Perm is a city and the administrative centre of Perm Krai, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. According to the 2010 Census, Perm's population is 991,162, down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census; as of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia. It was known as Yagoshikha, Perm. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov in honor of Vyacheslav Molotov; the name Perm is of Uralic etymology of Finno-Ugric origin. Komi is a member of the Permic group of Finno-Ugric languages, named for Perm. In Finnish and Vepsian perämaa means "far-away land"; the geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym. The city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain; the Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and is one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, Caspian Sea.

The Kama divides the city into two parts: the right bank part. The city stretches for 40 kilometers across it; the city street grid parallels the Kama River, travelling east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city. Another distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large number of small brooks; the largest of them are the Mulyanka, the Yegoshikha, the Motovilikha, the Gayva. Perm has a continental climate with long, cold winters. Perm is located in the old Perman area, inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples. Perm was first mentioned as the village of Yagoshikha in 1647. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major centre of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg. In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial centre with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several metallurgy and steamboat producing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur.

In 1870, an opera theatre was opened in the city, in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, Perm State University—a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened. After the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories. On December 25, 1918, the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev, took Perm. On July 1, 1919, the city was retaken by the Red Army; some early color photographs by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, taken in 1910 In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city with aviation and chemical factories built during that period. During the Great Patriotic War, Perm was a vital center of artillery production in the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, Perm became a closed city; the city is a major administrative, industrial and cultural centre. The leading industries include machinery, oil production, oil refining and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.

Since 2004, the first Muslim Cossack unit in post-Soviet Russia has been based in the city of Perm. The first Jews who arrived in Perm were demobilised soldiers from the imperial army who were allowed, after completing their service, to settle outside the pale of settlement and, in 1861, there were 194 Jews in Perm. Over the years the community grew larger, at the beginning of the 20th century, there were 1,000 Jews living in the city with their own synagogue on Kungurskaya Street and school for boys. After the Revolution of 1917 the building of the synagogue and community property were confiscated and were not returned until 1922. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many Jews emigrated from the city; the first rabbi to arrive in the city after the collapse was David Vajs, who arrived in 1996. He was replaced with Rabbi Eliyagy Habi in 2001. On March 9, 2013, two unidentified assailants threw a rock and a Molotov cocktail through a window of the Jewish Community Centre. A small area was set on fire.

Jewish community leaders ascribed the incident to incitement in the local media the previous week, related to stories about a new Torah scroll for the community. Perm is the administrative centre of the krai and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Permsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Perm—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Perm is incorporated as Perm Urban Okrug. For administrative purposes, Perm is divided into seven city districts: Perm has the largest industrial output among cities in the Urals, ahead of Yekaterinburg and Ufa, although Perm has a smaller population than these. 35% of Perm Oblast's industry is located in Perm. The largest industries in


The Fortuatha were a Medieval Irish people. In Irish Kings and High Kings, Francis John Byrne defines Fortuatha as "kingdoms not ruled directly by members of the dominant dynasty of a province". T. F. O'Rahilly in Early Irish History and Mythology states Fortuatha "means in effect people belonging to a different stock from that of the rulers of the territory", yet sometimes enjoying a position of favour with the ruling people. Population-groups termed fortuatha included the Calraige, Corca Fhir Trí, Delbhna, Déisi, Grecraige, Luighne and Setantii; the status of each population-group could differ from one part of the island to another, with some fortuatha being class as Aithechthúatha in other regions. In Leinster, some reckoned among the Fortuatha had held the provincial kingship; this was its principal septs, the Uí Garrchon and the Uí Enechglaiss. Fothairt in Chairn - located in the barony of Forth, County Wexford. Fothairt Mag Fea - located in the barony of Forth, County Carlow. Fotharta Fer Cúl - Fotharta Airthir Liphe - located along the banks of the east Liffey.

Fotharta Airbrech fri Brí Ele aniar - bordering the Kingdom of Uí Failghe. Fotharta Bile, alias Fotharta File - Fotharta Fea - Fotharta Tuile - Fotharta Imchlair - Clan Corpri, around Donaghmore, County Tyrone and near Armagh, County Armagh Fothar Breg, alias Fothar Mac nDeichill of Brega Fotharta Maige Itha - around Lough Swilly in County Donegal, who were divided into the following seven Aicme or tribes: Ui Deaga, Ui Setna, Ui Dimai, Ui Eircc, Ui Chormaic, Ui Niath and Ui Duirrtheacht; the Fothairt are referenced in Leabhar Ua Maine. Their genealogies are preserved in Leabhar na nGenealach, the Great Book of Lecan, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson B 502, and/or Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson B 512. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín writes that "The Fothairt were the original population group around the site of Bridgit's monastery at Kildare", further stating that the Uí Ercáin, a branch of the Uí Meic Cruaich "are remembered in the'Vita Tripartia' as having been specially favoured by Patrick, who blessed them and their king, Fergnae mac Cobthaig, mentioned in the life of Fintan/Munnu of Tagmon, where he encounters the saint in campo Lyffi.".

The kingship of Leinster was held from the mid-8th century to 1042 by the Uí Dúnlainge, who bolstered their early gains "by means of political marriage with Sárnat, daughter of Eochu mac Baíth of the Fothairt". A branch of the Forthairt, the Uí Brigti, explicitly claimed a connection with Bridgit. In addition, two kings of Forthairt, Fergus mac Móenaig and Dub dá Chrich mac aui Cellaig mec Triein, "as well as'many others, omitted for the sake of brevity'", were killed at the battle of Ath Senaig in 738 as supporters of King Áed of Leinster. Despite their political eclipse, the Fothairt "continued to supply leading clergy to Kildare. To Ui Chúlduib... belonged the two abbesses and Eithne. And it is probable that many other Kildare clerics, whose origins cannot be established with certainty, belonged to Fotharta." Indeed, the Uí Ercáin were noted in the'Tripartite Life' as being blessed by Saint Patrick, who promised them that not only would they never be subjects of an "outside" king, but that "they have their own brithemnas, capacity of judging and being judged, in their own territory.

* Among the early medieval Irish were many notable people whose population-group were classed as Fortuatha. They included: Brigid of Kildare - of the Fortuatha Laigin Brendan - of the Altraige of Ciarraige Luachra Iarlaithe mac Loga of Tuam - a member of the Conmaicne Suibne moccu Fir Thrí - of the Corca Fhir Trí Neide mac Onchu - a member of the Conmaicne Martan of Clonmacnoise - a member of the Dartraighe Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig, - Dál gCais Vilbaldr DufÞakrsson - of the Osraighe Cúán úa Lothcháin - of the Gailenga of Tethba Flann Mainistrech - of the Ciannachta of Brega Ruaidrí Ó Gadhra - of the Gailenga of Connacht All quotes from the Annals of the Four Masters, unless otherwise stated. 284: After Cairbre Liffeachair had been seventeen years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he fell in the battle of Gabhra Aichle, by the hand of Semeon, son of Cearb, one of the Fotharta. 423: Máel Calland mac Fergal, king of the Fortuatha. 663: Cearnach Sotal, son of Diarmaid, son of Aedh Slaine, together with the aforesaid persons, of a mortality which arose in Ireland, on the Calends of the August of this year, in Magh Itha, in Fotharta.

733: Fearghus, son of Maenach, Dubhdacrich, two lords of Fotharta, fell at the battle of Ath Seanaith. 749/54: The devastation of Fotharta Fea by the men of Osraighe. 774: The battle of Cill Coice, in which Fearghal, son of Dunghal, son of Faelchu, lord of Fortuatha Laighean, was slain by the king Donnchadh. 776: The battle of Righ was gained by the men of Breagh over the Leinstermen, on the day of Allhallows wherein were slain Cucongalt, lord of Rath Inbhir, Fearghal, son of Ailell, lord of Cinel Ucha. 783: Domnall son of Ceithern

Pan African Federation of Accountants

The Pan African Federation of Accountants is the regional body, aimed to represent African professional accountants with one and louder voice in relating with International Federation of Accountants. It was inaugurated in Dakar, Senegal on 5 May 2011; the first president, elected at the inaugural meeting in Dakar, was Major General Sebastian Achulike Owuama. Owuama is president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria and of the Association of Accountancy Bodies in West Africa. Dr. Mussa J. Assad of the National Board of Accountants and Auditors in Tanzania was named vice president; the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants in Johannesburg hosts the PAFA Secretariat. At time of launch, members were: Official website