius oris, the juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone. The vermilion border of the lip is known as the cupids bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the tuberculum labii superioris. The vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes, because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring.
With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in case the skin of the lips contains more melanin. The skin of the lip forms the border between the skin of the face, and the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands, therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily, the lower lip is formed from the mandibular prominence, a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the body of the mandible. It is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly, the upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium, the mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, and is therefore highly sensitive.
The Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip, the Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch and it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose
In linguistics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when making a sound. Tongue shape is important for the sibilant sounds. Because these sounds have such a high prominence, small changes in tongue shape are easily audible. Usually, only one of these articulations can co-occur with a given sound. In addition, the quality of velarization and pharyngealization is very similar, as a result. The following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched and this groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing hissing sound. Because of the prominence of these sounds, they are the most common and they occur in English, where they are denoted with a letter s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized, Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, alveolo-palatal, i. e. flat palatalized, with a convex, V-shaped tongue, and highly palatalized. Palato-alveolar, i. e.
domed, with a domed tongue and these sounds occur in English, where they are denoted with letter combinations such as sh, ch, g, j or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex, with a flat or concave tongue, and no palatalization and these sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names. The subapical palatal or true retroflex sounds are the very dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, the latter three types of sounds are often known as hushing sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the hissing grooved sounds. Note that palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties, and cannot normally be varied independently
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation, cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are very rare, but they do not represent a particularly exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives. They are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, and in Umotína and they are relatively common in disordered speech, and the diacritic is specifically provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Maddieson, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages. In VICAL1, Oceanic Languages, Part II, Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, New Zealand, January 1988, ed. by R. Harlow & R.
Hooper, Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Olson, Kenneth S. D. William Reiman, Fernando Sabio & Filipe Alberto da Silva, the voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel, when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, in the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to greater and lesser degrees of rounding. The more and less rounded diacritics are used with consonants to indicate degrees of labialization. There are two types of rounding and compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, in compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the form the opening.
Catford observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are typically protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are typically compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, there are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the spread and, by the same definitions. The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩, the distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi Twi and adwuma work, whereas, in Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/. The distinction applies marginally to other consonants, some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all.
An example is /ɒ/, which in English has very little if any rounding of the lips, the throaty sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called cheek rounding. The technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like and it is not clear if it is used by languages with rounded vowels that do not use visible rounding. Protruded rounding is the equivalent of consonantal labialization