Minister for the Cabinet Office
The Minister for the Cabinet Office is a position in the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. The office has no statutory footing or recognition, is unpaid; every individual who has held the office has therefore been appointed to a sinecure office to secure a seat at cabinet and a salary. Since 2018, it has functioned as an alternative title to Deputy Prime Minister or First Secretary of State; the Cabinet Office has a primary responsibility to support the work of the Prime Minister and ensure the effective running of government. Within this set-up, the Minister for the Cabinet Office has been seen to have varying responsibilities and stature in the government; the role is a flexible one and has variously been described as one or several of the following under different office-holders: Monitoring the co-ordination of the work of government departments Chairing or sitting on several Cabinet Committees An additional title to indicate special responsibility An additional title to indicate seniority Deputising for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's QuestionsThe government presently describes the minister for the Cabinet Office as being "in overall charge of and responsible for the policy and work of the department, attends Cabinet".
Damian Green held the office in 2017 with the office of First Secretary of State. Green chaired numerous Cabinet Committees and filled in for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions. By virtue of his responsibilities and as First Secretary of State, he was considered a de facto Deputy Prime Minister. Upon the appointment of David Lidington in 2018, Lidington retained the responsibilities Green had held, but the title of First Secretary of State remained vacant; the office in its present form therefore appears to have the responsibilities of a de facto Deputy Prime Minister, without either of the associated titles granted to individuals in the British Government. The current Minister is David Lidington, promoted as part of a New Year Cabinet Reshuffle by Theresa May in January 2018, he holds the sinecure office of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lidington chairs a number of cabinet committees and will deputise for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions; the role has had varying responsibilities over time.
The most recent responsibilities are: Supporting the Prime Minister in the running of the Government of the United Kingdom. Deputising for the Prime Minister. Advising the Prime Minister on developing and implementing Government policy. Driving forward government business and implementation including through chairing and deputy chairing cabinet committees and taskforces. Overseeing constitutional affairs and maintaining the integrity of the Union. Oversight of all Cabinet Office policies; every occupant of the position has held a sinecure office, this being Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from Clark to Byrne, Paymaster General from Jowell to Gummer, First Secretary of State with Green. David Lidington holds the role of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. A Minister of State for the Cabinet Office is appointed, junior to the Minister for the Cabinet Office. Cabinet Office
Sir Mark Philip Sedwill is a British diplomat and senior civil servant who has served as Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service since 2018. He has served as National Security Adviser since 2017, he served as the United Kingdom's Ambassador to Afghanistan from 2009 to 2010 and as the NATO Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan in 2010. He was the Permanent Secretary at the Home Office from February 2013 to April 2017. Sedwill was born in Ealing, he attended Bourne Grammar School in Bourne, becoming the head boy. He went to the University of St Andrews, where he gained a Bachelor of Science, gained a Master of Philosophy in economics from St Edmund Hall, Oxford. Sedwill joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1989 and he served in the Security Coordination Department and the Gulf War Emergency Unit until 1991, he was posted in Cairo, from 1991 to 1994 as a Second Secretary First Secretary in Iraq from 1996 to 1997 whilst serving as a United Nations weapons inspector in Nicosia, Cyprus, as First Secretary for Political-Military Affairs and Counterterrorism from 1997 to 1999.
He was the Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2000 to 2002 in the run-up to and preparations for the 2003 Iraq invasion. He served as the Deputy High Commissioner to Pakistan, based in Islamabad from 2003 to 2005 the Deputy Director for the Middle East and North Africa Department of the Foreign Office. From 2006 to 2008, he served as International Director of the UK Border Agency, part of the Home Office. In April 2009, Sedwill became the Ambassador to Afghanistan. In January 2010, he was additionally appointed as NATO's Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan, to be the civilian counterpart to the ISAF Commander, U. S. General Stanley A. McChrystal and U. S. General David Petraeus, he was succeeded as ambassador temporarily by his predecessor, Cowper-Coles, by William Patey British Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. In May 2011, Sedwill took over as the FCO's Director-General for Afghanistan and Pakistan from Karen Pierce, he additionally became the FCO's Director-General, Political in Autumn 2012, replacing Geoffrey Adams.
In February 2013, Sedwill became the Permanent Secretary at the Home Office, filling the vacancy left by Helen Ghosh. Sedwill replaced Mark Lyall Grant as National Security Adviser in the Cabinet Office in April 2017, he became acting Cabinet Secretary in June 2018, while Jeremy Heywood took a leave of absence on medical grounds, was appointed to replace Heywood on his retirement on 24 October 2018. He is the second Cabinet Secretary never to have worked at HM Treasury, the first whose career has been dominated by diplomatic and security work, he was described as the "Prime Minister's first and only choice" to replace Heywood, with no recruitment process taking place, with some suggesting the urgency of arrangements for the UK's departure from the European Union as a reason for the quick appointment. Prime Minister Theresa May was criticised for allowing Sedwill to remain as National Security Adviser alongside his role as Cabinet Secretary, with speculation that the role was being kept for Europe adviser Oliver Robbins.
Sedwill has one daughter. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Directors, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 2008, a Knight Commander in 2017. Panther's Claw in August 2009 Strategy in March 2009 The hill of gold General David Petraeus and Ambassador Mark Sedwill on Afghanistan ISAF Media March 2010 Becoming NATO representative in February 2010 ISAF Media January 2010 Frontline Club January 2010 British Satellite News
Civil Service (United Kingdom)
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive. As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the British government; the executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the British parliament. Civil servants have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament.
In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees. As such, the civil service does not include government ministers, members of the British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the Houses of Parliament, employees of the National Health Service, or staff of the Royal Household; as at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, this is up 2.5% on the previous year. There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for Northern Ireland; the heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group. The Offices of State grew in England, the United Kingdom; as in other countries, they were little more than secretariats for their leaders, who held positions at court. They were chosen by the king on the advice of a patron, replaced when their patron lost influence. In the 18th century, in response to the growth of the British Empire and economic changes, institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board grew large.
Each had its own system and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were not working. In 1806, the East India Company, a private company that ruled only in India, established a college, the East India Company College, near London; the purpose of this college was to train administrators. The civil service, based on examination similar to the Chinese system, was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. William Ewart Gladstone a junior minister, in 1850 sought a more efficient system based on expertise rather than favouritism; the East India Company provided a model for Stafford Northcote, the private Secretary to Gladstone, who with Charles Trevelyan drafted the key report in 1854. A permanent and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854, which recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine work, those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report was not implemented, but it came at a time when the bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A Civil Service Commission was set up in 1855 to end patronage. Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in 1870 with his Order in Council to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals; this system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair, MacDonnell and Priestley. The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained stable for a hundred years; this was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services, responding to political change. Patrick Diamond argues: The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; this bequeathed a set of theories and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. The Irish Civil Service was separate from the British civil service; the Irish Office in Whitehall liaised with Dublin Castle. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.
Following the Second World War, demands for change again grew. There was a concern that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant wit
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MOD states that its principal objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace and stability. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the MOD does not foresee any short-term conventional military threat; the MOD manages day-to-day running of the armed forces, contingency planning and defence procurement. During the 1920s and 1930s, British civil servants and politicians, looking back at the performance of the state during the First World War, concluded that there was a need for greater co-ordination between the three services that made up the armed forces of the United Kingdom—the Royal Navy, the British Army and the Royal Air Force; the formation of a united ministry of defence was rejected by David Lloyd George's coalition government in 1921.
As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence. Lord Chatfield held the post until the fall of Neville Chamberlain's government in 1940. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise ministerial control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee and to co-ordinate defence matters; the post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlee's government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946. The new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence; the three existing service Ministers—the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Secretary of State for War and the Secretary of State for Air—remained in direct operational control of their respective services, but ceased to attend Cabinet. From 1946 to 1964 five Departments of State did the work of the modern Ministry of Defence: the Admiralty, the War Office, the Air Ministry, the Ministry of Aviation, an earlier form of the Ministry of Defence.
These departments merged in 1964. The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows: The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister; the CDS is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff who deputises and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the armed services aspect of the MOD through the Central Staff, working alongside the Permanent Secretary. They are joined by the professional heads of the three British armed services and the Commander of Joint Forces Command. All personnel sit at OF-9 rank in the NATO rank system. Together the Chiefs of Staff form the Chiefs of Staff Committee with responsibility for providing advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations; the current Chiefs of Staff are as follows. Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Nick Carter Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Gordon Messenger First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff – Admiral Sir Philip Jones Chief of the General Staff – General Mark Carleton-Smith Chief of the Air Staff – Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier Commander of Joint Forces Command – General Sir Christopher Deverell The Chief of Staff is supported by several other senior military personnel at OF-8 rank.
Chief of Defence People – Lieutenant General Richard Nugee Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Douglas Chalmers Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Mark Poffley Chief of Joint Operations - Vice-Admiral Timothy Fraser Defence Senior Adviser Middle East - Lieutenant-General John LorimerAdditionally, there are a number of Assistant Chiefs of Defence Staff, including the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff and the Defence Services Secretary in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Assistant Chief of Defence Staff. Permanent Secretary and other senior officials The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by several civilian and professional military advisors; the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MOD. Their role is to ensure that it operates as a government department and has responsibility for the strategy, reform and the finances of the MOD; the role works with the Chief of the Defence Staff in leading the organisation and supporting Ministers in the conduct of business in the Department across the full range of responsibilities.
Permanent Under-Secretary of State – Stephen Lovegrove Director General Finance – Cat Little Director General Head Office and Commissioning Services – Julie Taylor Director General Nuclear – Julian Kelly Director General Security Policy – Peter Watkins MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Hugh Durrant-Whyte MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Robin Grimes Lead Non-Executive Board Member – Sir Gerry Gri
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, FRS, FRGS was an English statesman and writer. Barrow was born the only child of Roger Barrow, a tanner in the village of Dragley Beck, in the parish of Ulverston, Lancashire, he was schooled at Town Bank grammar school, but left at age 13 to found a Sunday school for the poor. Barrow was employed as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at Liverpool. At only 16, he went on a whaling expedition to Greenland. By his twenties, he was teaching mathematics, in which he had always excelled, at a private school in Greenwich. Barrow taught mathematics to the son of Sir George Leonard Staunton, he soon acquired a good knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed articles to the Quarterly Review. Barrow ceased to be connected with Chinese affairs after the return of the embassy in 1794, but he always took much interest in them, on critical occasions was consulted by the British government. In 1797, Barrow accompanied Lord Macartney as private secretary in his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope.
Barrow was entrusted with the task of reconciling the Boer settlers and the native Black population and of reporting on the country in the interior. In the course of the trip, he visited all parts of the colony, he decided to settle in South Africa and bought a house in 1800 in Cape Town. However, the surrender of the colony at the peace of Amiens upset this plan. During his travels through South Africa, Barrow compiled copious notes and sketches of the countryside that he was traversing; the outcome of his journeys was a map which, despite its numerous errors, was the first published modern map of the southern parts of the Cape Colony. William John Burchell was scathing: "As to the miserable thing called a map, prefixed to Mr. Barrow’s quarto, I agree with Professor Lichtenstein, that it is so defective that it can be found of any use." Barrow returned to Britain in 1804 and was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years. Lord Grey took office as Prime Minister in 1830, Barrow was requested to remain in his post, starting the principle that senior civil servants stay in office on change of government and serve in a non-partisan manner.
Indeed, it was during his occupancy of the post. Barrow enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively presided at the Admiralty board during that period, more of King William IV while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of his personal regard. In his position at the Admiralty, Barrow was a great promoter of Arctic voyages of discovery, including those of John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross and John Franklin; the Barrow Strait in the Canadian Arctic as well as Point Barrow and the city of Barrow in Alaska are named after him. He is reputed to have been the initial proposer of St Helena as the new place of exile for Napoleon Bonaparte following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society and received the degree of LL. D from the University of Edinburgh in 1821. A baronetcy was conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 1835, he was a member of the Raleigh Club, a forerunner of the Royal Geographical Society. Barrow retired from public life in 1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modern Arctic voyages of discovery, as well as his autobiography, published in 1847.
He died on 23 November 1848. The Sir John Barrow monument was built in his honour on Hoad Hill overlooking his home town of Ulverston, though locally it is more called Hoad Monument. Mount Barrow and Barrow Island in Australia are believed to have been named for him. Barrow married Anna Maria Truter in South Africa on 26 August 1799. A botanical artist from the Cape, she bore him four sons and two daughters, one of whom, married the artist Robert Batty, his son George succeeded him. Besides 95 articles in the Quarterly Review, Barrow published among other works: John. A Description of Pocket and Magazine Cases of Mathematical Drawing Instruments, in, explained the Use of each Instrument, of the Sector and plain Scale, in the Solutions of a variety of Problems. London: J & W Watkins. —. Travels in China, Containing Descriptions, And Comparison, Made And Collected in the Course of a Short Residence at the Imperial Palace of Yuen-Min-Yuen. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. A Voyage to Cochinchina in the Years 1792 and 1793.
London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 18 November 2016. —. Travels into The Interior of Southern Africa. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. Some Account of the Public Life, And A Selection From The Unpublished Writings, of The Earl of McCartney. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. A Chronological History of Voyages into The Arctic Regions. London: John Murray. Retrieved 15 August 2009; the Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H. M. S. Bounty
Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning "beyond the powers". If an act requires legal authority and it is done with such authority, it is characterised in law as intra vires. If it is done without such authority, it is ultra vires. Acts that are intra vires may equivalently be termed "valid" and those that are ultra vires "invalid". Legal issues relating to ultra vires can arise in a variety of contexts: Companies and other legal persons sometimes have limited legal capacity to act, attempts to engage in activities beyond their legal capacity may be ultra vires. Most countries have restricted the doctrine of ultra vires in relation to companies by statute. Statutory and governmental bodies may have limits upon the acts and activities which they engage in. Subordinate legislation, purported passed without the proper legal authority may be invalid as beyond the powers of the authority which issued it. In corporate law, ultra vires describes acts attempted by a corporation that are beyond the scope of powers granted by the corporation's objects clause, articles of incorporation or in a clause in its Bylaws, in the laws authorizing a corporation's formation, or similar founding documents.
Acts attempted by a corporation that are beyond the scope of its charter are voidable. An ultra vires transaction cannot be ratified by shareholders if they wish it to be ratified; the doctrine of estoppel precluded reliance on the defense of ultra vires where the transaction was performed by one party. A fortiori, a transaction, performed by both parties could not be attacked. If the contract was executory, the defense of ultra vires might be raised by either party. If the contract was performed, the performance was held to be insufficient to bring the doctrine of estoppel into play, a suit for quasi-contract for recovery of benefits conferred was available. If an agent of the corporation committed a tort within the scope of his or her employment, the corporation could not defend on the ground the act was ultra vires. Several modern developments relating to corporate formation have limited the probability that ultra vires acts will occur. Except in the case of non-profit corporations, this legal doctrine is obsolescent.
The Model Business Corporation Act of the United States states that: "The validity of corporate action may not be challenged on the ground that the corporation lacks or lacked power to act." The doctrine still has some life among non-profit corporations or state-created corporate bodies established for a specific public purpose, such as universities or charities. According to American laws, the concept of ultra vires can still arise in the following kinds of activities in some states: Charitable or political contributions Guaranty of indebtedness of another Loans to officers or directors Pensions, stock option plans, job severance payments, other fringe benefits The power to acquire shares of other corporations The power to enter into a partnership Historically all companies in the United Kingdom were subject to the doctrine of ultra vires and any act, outside of the objects specified in a company's memorandum of association would be ultra vires and void; that result was commercially unpalatable, led to companies being formed with wide and generic objects clauses permitting a company to engage in all manner of commercial activities.
The position was changed by statute by the Companies Act 1985 which abolished the doctrine in relation to commercial companies. The position is now regulated by the Companies Act 2006, sections 31 and 39, which greatly reduces the applicability of ultra vires in corporate law, although it can still apply in relation to charities and a shareholder may apply for an injunction, in advance only, to prevent an act, claimed to be ultra vires. In many jurisdictions, such as Australia, legislation provides that a corporation has all the powers of a natural person plus others. Under constitutional law in Canada and the United States, constitutions give federal and provincial or state governments various powers. To go outside those powers would be ultra vires. According to Article 15.2 of the Irish constitution, the Oireachtas is the sole lawmaking body in the Republic of Ireland. In the case of CityView Press v AnCo, the Irish Supreme Court held that the Oireachtas may delegate certain powers to subordinate bodies through primary legislation, so long as these delegated powers allow the delegatee only to further the principles and policies laid down by the Oireachtas in primary legislation and not craft new principles or policies themselves.
Any piece of primary legislation that grants the power to make public policy to a body other than the Oireachtas is unconstitutional. Thus, in a number of cases where bodies other than the Oireachtas were found to have used powers granted to them by primary legislation to make public policy, the impugned primary legislation was read in such a way that it would not have the effect of allowing a subordinate body to make public
Simon McDonald (diplomat)
Sir Simon Gerard McDonald is a British diplomat, Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service. McDonald was educated at De La Salle College and read History at Pembroke College, Cambridge, he joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1982 and served in Jeddah, Riyadh and Washington, D. C. as well as in London. He was Principal Private Secretary to the Foreign Secretary 2001–03. In September 2015, McDonald became Permanent Under-Secretary in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service, replacing Sir Simon Fraser; as of 2015, McDonald was paid a salary of between £180,000 and £184,999 by the Foreign Office, making him one of the 328 most paid people in the British public sector at that time. McDonald was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 2004 New Year Honours and Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 2014 Birthday Honours for services to British foreign policy and British interests in Germany.
He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order during the Queen's state visit to Germany in June 2015. In 1989 Simon McDonald married Olivia, daughter of Sir Patrick Wright Baron Wright of Richmond, Permanent Under-Secretary at the FCO. Simon and Olivia have two sons and two daughters