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In electromagnetism, the absolute permittivity simply called permittivity and denoted by the Greek letter ε, is a measure of the electric polarizability of a dielectric. A material with high permittivity polarizes more in response to an applied electric field than a material with low permittivity, thereby storing more energy in the electric field. In electrostatics, the permittivity plays an important role in determining the capacitance of a capacitor. In the simplest case, the electric displacement field D resulting from an applied electric field E isMore the permittivity is a thermodynamic function of state, it can depend on the frequency and direction of the applied field. The SI unit for permittivity is farad per meter; the permittivity is represented by the relative permittivity ε r, the ratio of the absolute permittivity ε and the vacuum permittivity ε 0 κ = ε r = ε ε 0. This dimensionless quantity is often and ambiguously referred to as the permittivity. Another common term encountered for both absolute and relative permittivity is the dielectric constant, deprecated in physics and engineering as well as in chemistry.

By definition, a perfect vacuum has a relative permittivity of 1 whereas at STP, air has a relative permittivity of κair = 1.0006. Relative permittivity is directly related to electric susceptibility by χ = κ − 1 otherwise written as ε = ε r ε 0 = ε 0 The standard SI unit for permittivity is farad per meter. F m = C V ⋅ m = C 2 N ⋅ m 2 = A 2 ⋅ s 4 kg ⋅ m 3 = N V 2 In electromagnetism, the electric displacement field D represents how an electric field E influences the organization of electric charges in a given medium, including charge migration and electric dipole reorientation, its relation to permittivity in the simple case of linear, isotropic materials with "instantaneous" response to changes in electric field is D = ε E where the permittivity ε is a scalar. If the medium is anisotropic, the permittivity is a second rank tensor. In general, permittivity is not a constant, as it can vary with the position in the medium, the frequency of the field applied, humidity and other parameters. In a nonlinear medium, the permittivity can depend on the strength of the electric field.

Permittivity as a function of frequency can take on complex values. In SI units, permittivity is measured in farads per meter; the displacement field D is measured in units of coulombs per square meter, while the electric field E is measured in volts per meter. D and E describe the interaction between charged objects. D is related to the charge densities associated with this interaction, while E is related to the forces and potential differences; the vacuum permittivity ε0 is the ratio D/E in free space. It appears in the Coulomb force constant, k e = 1 4 π ε 0 Its value is ε 0 = d e f 1 c 0 2 μ 0 = 1 35 950 207 149.472 7056 π F/m ≈ 8.854 187 8176 … × 10 − 12 F/m where c0 is the speed of light in free space, µ0 is the vacuum permeability. The constants c0 and μ0 were defined in SI units to have exact numerical values until redefinition of SI units in 2019; the linear permittivity of a homogeneous material is given relative to that of free space, as a relative permittivity εr (also called dielectric constant, although this term is deprecat


Teleostomi is an obsolete clade of jawed vertebrates that includes the tetrapods, bony fish, the wholly extinct acanthodian fish. Key characters of this group include an operculum and a single pair of respiratory openings, features which were lost or modified in some representatives; the teleostomes include all jawed vertebrates except the chondrichthyans and the extinct class Placodermi. Recent studies indicate that Osteichthyes evolved from placoderms like Entelognathus, while acanthodians are more related to modern chondrichthyes. Teleostomi, therefore, is not a polyphyletic group of species; the clade Teleostomi should not be confused with the similar-sounding fish clade Teleostei. The origins of the teleostomes are obscure, they are traditionally assumed to be descendants of the Acanthodians from the Early Silurian Period. Living teleostomes constitute the clade Euteleostomi, which includes all osteichthyans and tetrapods. After the acanthodians perished at the end of the Permian, their euteleostome relatives flourished such that today they comprise 99% of living vertebrate species.

Teleostomes have two major adaptations. First, the early teleostomes had some type of operculum; the development of a single respiratory opening seems to have been an important step. The second adaptation, the teleostomes developed a primitive lung with the ability to use some atmospheric oxygen; this developed, in species, into the lung and the swim bladder, used to keep the fish at neutral buoyancy. Acanthodians share with Actinopterygii the characteristic of three otoliths, the sagitta in the sacculus, the asteriscus in the lagena, the lapillus in the utriculus. In dipnoans there are only two otoliths and in Latimeria. However, most of the above synapomorphies can be found in several chondrychthyian groups. Acanthodii Euteleostomi

Ronnie Spafford

Major Ronald Norman Spafford, known as Ronnie Spafford, was a British army officer and philatelist, an expert in the stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands and developed a deep interest in those islands. Spafford was born in Bristol, but due to bombing during the Second World War the family moved to nearby Weston-super-Mare, where Spafford had his home for the rest of his life. Spafford was educated at Sherborne School in Dorset and intended to become an artist, which horrified his parents. Instead he was called up to do his National Service in the Army which horrified Ronnie, he graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, found that he enjoyed the military life and decided to become a career soldier, serving in the Royal Artillery and rising to the rank of Major. Spafford had collected stamps as a child and decided to rekindle his interest while he was in the Army when he saw a colleague arranging his collection, he selected the Falkland Islands because it was possible to complete a collection of the basic stamps of the islands.

When he had done that he moved on to more specialised philately. He was vice-president and co-founder of the Falkland Islands Philatelic Study Group and in 1980 he was an adviser to the BBC television series In the Post, made in Bristol. In 2009, The London Philatelist erroneously reported Spafford's death, causing a correction to be published in the next issue. Spafford was said to have taken the incident with good humour. Gold medal for his display of Falkland Islands 1842-1946 at Capex'96 in Toronto. Large vermeil medal at Ilsapex 98. Large vermeil medal at The Stamp Show 2000. Roland Michener Medal, of The Royal Philatelic Society of Canada Philatelic Research Foundation. Introduced to the Falklands through their stamps, Spafford first visited the islands in 1977 and was there again on the eve of the Argentine invasion in 1982, he was a passionate defender of the islands and their way of life and held a number of positions related to the Falklands. He was vice-president of the Falkland Islands Association, the military member of the Falkland Islands Emergency Committee set up to lobby the British government on the sovereignty issue, a trustee and former chairman of Falklands Conservation.

In his years he ran trips to the islands through his business Falklands Experience. The 1933 Centenary Issue of the Falkland Islands. Picton Publishing, 1972. Harry Hayes, 1979 "Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald Callaghan CMG, Governor of the Falkland Islands 1876–1880", The Falkland Islands Journal, 1994. "Falkland Islands Philately: The Earliest Days", The Canadian Philatelist, July/Aug 1999 is a Czech online travel tech company founded by Oliver Dlouhý and Jozef Képesi in 2012. Through its online portal provides a fare aggregator, metasearch engine and booking for airline tickets and ground transportation. Its ticket search features’s "virtual interlining" concept – itineraries combined from over 750 carriers, including many that do not cooperate in online bookings. The booking service features the industry-leading Guarantee, which protects customers from missed connections caused by delay, schedule change, or cancellation. Today, the company handles more than 100 million searches every day and sells an average of 33,000 seats per day. employs over 2,600 people. In November 2019, the company announced its vision to become the world’s first Virtual Global Supercarrier; the online portal was created in 2011. The company was founded in Brno by Jozef Képesi. In 2016 the company rebranded itself as Jiří Hlavenka was one of its first investors.

In 2017, acquired a stake in Jaroslav Kokolus. As of June 2019,’s main shareholder is General Atlantic. founders Oliver Dlouhý and Jozef Képesi remain as major shareholders and continue to run the company. Other shareholders are Touzimsky Airlines and Luboš Charčenko. helps travellers get from any A to any B in the world. Its Virtual Interlining concept allows passengers to combine air and ground transportation from a range of carriers who do not cooperate with each other, in so doing facilitating billions of route combinations. In 2018 launched NOMAD, a special multi-city travel search tool, Tequila, a dedicated B2B platform. Along with its headquarters in Brno, has offices in Prague. The company has outsourced partners in Belgrade, Dalian, Manila and Zagreb, Pune and Indore, Miami, Beijing, Ljubljana, Bogotá; the company is presently one of the five biggest online air ticket sellers in Europe, with an annual turnover of 1.1 billion euros in 2018.

In February 2017, was recognised by TMI Awards in the Treasury Management category for its innovative global payment transaction solutions. In November of the same year the company was awarded Best Metasearch Website at the Travolution Awards. In October 2017, Deloitte’s Technology Fast 50 ranked the company as a Rising Star. Oliver Dlouhý was chosen by Forbes magazine as the face of the technology sector in its ‘30 under 30 Europe’ list in January 2018. Juraj Strieženec, CFO, received the CFO Club’s Financial Director of the Year award in April 2017. In June 2018, Forbes Česko magazine recognised as the Czech start-up of the year for the second year in a row. In October 2018, the company ranked 2nd in Deloitte’s Technology Fast 50. In November 2019, the company announced its major new vision to become the world’s first virtual global super-carrier and won the People’s Choice Award at Phocuswright Conference in Miami

Holland's Next Top Model (season 9)

The ninth cycle of Holland's Next Top Model premiered on 30 August 2016 on RTL5. Anouk Smulders returned as the show's host for the new cycle. Judges May-Britt Mobach and Dirk Kikstra were replaced by fashion blogger Anna Nooshin and fashion photographer Alek Bruessing. Fred van Leer remained in place as a mentor for the contestants, but acted as a fourth judge at eliminations; the new cycle featured an emphasis on social media and branding, with heavier involvement from fans of the show. The prizes for this cycle included a modelling contract with Touché Models valued at €50,000, an editorial feature for JFK magazine, a contract to become a blogger for the show's network, RTL, a brand new Opel Adam; the winner of the competition was 20 year-old Akke Marije Marinus, from Dokkum. Keeping in line with the show's new focus on models as influencers, the cycle saw heavy involvement from the public nearing the end of the competition; the final three episodes of the season were all held live, though only the finale was held in front of a studio audience.

At the beginning of the cycle's seventh and eighth episodes, all of the remaining contestants were put up for a public vote through SMS. These episodes went over pre-recorded footage of photo shoots and activities that the finalists had taken part in some months prior. At the end of these episodes, the results from the voting were revealed to the models in real-time; the cycle featured a comeback round through which one of the eliminated contestants could return to the competition. In contrast to the American version however, the viewers were not involved in the decision. Judge Anna Nooshin evaluated each models' impact on social media, made the decision based on their networking growth over the course of the competition. During the cycle's live final, Colette Kanza was brought back as one of the four finalists. Kanza had been eliminated in episode 6. For the first time in the show's history, the viewer vote decided the results of the live final in their entirety. Anouk Smulders Alek Bruessing Fred van Leer Anna Nooshin The contestant was in danger of elimination The contestant was eliminated The contestant won photo of the week The contestant quit the competition The contestant won the competition Official website

Spoon discography

The discography of American rock band Spoon consists of nine studio albums, four extended plays, 26 singles. Formed in 1993 in Austin, Texas by Britt Daniel and Jim Eno, Spoon released their debut studio album, Telephono, in 1996 on Matador Records, their follow-up full-length, A Series of Sneaks, was released in 1998 on Elektra, who subsequently dropped the band. Spoon went on to sign with Merge Records, where Spoon gained greater commercial success and critical acclaim with the albums Girls Can Tell, Kill the Moonlight, Gimme Fiction, which debuted at number 44 on the Billboard 200 and sold over 300,000 copies in the US; the group's next three albums - Ga Ga Ga Ga Ga, They Want My Soul - reached the top 10 of the US charts, while the latter two peaked in the top 20 in Canada and the top 50 in Australia. The band's ninth album, Hot Thoughts, was released on March 17, 2017. Everything Hits at Once, No. 15 US Independent Albums Nefarious Soft Effects 30 Gallon Tank Love Ways Don't You Evah Got Nuffin "Primary" on "Dreamboat" "Don't Buy the Realistic" and "Telamon Bridge" on What's Up Matador?

"Operation In Progress" on Rock and Roll Free-For-All Vol. 2 "Tear Me Down" on Wig in a Box "Decora" on The Believer 2005 Music Issue CD "The Book I Write" and 3 released tracks on Stranger than Fiction Original Soundtrack "Well-Alright" on Dark Was the Night Official website Spoon at AllMusic Spoon discography at Discogs