Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations. As practiced today, it is a collaborative process that incorporates the input of many stakeholders including various government agencies, the public and private businesses. Transportation planners apply a multi-modal and/or comprehensive approach to analyzing the wide range of alternatives and impacts on the transportation system to influence beneficial outcomes. Transportation planning is commonly referred to as transport planning internationally, is involved with the evaluation, assessment and siting of transport facilities. Transportation planning, or transport planning, has followed the rational planning model of defining goals and objectives, identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives, developing plans. Other models for planning include rational actor, transit oriented development, incremental planning, organizational process, collaborative planning, political bargaining.
Planners are expected to adopt a multidisciplinary approach due to the rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of behavioural psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles and use public transport instead; the role of the transport planner is shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through integrated transport policies. For example, in Hanoi, the increasing number of motorcycles is responsible for not only environmental damage but slowing down economic growth. In the long run, the plan is to reduce traffic through a change in urban planning. Through economic incentives and attractive alternatives experts hope to lighten traffic in the short run. In the United Kingdom, transport planning has traditionally been a branch of civil engineering. In the 1950s and the 1960s, it was believed that the motor car was an important element in the future of transport as economic growth spurred on car ownership figures; the role of the transport planner was to match motorway and rural road capacity against the demands of economic growth.
Urban areas would need to be redesigned for the motor vehicle or impose traffic containment and demand management to mitigate congestion and environmental impacts. The policies were popularised in Traffic in Towns; the contemporary Smeed Report on congestion pricing was promoted to manage demand but was deemed politically unacceptable. In more recent times, the approach has been caricatured as "predict and provide" to predict future transport demand and provide the network for it by building more roads; the publication of Planning Policy Guidance 13 in 1994, followed by A New Deal for Transport in 1998 and the white paper Transport Ten Year Plan 2000 again indicated an acceptance that unrestrained growth in road traffic was neither desirable nor feasible. The worries were threefold: concerns about congestion, concerns about the effect of road traffic on the environment and concerns that an emphasis on road transport discriminates against vulnerable groups in society such as the poor, the elderly and the disabled.
These documents reiterated the emphasis on integration: integration within and between different modes of transport integration with the environment integration with land use planning integration with policies for education and wealth creation. This attempt to reverse decades of underinvestment in the transport system has resulted in a severe shortage of transport planners, it was estimated in 2003 that 2,000 new planners would be required by 2010 to avoid jeopardising the success of the Transport Ten Year Plan. In 2006, the Transport Planning Society defined the key purpose of transport planning as: to plan, deliver and review transport, balancing the needs of society, the economy and the environment; the following key roles must be performed by transport planners: take account of the social and environmental context of their work understand the legal, regulatory policy and resource framework within which they work understand and create transport policies and plans that contribute to meeting social and environmental needs design the necessary transport projects and services understand the commercial aspects of operating transport systems and services know about and apply the relevant tools and techniques must be competent in all aspects of management, in particular communications, personal skills and project management.
The UK Treasury recognises and has published guidance on the systematic tendency for project appraisers to be overly optimistic in their initial estimates. Transportation planning in the United States is in the midst of a shift similar to that taking place in the United Kingdom, away from the single goal of moving vehicular traffic and towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands through which streets and highways pass. More so, it places a greater emphasis on passenger rail networks, neglected until recently; this new approach, known as Context Sensitive Solutions, seeks to balance the need to move people efficiently and safely with other desirable outcomes, including historic preservation, environmental sustainability, the creation of vital public spaces. The initial guiding principles of CSS came out of the 1998 "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" conference as a means to describe and foster transportation projects that preserve and enhance the natural and built environments, as well as the economic and social assets of the neighbor
Bicycle-friendly policies and practices help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic. The level of bicycle-friendliness of an environment can be influenced by many factors resulting from town planning and cycling infrastructure decisions. Assuming people prefer to get to their destination town planning and zoning may affect whether schools, public transport interchanges and other destination are within a reasonable cycling distance of the areas where people live. If urban form influences these issues compact and circular settlement patterns as in Elizabeth, NJ may promote cycling. Alternatively, the low-density, non-circular settlement patterns characteristic of urban sprawl as in nearby Downtown Newark tends to discourage cycling. In 1990, the Dutch adopted the "ABC" guidelines limiting developments that are major attractants to locations that are accessible by non-car users; the manner in which the public roads network is designed and managed can have a significant effect on the utility and safety of cycling as transport.
Settlements that provide a dense roads network consisting of interconnected streets will tend to encourage cycling. In contrast, other communities may use a cul-de-sac based, housing estate/housing subdivision model where minor roads are disconnected and only feed into a street hierarchy of progressively more "arterial" type roads. Designs that propose to resolve the contradiction between the cul-de-sac and the traditional interconnected network, such as the Fused Grid, have been proposed and built with varying levels of success. In the UK, the principle of'filtered permeability' has been proposed in some Government guidance, to maximise the ease of movement of cyclists and pedestrians, whilst constraining it for motor vehicles, see: Permeability. A community's infrastructure can affect its citizens’ health in regard to obesity and physical activity. Cities that incorporate bicycle routes have a higher percentage of bicycle commuters. Studies have shown that moderate increases in physical activity can have a substantial effect on health.
Bicycling to work has been shown to decrease mortality by as much as 40%. Bicycling is used as an alternative to travel by car. Automobile travel provides increased mobility and convenience for travelers, but has high costs associated with taxes, fuel, road construction and repair, contributes to air pollution; when infrastructure is built to allow consumers to choose between automobile and other forms of travel, it reduces a community's automobile dependency and allows for more efficient land usage. In the U. S. the League of American Bicyclists has formally recognized some cities as bicycle-friendly communities for "providing safe accommodation and facilities for bicyclists and encouraging residents to bike for transportation and recreation." The British tourist board award holiday accommodation providers who are cycle friendly with a "Cycle Friendly" award. Websites such as Beds for Cyclists allow you to search through these. After the League of American Bicyclists designated New Orleans as a Bicycle Friendly City in 2011, bike tour companies like French Quarter Bike Tours subsequently became popular.
Outline of cycling Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Road safety Cycling for Everyone: Lessons for Vancouver from the Netherlands and Germany Walking and Public Spaces: Experiences from Bogota and Beyond Shared Space. No code on German roads. France 24 English. Livable Communities Resource Guide
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
In urban planning, a transit-oriented development is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential and leisure space within walking distance of public transport. In doing so, TOD aims to increase public transport ridership by reducing the use of private cars and by promoting sustainable urban growth. A TOD includes a central transit stop surrounded by a high-density mixed-use area, with lower-density areas spreading out from this center. A TOD is typically designed to be more walkable than other built-up areas, through using smaller block sizes and reducing the land area dedicated to automobiles; the densest areas of a TOD are located within a radius of ¼ to ½ mile around the central transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem. Many of the new towns created after World War II in Japan and France have many of the characteristics of TOD communities. In a sense, nearly all communities built on reclaimed land in the Netherlands or as exurban developments in Denmark have had the local equivalent of TOD principles integrated in their planning, including the promotion of bicycles for local use.
In the United States, a half-mile-radius circle has become the de facto standard for rail-transit catchment areas for TODs. A half mile corresponds to the distance someone can walk in 10 minutes at 3 mph and is a common estimate for the distance people will walk to get to a rail station; the half-mile ring is a little more than 500 acres in size. Transit-oriented development is sometimes distinguished by some planning officials from "transit-proximate development" because it contains specific features that are designed to encourage public transport use and differentiate the development from urban sprawl. A few examples of these features include mixed-use development that will use transit at all times of day, excellent pedestrian facilities such as high quality pedestrian crossings, narrow streets, tapering of buildings as they become more distant from the public transport node. Another key feature of transit-oriented development that differentiates it from "transit-proximate development" is reduced amounts of parking for personal vehicles.
Opponents of compact, or transit oriented development argue that Americans, persons throughout the world, prefer low-density living, that any policies that encourage compact development will result in substantial utility decreases and hence large social welfare costs. Proponents of compact development argue that there are large unmeasured benefits of compact development or that the American preference for low-density living is a misinterpretation made possible in part by substantial local government interference in the land market. Many cities throughout the world are developing TOD policy. Toronto, Montreal, San Francisco, Vancouver among many other cities have developed, continue to write policies and strategic plans, which aim to reduce automobile dependency and increase the use of public transit. One of the earliest and most successful examples of TOD is Brazil. Curitiba was organized into transport corridors early on in its history. Over the years, it has integrated its zoning laws and transportation planning to place high-density development adjacent to high-capacity transportation systems its BRT corridors.
Since the failure of its first, rather grandiose, city plan due to lack of funding, Curitiba has focused on working with economical forms of infrastructure, so it has arranged unique adaptations, such as bus routes with routing systems, limited access and speeds similar to subway systems. The source of innovation in Curitiba has been a unique form of participatory city planning that emphasizes public education and agreement. In an attempt to control rapid growth of Guatemala City, the long-time Mayor of Guatemala City Álvaro Arzú implemented a plan to control growth based on transects along important arterial roads and exhibiting transit-oriented development characteristics; this plan adopted POT aims to allow the construction of taller, mixed-use building structures right by large arterial roads. This is being implemented along with a bus rapid transit system called Transmetro. Mexico City has battled pollution for years. Many attempts have been made to orient citizens towards public transportation.
Expansion of metro line, both subway and bus, have been instrumental. Following the example of Curtiba, many bus-lines were created on many of Mexico City's most important streets; the bus-line has taken two lanes from cars to be used only by the bus-line, increasing the flow for bus transit. The city has made great attempts at increasing the number of bikelanes, including shutting down entire roads on certain days to be used only by bikers. Car regulations have increased in the city. New regulations prevent old cars from driving in other cars from driving on certain days. Electric cars are allowed to have free parking. Decreasing the public space allocated to cars and increasing regulations have become a great annoyance among daily car users; the city hopes to push people to use more public transport. Most of the suburban high rises were not along major rail lines like other cities until when there has been incentive to do so. Century Park is a growing condo community in southern Edmonton at the south end of Edmonton's LRT.
It will include
The fused grid is a street network pattern first proposed in 2002 and subsequently applied in Calgary and Stratford, Ontario. It represents a synthesis of two well known and extensively used network concepts: the "grid" and the "Radburn" pattern, derivatives of which are found in most city suburbs. Both concepts were self-conscious attempts to organize urban space for habitation; the grid was conceived and applied in the pre-automotive era of cities starting circa 2000 BC and prevailed until about 1900 AD. The Radburn pattern emerged in 1929 about thirty years following the invention of the internal combustion engine powered automobile and in anticipation of its eventual dominance as a means for mobility and transport. Both these patterns appear throughout North America. "Fused" refers to a systematic recombination of the essential characteristics of each of these two network patterns. Modern urban planners classify street networks as either organic or planned. Planned networks tend to be organized according to geometric patterns, while the organic networks are believed to emerge from spontaneous, unorganized growth.
Architectural historian Spiro Kostof writes that "The word'grid' is a convenient, imprecise, substitute for'orthogonal planning'.'Gridiron' in the US implies a pattern of long narrow blocks, and'checkerboard' a pattern of square blocks." In addition to the right angle being a key characteristic, a second attribute of equal importance is its imputed openness and unconstrained expandability. Loosely interpreted, the term "grid" can be applied to plans such as the Vitruvian octagonal plan for an ideal city, resembling a spider web, or to plans composed of concentric circles; these are all grids in that a spaced armature leaves recurring openings and that they could, expand outward. The emergence of the pure, orthogonal grid, or Hippodamian grid, is explained by the natural tendency of people to walk in a straight line in the absence of obstacles and on level land; this intuitive explanation leaves the question of pre-grid and post grid non-rectilinear city patterns to be better understood those on plane territory such as Marrakech.
Another potential influence may have been exerted by the second frequent user of city streets – horses. Horses tend to move in a straight line at trotting, canter or galloping pace; when horses serve a city and draw chariots singly or in pairs, or carts for a variety of transportation and processional functions, straight line travel becomes imperative. The need for speed is accentuated by city size. Speed in turn implies straight lines, it is plausible that the drivers for rectilinear layouts may have been man's horses and carts as much as man himself, spurred by the growth of settlements. The creation of the Radburn pattern is attributed to Clarence Stein but has a lineage of ideas that preceded it in Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker's work that included the use of cul-de-sac and crescent street types. In contrast to the scarcity of records that obscures the original rationale for the grid, the reasons for the Radburn pattern have been articulated in Stein's writings and those of his predecessors."Radburn" now denotes a street network configuration.
It signifies a departure from the strict orthogonal geometry and regularity of the grid and a distinct approach to laying out new districts. As a system, it can be described more as a "cellular" network that has a characteristic hierarchy of streets as distinct from identical streets intersecting at regular intervals, its derivatives and idiosyncratic imitations are characterized as "cul-de-sac and loop" patterns highlighting the distinguishing street types that are used systematically in this network. A second term uncharacteristic is "suburban"; this association of a pattern with a location is inaccurate and unintentionally misleading: entire early cities such as Cairo and Fez are structured on this pattern whose newer suburbs follow the grid reversing the urban/suburban relationship. "Suburban" is devoid of geometric descriptors of the pattern. These shorthand expressions conceal the variety of patterns that emerged in the 20th century that are decidedly neither grids nor "Radburn" and the "system" aspect of the pattern.
The "loop and lollipop" label may be a more applicable descriptor of interpretations of the Radburn model that appear to lack structure and to overlook key elements of the original concept such as its emphasis on pedestrian priority, for example. The pattern's systematic use of the cul-de-sac and loop is decidedly linked to automotive mobility as a means of controlling and guiding its flow; the Radburn pattern is a complex system. It rests on a functional program plus an intentional picturesque aesthetic: it avoids straight lines, limits four-way intersections and shuns repetitive blocks all of which enhance its picturesque imagery. To facilitate the discussion, the name "Radburn-like" or "Radburn-type" will be used in the subsequent sections; the two dominant network patterns, the grid and Radburn, have been debated by planners, transportation engineers and social observers on grounds that include issues of defence, adaptability, mobility, safety and environmental impact. The first known criticism of the grid was put forward on the grounds of defence that became irrelevant following the prevalence of the cannon.
Aristotle argued that
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements; the primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social and design sciences, it is related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks and other urban areas. Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources and agricultural land and conserving areas of natural environmental significance.
Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, public administration to achieve strategic and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a independent professional discipline; the discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning, transportation planning. There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were centered on orthogonal plans; the ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks used orthogonal plans for their cities. City planning in the Roman world was developed for public convenience; the spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning. As the Roman Empire declined, these ideas disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center. Cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries grew organically and sometimes chaotically, but in the following centuries some newly created towns were built according to preconceived plans, many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. From the 15th century on, much more is recorded of the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which theoretical questions are addressed and designs of towns and cities are described and depicted.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities. During the Second French Republic, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century; the industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate. The pace and style of this industrial construction was dictated by the concerns of private business; the evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. Around 1900, theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age, by providing citizens factory workers, with healthier environments.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning began to be recognized as a profession. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course in Great Britain on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism and uniformity began to surface in urban planning, lasted until the 1970s. Many planners started to believe that the ideas of modernism in urban planning led to higher crime rates and social problems. Urban planners now focus more on diversity in urban centers. Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, behavioral relationships, assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, the humanist or phenomenological approach.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the applying scientific, technical processes and features that are involved