History of Portugal (1777–1834)
The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country. In 1807, Napoleon ordered the invasion of Portugal and subsequently the royal family and its entire court migrated to Brazil, Maria I declaring the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1816; this would be one of the causes for the declaration of Brazilian independence by Pedro I of Brazil in 1822, following a liberal revolution in Portugal. The liberal period was stormy and short as Miguel of Portugal supported an absolutist revolution endeavoring to restore all power to the monarchy. Pedro returned to Portugal and fought and defeated his brother in the Liberal Wars in which liberalism prevailed and Portugal became a constitutional monarchy.
The death of King Joseph in 1777 forced the accession of Princess Maria Francisca, his eldest daughter, to the throne of Portugal. Before becoming queen, Princess Maria and her husband, the Infante Pedro, lived on the sidelines of politics, but were unsympathetic to her father's former Prime Minister, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the Marquis of Pombal, the de facto ruler of the kingdom for the past 27 years. During her father's last few years, she had been the Marquis' fiercest detractor. Although the queen retained many of the Marquis' other ministers, she restored most of the privileges of the nobility and clergy, released many of Pombal's political prisoners; the economy was reorganized and Pombaline monopolies were abandoned. However, international conditions favored the economic situation in Portugal as the balance of trade was positive, helped by wine exports and a decrease of British imports; the period was, while tainted by political instability, a time of cultural renovation, marked by the completion of the Palace at Queluz, the beginnings of the Ajuda Palace, the São Carlos Theatre, the Estrela Basilica and the immense Convent of Santa Clara in Vila do Conde.
In 1789, the French Revolution caused great social upheaval in Europe. The eventual Portuguese reaction was to land forces in Catalonia, together with the Spanish forces attack the French in the Pyrenees in the War of Roussillon; the war did not go well, by 1795, Spain had sued for peace, signed an alliance and aligned its external politics against Great Britain. As Portugal was politically divided between continuing its old alliance with Britain, its people were divided; the French Revolution, as seen by intellectuals and progressives, was romanticized: Bocage and the Partido Francês believed the French could usher in a liberal revolution in Europe. The French represented a threat to the traditionalist nobility who were returning to prominence and were willing to fight them externally or internally, it was at about this time that Queen Maria possessed of a religious mania, began to show signs of mental illness. When after 1799 she became incapable of handling state affairs, her son, Infante John of Braganza, began to use the title of Prince-Regent.
The traditionalist adversaries of France, did not look to John, but rather to his wife Carlota Joaquina for support, at one point attempted a coup against the prince. John VI's regency was a complex political period that saw Portugal attempting to remain neutral in spite of the combative intransigence of its neighbors and contentious forces within the country that favored either liberal or traditional policies. Between 1795 and 1801, his government struggled to maintain a delicate balance of peace in the face of the French Continental blockade against Portugal's traditional ally, Great Britain, the demands of the merchant classes who were prospering economically and wanted peace. Meanwhile, Spain, a former ally, had signed the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, was under pressure from France to coerce Portugal's cooperation if it required an invasion. Although Manuel de Godoy was hesitant to invade Portugal, due to the royal family having relatives in both countries, the French remained anxious to break the Anglo-Portuguese alliance in order to close Portuguese ports to British shipping.
On 29 January 1801, an ultimatum from Spain and France forced Portugal to decide between France and Britain as its government had tried to negotiate favorable relations with the two powers rather than abrogate the Treaty of Windsor. The French sent a five-point statement to Lisbon demanding that Portugal: abandon its traditional alliance with Great Britain and close its ports to British shipping. If Portugal failed to accomplish the five conditions of this ultimatum, it would be invaded by Spain, supported by 15,000 French soldiers; the British could not promise any effective relief as Prince John appealed to Hookham Frere, who arrived in November 1800. In February, the terms were delivered to the Prince-Regent. At the time, Portugal had a poorly trained army, with less than 8,000 cavalry and 46,000 infantry troops, its military commander
Latin American wars of independence
The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions or a revolutionary wave, that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions which had profound effects on the British, Spanish and French colonies in the Americas. Haiti, a French slave colony, was the first to follow the United States; the Peninsular War with France, which resulted from the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, caused Spanish Creoles in Spanish America to question their allegiance to Spain, stoking independence movements that culminated in the wars of independence, which lasted two decades. At the same time, the Portuguese monarchy relocated to Brazil during Portugal's French occupation. After the royal court returned to Lisbon, the prince regent, remained in Brazil and in 1822 declared himself emperor of a newly independent Brazil. Cuban independence was fought against Spain in two wars.
Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898. During the 18th century Spain recovered much of the strength she had lost in the 17th century but her resources were under strain because of the incessant warfare in Europe from 1793; this led to an increased local participation in the financing of the defense and an increased participation in the militias by the locally born. Such development was at odds with the ideals of the centralized absolute monarchy; the Spanish did formal concessions to strengthen the defense: In Chiloé Spanish authorities promised freedom from the Encomienda for those indigenous locals who settled near the new stronghold of Ancud and contributed to its defense. The increased local organization of the defenses would undermine metropolitan authority and bolster the independence movement; the Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought between France and alliances involving Britain, Spain, Portugal and Austria at different times, from 1799 to 1815.
In the case of Spain and its colonies, in May 1808, Napoleon captured Carlos IV and King Fernando VII and installed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish Throne because he didn't want anyone outside of his own bloodline to rule Spain. This event disrupted the political stability of Spain and broke the link with some of the colonies which were loyal to the Bourbon Dynasty; the local elites, the creoles, took matters into their own hands organizing themselves into juntas to take "in absence of the king, Fernando VII, their sovereignty devolved temporarily back to the community." The juntas swore loyalty to the captive Fernando VII and each ruled different and diverse parts of the colony. Most of Fernando's subjects were loyal to him in 1808, but after he was restored to the Spanish crown in 1814, his policy of restoring absolute power alienated both the juntas and his subjects, he abrogated persecuted anyone who had supported it. The violence used by royalist forces and the prospect of being ruled by Fernando shifted the majority of the colonist population in favor of separation from Spain.
The local elites reacted to absolutism in much the same way that The British colonial elites and Whig alike, had reacted to London's interference before 1775. The colonial army of the Spanish Empire in Americas was made up of local American and European supporters of King Ferdinand; the Royalists' were made up of a cross-section of society loyal to the crown with Americans composing the majority of the royalist forces on all fronts. There were two types of military units: from the regular Spanish army which were sent out or formed with local Europeans and called Expidicionarios and units called veterans or militias created in the Americas; the militias were called the disciplined militia. Only 11 % of the personnel in the militias were American whites. After Rafael del Riego's revolution in 1820 no more Spanish soldiers were sent to the wars in the Americas. In 1820 there were only 10,000 soldiers in Royal Army in Colombia and Venezuela, Spaniards formed only 10% of all the royalist armies, only half of the soldiers of the expeditionary units were European.
By the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, less than 1% of the soldiers were European. Other factors included Enlightenment thinking; the Enlightenment spurred the desire for social and economic reform to spread throughout Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Ideas about free trade and physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment. Independence movements in South America can be traced back to slave revolts in plantations in the northernmost part of the continent and Caribbean. In 1791, a massive slave revolt sparked a general insurrection against the plantation system and French colonial power; these events were followed by a violent uprising led by José Leonardo Chirino and José Caridad González that sprung up in 1795 Venezuela inspired by the revolution in Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture was born a slave in Saint-Domingue where he developed labor skills that would give him higher privileges than other slaves, he intellectually and physically advanced resulting in promotion, land of his own, owning slaves.
In 1791, slaves in Haiti formed a revolution to seek independence from their French owners. L'Ouverture joined the rebellion as a top military official with the intention to abolish slavery without complete independence. However, through a series of letters written by Toussaint, it became clear that he grew open to equal human rights for all that live in Haiti. Similar to how the Uni
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms. The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was formed in 1815, following the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil during the Napoleonic invasions of Portugal, it continued to exist for about one year after the return of the Court to Europe, being de facto dissolved in 1822, when Brazil proclaimed its independence; the dissolution of the United Kingdom was accepted by Portugal and formalized de jure in 1825, when Portugal recognized the independent Empire of Brazil. During its period of existence the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves did not correspond to the whole of the Portuguese Empire: rather, the united kingdom was the transatlantic metropolis that controlled the Portuguese colonial empire, with its overseas possessions in Africa and Asia.
Thus, from the point of view of Brazil, the elevation to the rank of a kingdom and the creation of the United Kingdom represented a change in status, from that of a colony to that of an equal member of a political union. In the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, attempts to compromise the autonomy and the unity of Brazil, led to the breakdown of the union; the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves came into being in the wake of Portugal's war with Napoleonic France. The Portuguese Prince Regent, the future King John VI, with his incapacitated mother, Queen Maria I of Portugal and the Royal Court, fled to the colony of Brazil in 1808. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, there were calls for the return of the Portuguese Monarch to Lisbon. However, those advocating the return of the Court to Lisbon argued that Brazil was only a colony and that it was not right for Portugal to be governed from a colony. On the other hand, leading Brazilian courtiers pressed for the elevation of Brazil from the rank of a colony, so that they could enjoy the full status of being nationals of the mother-country.
Brazilian nationalists supported the move, because it indicated that Brazil would no longer be submissive to the interests of Portugal, but would be of equal status within a transatlantic monarchy. By a law issued by the Prince Regent on 16 December 1815, the colony of Brazil was thus elevated to the rank of a Kingdom and by the same law the separate kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarves were united as a single State under the title of The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; this united kingdom included the historical Kingdom of the Algarves, the present-day Portuguese region of Algarve. The titles of the Portuguese royalty were changed to reflect the creation of this transatlantic united kingdom; the styles of the Queen and of the Prince Regent were changed accordingly to Queen and Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The title Prince of Brazil, a title that used to pertain to the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown, was dropped shortly afterwards, in 1817, being replaced by the title of Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, or Prince Royal, for short.
A new flag and coat of arms were adopted for the new State. On 20 March 1816 Queen Maria I died in Rio de Janeiro; the Prince John, the Prince Regent became King John VI, the second monarch of the United Kingdom, retaining the numbering of Portuguese Sovereigns. After a period of mourning and several delays, the festivities of the acclamation of the new King were held in Rio de Janeiro on 6 February 1818. On the date of his Acclamation, King John VI created the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, the only order of knighthood to be created during the United Kingdom era; this Order existed in the United Kingdom alongside the old Portuguese Orders of chivalry and the Order of the Tower and Sword, an ancient Order, dormant and, revived by the Portuguese monarchy in November 1808, when the Royal Court was in Brazil. After the dissolution of the United Kingdom, while Brazilian branches of the old Orders of chivalry were created, resulting in Brazilian and Portuguese Orders Saint James of the Sword, of Saint Benedict of Aviz, of Christ, the newer Orders remained in existence as Portuguese Orders only.
After the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the King left Brazil and returned to the European portion of the United Kingdom, arriving in Lisbon on 4 July 1821. Before his departure, the King, acceding to requests made by Brazilian courtiers, decided to leave behind his heir apparent, Prince Pedro, the Prince Royal of the United Kingdom. By a decree issued on 22 April 1821, the King invested Pedro with the title of "Regent of Brazil", granted him delegated powers to discharge the "general government and entire administration of the Kingdom of Brazil" as the King's placeholder, thus granting the Kingdom of Brazil a devolved administration within the United Kingdom. Accordingly, with the appointment of Prince Royal Pedro as Regent of Brazil, the Brazilian provinces – that in the colonial period were united under a vice-regal administration, that during the stay of Queen Maria I and K
Inconfidência Mineira was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789. It was the result of a confluence of external and internal causes in what was a Portuguese colony; the external inspiration was the independence of thirteen of the British colonies in North America following the American Revolutionary War, a development that impressed the intellectual elite of the captaincy of Minas Gerais. The main internal cause of the conspiracy was the decline of gold mining in that captaincy; as gold became less plentiful, the region's gold miners faced increasing difficulties in fulfilling tax obligations to the crown, the tax over gold was one-fifth. When the captaincy could not satisfy the royal demand for gold, it was burdened with an additional tax on gold, called derrama. Conspirators seeking independence from Portugal planned to rise up in rebellion on the day that the derrama was instituted. However, the conspirators lacked an overall leader; some of the conspirators were republicans, others were monarchists.
Some favored the abolition of slavery. The conspirators did put forth a few economic and social ideas: the promotion of cotton production, the exploitation of iron and saltpeter reserves, a proposal to give incentives to mothers to have many children, the creation of a citizens' militia; the conspiracy attracted a great number of military personnel and intellectuals, as well as the poets Cláudio Manuel da Costa and Tomás Antônio Gonzaga. Among the best known participants were Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, best known as "Tiradentes". Tiradentes, who came from Andrade's regiment, was the independence movement's most enthusiastic propagandist; the Inconfidência was inspired by the ideals of the French liberal philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment and the successful American Revolution of 1776. The conspirators belonged to the white upper class of minerals-rich Minas Gerais. Many had studied in Europe in the University of Coimbra, some had large debts with the colonial government. In the context of declining gold production, the intention of the Portuguese government to impose the obligatory payment of all debts was a leading cause behind the conspiracy.
The conspirators wanted to create a republic in which the leader would be chosen through democratic elections. The capital would be São João del Rei, Ouro Preto would become a university town; the structure of the society, including the right to property and the ownership of slaves, would be kept intact. Three participants in the independence movement revealed the conspirators' plans to the government, the rebels were arrested in 1789. Among the movement were the lawyer Alvarenga Peixoto, the poets Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Cláudio Manuel da Costa, the priest José da Silva de Oliveira Rolim, the alferes Joaquim José da Silva Xavier. After Joaquim Silvério dos Reis, a member of the conspiracy, informed on the movement before it could take place, Peixoto was captured and sent to exile in the city of Ambaca, in Portuguese Angola, another colony of the Portuguese Empire, where he remained until the end of his life. Judicial proceedings against the conspirators lasted from 1789 to 1792. Lieutenant Colonel Freire de Andrade, José Álvares Maciel, eight others were condemned to the gallows.
Seven more were condemned to perpetual banishment in Africa, the rest were acquitted. Following the trial Queen Maria I commuted the sentences of capital punishment to perpetual banishment for all except those whose activities involved aggravated circumstances; that was the case for Tiradentes, who took full responsibility for the conspiracy movement and was imprisoned in Rio de Janeiro, where he was hanged on 21 April 1792. Afterwards, his body was torn into pieces, which were sent to Vila Rica in the captaincy of Minas Gerais, to be displayed in the places where he had propagated his revolutionary ideas; the anniversary of his death is celebrated as a national holiday in Brazil. In 1948 the events were portrayed in a film Minas Conspiracy directed by Carmen Santos. In 1963, Minas Gerais incorporated as its state flag the one designed by the Inconfidência, with an equilateral triangle inspired by the Holy Trinity – albeit the inconfidentes wanted a green triangle, while Minas' flag uses a red one – and a Latin motto taken out of Vergil's Eclogues.
List of historical acts of tax resistance Maxwell, Kenneth R. Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil & Portugal 1750–1808 Furtado, Júnia Ferreira, Chica da Silva: A Brazilian Slave of the Eighteenth Century
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con