Jenkins County, Georgia
Jenkins County is a county located in the southeastern area of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,340; the county seat is Millen. The county was created on August 17, 1905 and named after the 44th Governor of Georgia, Charles Jones Jenkins. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 352 square miles, of which 347 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. Most of the southern portion of Jenkins County, from southwest of Millen to west of Hiltonia, is located in the Lower Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin, with the exception of small parts of the southwestern corner of the county and east of Garfield, which are located in the Canoochee River sub-basin of the same Ogeechee River basin; the northwestern portion of Jenkins County is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin, with just the northeastern corner of the county located in the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin.
Burke County Screven County Bulloch County Emanuel County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,575 people, 3,214 households, 2,269 families residing in the county. The population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 3,907 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.29% White, 40.49% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. 3.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,214 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.90% were married couples living together, 19.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,025, the median income for a family was $29,539. Males had a median income of $28,804 versus $20,252 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,400. About 22.30% of families and 28.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.60% of those under age 18 and 25.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,340 people, 3,192 households, 2,164 families residing in the county; the population density was 24.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,221 housing units at an average density of 12.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.9% white, 40.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.0% were American, 10.1% were English, 7.4% were Irish, 6.3% were German.
Of the 3,192 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 20.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.16. The median age was 38.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,686 and the median income for a family was $35,876. Males had a median income of $36,391 versus $25,814 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,629. About 17.6% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.1% of those under age 18 and 20.8% of those age 65 or over. Millen Perkins Camp Lawton Central Savannah River Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Jenkins County, Georgia
Burke County, Georgia
Burke County is a county located along the eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia in the Piedmont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,316; the county seat is Waynesboro. Burke County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Burke County is an original county of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. In 1779, Col. John Twiggs and brothers Col. William Few and Benjamin Few, along with 250 men, defeated British in the Battle of Burke Jail. Burke County is located within the CSRA. During the antebellum period, it was developed by slave labor for large cotton plantations; the county was majority African American in population in this period, as slaveholders needed high numbers of slaves for laborers to cultivate and process cotton. The military tradition continued during the American Civil War, when Burke County provided volunteers for numerous units: the 2nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company A, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company C, 32nd Regiment Georgia Infantry Company K, 48th Regiment Georgia Infantry Company D, Cobb's Legion Infantry company E, the Cobb's Legion Cavalry Company F. Agriculture continued as the basis of the economy for decades after the American Civil War, when most freedmen worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers.
Cotton was the major commodity crop. In the early 20th century, mechanization of agriculture caused many African-American farm workers to lose their jobs; as can be seen from the census tables below, the county lost population from 1910-1920, from 1930-1970. Part of the decline was related to the Great Migration, as millions of African Americans left the rural South and Jim Crow oppression for jobs and opportunities in industrial cities of the Midwest, North. From World War II on, primary migration destinations were West Coast cities because of the buildup of the defense industry. In addition, whites left rural areas for industrial jobs in the North, in cities such as Chicago and Detroit. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 835 square miles, of which 827 square miles is land and 8.0 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Georgia; the southern half of Burke County, defined by a line running along State Route 80 to Waynesboro southeast to east of Perkins, is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.
North of Waynesboro, bordered on the north by a line running from Keysville southeast to Girard, the territory is part of the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. The most northern sliver of Burke County is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the same Savannah River basin; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people, 8,533 households, 6,110 families residing in the county. The population density was 28.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,865 housing units at an average density of 11.9 per square mile. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,316 people residing in the county. 49.5% were Black or African American, 47.5% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 2.6 % were Latino. In terms of ancestry, 49.5% have some African ancestry, 11.0% identify as of American, 9.3% are Irish, 5.5% were English, 5.1% were German. Of the 8,533 households, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 24.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,155 and the median income for a family was $41,659. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,952 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,934. About 20.0% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,243 people, 7,934 households, 5,799 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 8,842 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.00% Black or African American, 46.90% White, 0.23% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,934 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.40% were married couples living together, 22.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,877, the median income for a family was $31,660. Males had a median income of $29,992 and females had an income of $19,008; the per capita income for the county was $13,136. About 23.80% of families and
Sardis is a city in Burke County, United States. The population is 971 based on 2017 US Census estimates, it is part of the Georgia metropolitan area in the Central Savannah River Area. Sardis is located in southeastern Burke County at 32°58′28″N 81°45′31″W, it is 17 miles southeast of the Burke County seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.5 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.95%, is water. Around the turn of the 20th Century, a small crossroads community called Frog Wallow was developing in southeast Burke County. With the construction of the Savannah & Atlanta Railway, the tiny town lay on the new railroad connecting the two large hubs. In 1912, the town was incorporated as Sardis by the Georgia Legislature, named after the Baptist church that had flourished in the town over the past decades. Sardis saw several decades of growth including a booming lumber industry. In 1962, the owner of the railroad abandoned the section of tracks between Waynesboro and Sylvania, which negatively affected the local economy.
The tracks were subsequently removed in 1964. Sardis still retains its old train coal tower; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 999 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 54.6% Black, 43.5% White, 0.3% Native American and 0.9% from two or more races. 0.7% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,171 people, 419 households, 292 families residing in the town; the population density was 776.3 people per square mile. There were 519 housing units at an average density of 344.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 55.34% African American, 44.24% White, 0.17% from other races, 0.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 419 households out of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.3% were married couples living together, 24.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.43. In the town the population was spread out with 34.3% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,917, the median income for a family was $28,083. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $17,109 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,128. About 29.2% of families and 35.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.4% of those under age 18 and 31.8% of those age 65 or over. Central Savannah River Area Sardis Baptist Church historical marker
Skokie is a village in Cook County, United States, neighboring the City of Chicago’s northern border. Skokie lies 15 miles north of Chicago's downtown loop, its name comes from a Potawatomi word for "marsh." For many years Skokie promoted itself as "The World's Largest Village." Its population, according to the 2010 census, was 64,784. Skokie's streets, like that of many suburbs, are a continuation of the Chicago street grid, the village is served by the Chicago Transit Authority, further cementing its connection to the city. Skokie was a German-Luxembourger farming community, but was settled by a sizeable Jewish population after World War II. At its peak in the mid-1960s, 58% of the population was Jewish, the largest percentage of any Chicago suburb. In recent years, several synagogues and Jewish schools have closed. However, Skokie still has a large Jewish population and an active Chabad, it is home to the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center, which opened in northwest Skokie in 2009.
Skokie has received national attention twice for court cases decided by the United States Supreme Court. In the mid-1970s, it was at the center of a case concerning the First Amendment right to assemble and the National Socialist Party of America, a neo-Nazi group. Skokie lost that case. In 2001, although Skokie was not a direct party to the case, a decision by the village regarding land use led the court to reduce the power of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. According to the 2010 census, Skokie has a total area of all land; the village is bordered by Evanston to the east, Chicago to the southeast and southwest, Lincolnwood to the south, Niles to the southwest, Morton Grove to the west, Glenview to the northwest, Wilmette to the north. The village's street circulation is a street-grid pattern, with major east-west thoroughfare every half-mile: Old Orchard Road, Golf Road, Church Street, Dempster Street, Main Street, Oakton Street, Howard Street, Touhy Avenue; the major north-south thoroughfares are Skokie Boulevard, Crawford Avenue, McCormick Boulevard.
Skokie's north-south streets continue the street names and grid values of Chicago's north-south streets – with the notable exceptions of Cicero Avenue, renamed Skokie Boulevard in Skokie, Chicago's Pulaski Road retains its original Chicago City name, Crawford Avenue. The east-west streets continue Evanston's street names, but with Chicago grid values, such that, Evanston's Dempster Street is 8800 north, in Skokie addresses. In 1888, the community was incorporated as Niles Centre. About 1910, the spelling was Americanized to "Niles Center". However, the name caused postal confusion with the neighboring village of Niles. A village-renaming campaign began in the 1930s. In a referendum on November 15, 1940, residents chose the Native American name "Skokie" over the name "Devonshire." During the real estate boom of the 1920s, large parcels were subdivided. Large-scale development ended as a result of the Great Crash of 1929 and consequent Great Depression, it was not until the 1940s and the 1950s, when parents of the baby boom generation moved their families out of Chicago, that Skokie's housing development began again.
The village developed commercially, an example being the Old Orchard Shopping Center named Westfield Old Orchard. During the night of November 27–28, 1934, after a gunfight in nearby Barrington that left two FBI agents dead, two accomplices of notorious 25-year-old bank-robber Baby Face Nelson dumped his bullet-riddled body in a ditch along Niles Center Road adjoining the St. Peter Catholic Cemetery, a block north of Oakton Street in the town; the first African-American family to move to Skokie arrived in 1961, open-housing activists helped to integrate the suburb subsequently. The name of the town was changed from "Niles Center" to "Skokie" by referendum in 1940. "Skokie" had been used as the name for the marshland on which much of the town was built. Maps long named the Skokie marsh as Chewab Skokie, a probable derivation from Kitchi-wap choku, a Potawatomi term meaning "great marsh". Virgil Vogel's Indian Place Names in Illinois records the name Skokie as: In Native Placenames of the United States, William Bright lists Vogel's Potawatomi derivation first, but adds reference to the Ojibwa term miishkooki recorded in the Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary, by Richard A. Rhodes.
The 1940 change of name may have been influenced by James Foster Porter, a Chicago native, who had explored the "Skoki Valley" in Banff National Park in Canada in 1911 and became captivated by the name. Porter supported the name "Skokie" in the referendum. Twice in its history, Skokie has been the focal point of cases before the United States Supreme Court. National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, 432 U. S. 43, involved a First Amendment issue. Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 531 U. S. 159 touched upon the Commerce Clause. In 1977 and 1978, Illinois Nazis of the National Socialist Party of America attempted to demonstrate their political existence with a march in Skokie, far from their headquarters on Chicago's south side. Ori
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Rand McNally is an American technology and publishing company that provides mapping and hardware for the consumer electronics, commercial transportation and education markets. The company is headquartered with a distribution center in Richmond, Kentucky. In 1856, William Rand opened a printing shop in Chicago and two years hired a newly arrived Irish immigrant, Andrew McNally, to work in his shop; the shop did big business with the forerunner of the Chicago Tribune, in 1859 Rand and McNally were hired to run the Tribune's entire printing operation. In 1868, the two men, along with Rand's nephew George Amos Poole, established Rand McNally & Co. and bought the Tribune's printing business. The company focused on printing tickets and timetables for Chicago's booming railroad industry, the following year supplemented that business by publishing complete railroad guides. In 1870, the company expanded into printing business directories and an illustrated newspaper, the People's Weekly. According to company lore, during the Great Chicago Fire in 1871, Rand McNally had two of the company's printing machines buried in a sandy beach of Lake Michigan, the company was up and running again only a few days later.
The first Rand McNally map, created using a new cost-saving wax engraving method, appeared in the December 1872 edition of its Railroad Guide. Rand McNally became an incorporated business in 1873; the Business Atlas, containing maps and data pertinent to business planning, was first published in 1876. The atlas is still updated today, now titled the Commercial Marketing Guide; the Trade Book department was established in 1877, publishing such titles as The Locust Plague in the United States. Rand McNally began publishing educational maps in 1880 with its first line of maps and geography textbooks, soon followed by a world atlas; the company began publishing general literature in 1884 with its first title, The Secret of Success, the Textbook department was established in 1894 with The Rand McNally Primary School Geography. In 1894, the company opened an office in New York City headed by Caleb S. Hammond, who started his own map company, C. S. Hammond & Co.. Rand McNally published its first road map, the New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity, in 1904.
In 1910, the company acquired the line of Photo-Auto Guides from G. S. Chapin, which provided photographs of routes and intersections with directions. Andrew McNally II took photos on his honeymoon for the Chicago-to-Milwaukee edition; the company continued to expand its book publishing business, with best-selling children's books such as The Real Mother Goose in 1916 and Kon-Tiki in 1950. Rand McNally was the first major map publisher. One of its cartographers, John Brink, invented a system, first published in 1917 on a map of Peoria, Illinois. In addition to creating maps with numbered roads, Rand McNally erected many of the actual roadside highway signs; this system was subsequently adopted by state and federal highway authorities. The oil industry developed an interest in road maps, enticing Americans to explore and consume more gasoline. In 1920, Rand McNally began publishing road maps for the Gulf Oil Company, to be distributed at its service stations. By 1930, Rand McNally had two major road map competitors, General Drafting and Gousha, the latter of, founded by a former Rand McNally sales representative.
The Rand McNally Auto Chum to become the ubiquitous Rand McNally Road Atlas, debuted in 1924. The first full-color edition was published in 1960 and in 1993, it became digitized; the Goode's School Atlas, named for its first editor, Dr. J. Paul Goode, was published in 1923, it became a standard text for high college geography curricula. Retitled Goode's World Atlas, it is now in its 22nd edition; the first Rand McNally Travel Store was opened in New York City in 1937. In the 1990s it became a chain with 29 locations, but by 2005 all were closed as a cost-saving measure. Rand McNally moved its headquarters from Chicago to suburban Skokie, Illinois in 1952; the company opened its Versailles, book publishing plant in 1962 with 300,000 square feet and 23 employees. In 1994, the plant was the first to implement a new Kodak computer-to-plate printing system; when the plant was sold in 1997, it was over 1,000,000 square feet and employed 1,255 people. In 1961, because the company was not satisfied with the ability of existing map projections to create intuitive depictions of the entire world, it commissioned Dr. Arthur H. Robinson to develop what became known as the Robinson projection, which became popular and was used extensively for constructing maps of the entire world.
Rand McNally began creating maps digitally in 1982. In 1989, Rand McNally donated its extensive collection of maps to the Newberry Library. Now in possession of Gousha's archives as well, Rand McNally donated that map archive to the Newberry in late 2002. With a string of acquisitions and growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Rand McNally employed over 4,000 people in four business groups; the company had been majority-owned by the McNally family since 1899, but by 1997 the family had decided to divest its interest. In late September, 2018, Rand McNally moved its headquarters back to Chicago. After more than 60 years in suburban Skokie, Ill. the company returned to Chicago, setting up shop on West Bryn Mawr Avenue. Rand McNally has always been a held or "pink sheet" company, with stock held by few parties and thinly traded; when Rand retired in 1899, he sold his shares in the company to
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi