Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
City of Rockingham
The City of Rockingham is a local government area in the far southern suburbs of the Western Australian capital city of Perth. In 1896, residents of Rockingham petitioned to establish a road board, which they proposed be called "Clarence", the name of the failed settlement of Thomas Peel at Woodman Point; the area at the time fell within the responsibility of the Fremantle District Road Board. The name "Clarence" was declined by the Department of Lands and Surveys, the Rockingham Roads District was gazetted on 4 February 1897; the agricultural hall on the corner of Flinders Lane and Kent Street in Rockingham was used for the Roads Board's administration until an office was constructed for the Roads Board on the corner of Office Road and Mandurah Road in East Rockingham in 1905. In 1929 the Board resolved to relocate the administration to Rockingham Beach and the various buildings, including the Agricultural Hall and the vacated Rockingham Beach Primary School building on Kent Street, were used as the Board's offices.
A new office was constructed for the Roads Board in 1946 on the corner of Flinders Lane and Kent Street. In February 1954 the Kwinana Road District was formed from the northern portion of the Rockingham Road District. On 1 July 1961, the Road District became the Shire of Rockingham following enactment of the Local Government Act 1960. In 1971, the Shire relocated to new offices on Council Avenue on land donated by developers Rockingham Park Pty Ltd 2 km southeast of the traditional centre of Rockingham Beach, to become the new major centre of Rockingham and Kwinana; the Rockingham City Shopping Centre opened in the new centre in 1971. Despite the move to the new "city centre," the community considered Rockingham Beach to be the rightful civic heart of Rockingham, as evidenced by the Shire's decision to construct Flinders Hall on Flinders Lane, despite the new Council offices being constructed in the same year. On 12 November 1988 the Council attained City status. In 1994, the City relocated to civic centre on Civic Boulevard.
In 2008, the Council adopted a plan for the Rockingham Strategic Regional Centre which incorporated both the traditional centre at Rockingham Beach and the "City Centre" of the 1970s into a larger, encompassing centre. The plan seeks to increase the residential population within this new city centre envelope from 12,000 to 36,000 through the provision of transit-oriented development, which would in turn support the operation of light rail between the Rockingham Train Station and Rockingham Beach; the city has been divided into 4 wards. The mayor is elected from among the councillors. Rockingham Ward Safety Bay Ward Baldivis Ward Coastal Ward In 1954, Kwinana was excised from Rockingham. Rockingham is serviced by two local newspapers: The Sound Telegraph is delivered every Wednesday, the Weekend Courier on Fridays. Rockingham's local radio station is 104.1 Rock FM. The internet radio station broadcasts 24 hours a day on its website, on the Stickam social networking service. Rockingham is home to the Rockingham Rams in the Peel Football League.
The City of Rockingham has two active affiliations to which it is a signatory, being: City of Akō, located in the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan – A "sister city" relationship based on opportunities for residents and groups to exchange diverse cultural aspects during official and community visits. "Ako Lane", located next to the Council building, is a tribute to this relationship. Kota Kinabalu, the capital city of the Malaysian state Sabah – A "friendship city" agreement in conjunction with the objectives of the South West Group to support potential bilateral trade between firms in the two regions. Official website
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Baldivis, Western Australia
Baldivis is a semi-rural residential suburb 46 kilometres south of the central business district of Perth, the capital of Western Australia, 11 kilometres southeast of the regional centre of Rockingham. It is located with the City of Rockingham local government area. Housing estates in the suburb include Tuart Ridge, Settlers Hills, Settlers Townside, The Rivergums, Baldivis Central, Baldivis North, Baldivis Gardens, The Chimes, Evermore Heights, The Ridge, The Chase, Highbury Park, Heritage Park, The Dales, Woodleigh Grove and Parkland Heights; the name of Baldivis was thought up by settlers in the area who were attracted to the region by the 1920s Group Settlement Scheme. The name derives from three ships which travelled to Western Australia in 1922, all within six weeks of each other, bringing settlers under the scheme, they were named DIogenes and the JerVIS Bay. It was the maiden voyage for all three ships and they were all built in the same shipyard in the same year. Land parallel to the eastern side of Baldivis Road was set aside for a tramway between Jandakot in the north and Karnup to the south, to provide access to the Group Settlement Scheme land.
Although part of the tramway was constructed, it was never constructed in Baldivis. The tramway reserve is retained for open space. Many of the road names in Baldivis originate from the group numbers. Land in the western portion of Baldivis was zoned for urban development in the 1990s, the suburb has been progressively developed for residential; the first residential estate to be developed was Settlers Hills, by Stockland. The western half of Baldivis is composed of undulating sand and limestone soil with occasional wetlands; the high point is known as Tamworth Hill, the site of a water reservoir. Much of this land has been developed for residential use. East of Baldivis Road the land is flat and comprises sand and clay soils; these areas are used for rural purposes. The western portion of Baldivis contains tuart trees. Baldivis is serviced by the Transperth 564 bus route, operated by Transdev WA, which operates from Warnbro Train Station; this route services the Baldivis Town Centre during business hours, travelling through Settlers Hills via Arpentuer Drive through Evermore Heights, The Ridge and Terminate in The Dales.
Route 567 services The Rivergums and Heritage Park. It connects the Baldivis community with a regular service to the Baldivis Town Centre. Both routes run 7 days a week running every 10 minutes in peak hours. Route 568 services the newly developed Town Side estate and Retirement village. Route 565 services through newly established Baldivis Quarter; the Kwinana Freeway runs through Baldivis, providing vehicle access to Bunbury. Safety Bay Road links Baldivis with neighbouring suburbs to the west like Warnbro; the principal shared path along the Kwinana Freeway provides bicycle access to Perth. There is plenty for Residents to enjoy within Baldivis. Fifty Road Recreation Centre and Sporting Grounds which are home to the Baldivis Brumbies, Baldivis Scouts and the Annual Baldivis Fair; the Mary Davies Library and Community Centre was opened in 2014 and is home to many associations, dance groups and community groups for meetings and events. The Volunteer Bush Fire Brigade building is situated on Eighty Road.
There is a bike pump park at the Rivergums estate. The Tramway reserve is a protected walkway spanning the length of Baldivis The Baldivis Children's forest is located on Mandurah Road There are ten schools in Baldivis, with more opening in the near future: Baldivis Primary School, a government school which first opened in 1924 as a "bush school", moved to its present location in Fifty Road in 1978; the site of the original Baldivis School is marked by a plaque on a large granite rock on Doghill Road, about 2 km from the intersection with St Albans Road. Tranby College, a private school operated by the Uniting Church for K-12 students which opened in 1997. Settlers Primary School, a government school, situated opposite Tranby College. John Calvin Primary School, situated on Mandurah Road. Makybe Rise Primary School opened in 2012 on Makybe Drive in Tuart Ridge estate. Baldivis Secondary College, a public high school that opened in February, 2013 Mother Teresa Catholic College opened in 2014 at the corner of Sixty-Eight Road and Eighty Road.
In 2018, the secondary school campus opened. Tuart Rise Primary School opened in 2015 on Smirk Road in the Avalon estate. Rivergums Primary School, opened in 2016 in the Rivergums housing estate, next to Baldivis Secondary College. Baldivis Gardens Primary School, opened in 2017 in the northern section of Baldivis off of Kerosene Lane; the main shopping facilities in Baldivis are located in the area known as the Baldivis Town Centre, on Settlers Avenue, includes the Baldivis Shopping Centre owned by Stockland. Extensions completed in 2015 expanded the existing Shopping Centre to include a Food Court/Restaurant precinct, increased car park numbers, a Kmart and a Woolworths. In 2017, another shopping precinct, Baldivis Square, opened on Makybe Drive next to Makybe Rise Primary School. Baldivis Square includes a mix of retail and professional offices, anchored by an IGA; the electorate office of Reece Whitby, the local MLA for the Baldivis legislative district is located in Baldivis Square. The Baldivis Soccer Club are located at Baldivis South Sports Pavilion.
The club has grown and
Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian Government. It carries out geoscientific research; the agency is the government's technical adviser on all aspects of geoscience, custodian of the geographic and geological data and knowledge of the nation. On a user pays basis it produces geospatial products such as satellite imagery, it is a major contributor to the Australian Government's free, open data collections such as data.gov.au. The agency has six strategic priority areas: building Australia's resource wealth in order to maximise benefits from Australia's minerals and energy resources and into the future. Geoscience Australia came into being in 2001 when the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group merged with the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, its history dates back to Federation in 1901 when it was decided to set aside land for the national capital. This decision led to the establishment of the Australian Survey Office in 1910, when surveying began for the Australian Capital Territory.
AUSLIG's main function was to provide national geographic information. It was formed in 1987, when the Australian Survey Office joined with the Division of National Mapping, formed in 1947. Another important component of AUSLIG was the provision of satellite imagery to industry and government, started by the Australian Landsat Station in 1979, renamed the Australian Centre for Remote Sensing in 1986. AGSO's predecessor organisation the Bureau of Mineral Resources and Geophysics was established in 1946; the BMR was a geological survey with the main objective was the systematic geological and geophysical mapping of the continent as the basis for informed mineral exploration. Geoscience Australia's activities have expanded and today it has responsibility for meeting the Australian Government's geoscience requirements; this role takes the Agency well beyond its historic focus on resource development and topographic mapping to topics as diverse as natural hazards such as tsunami and earthquakes, environmental issues, including the impacts of climate change, groundwater research and coastal research, carbon capture and storage and vegetation monitoring as well as Earth observations from space.
Geoscience Australia's remit extends beyond the Australian landmass to Australia's vast marine jurisdiction. It has a free place name search and its earthquake monitoring services can be accessed; the Library is the premier geoscience library in Australia providing services to geoscience organisations, research centres, the mining and petroleum industries and the public. Geological Survey of South Australia Geological Survey of Western Australia List of national mapping agencies Geoscience Australia home page. Geoscience Australia in Google Cultural Institute As the cocky flies distance calculator International Map of the World XNATMAP's home page preserving NATMAP's history and maintaining contact with the people who were part of that history
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Rockingham, Western Australia
Rockingham is a city and primary centre in Western Australia south-west of the Perth city centre and south of Fremantle. It has a beachside location at the southern extremity of Cockburn Sound. To its north stretches the maritime and resource-industry installations of Kwinana and Henderson. Offshore to the north-west is Australia's largest naval fleet and submarine base, Garden Island, connected to the mainland by an all-weather causeway. To the south lies the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park. Rockingham received its name from the sailing ship Rockingham, one of the three vessels that Thomas Peel had chartered to carry settlers to Western Australia. Rockingham arrived on 14 May 1830. Rockingham was blown ashore and abandoned after failed attempts to refloat her, she broke up, having sunk in shallow waters. Settlers camped near the wreck used the name "Rockingham Town" as their address; the region had been inhabited for several thousand years by tribes of the Noongar people whose leader at that time was Galyute.
Rockingham was first surveyed and lots offered for sale in 1847. However, few lots were sold until the development of a railway and jetty in 1872 to transport jarrah timber and sandalwood from Jarrahdale overseas. Rockingham prospered until the construction of the Inner Harbour of Fremantle in 1897, which caused Rockingham as a timber port to decline. Another factor that contributed, albeit to the decline of the port's importance for timber export was the opening in 1893 of the South Western Railway, the line of which intersected the Jarrahdale-Rockingham line and created the possibility of trucking timber north to Fremantle or south to Bunbury where the ports were capable of taking larger ships with deeper draughts. By the turn of the century, the international timber trade was being handled by larger ships and when the timber merchants determined that they could not justify the expense of dredging to enhance access to the port of Rockingham timber exports shifted to Fremantle. After 1908 the port saw no further use for timber exports.
The ending of the port coincided with the arrival of the motor car, this new mode of transport gave impetus to the rapid development of the little coastal settlement into a seaside resort town. It was a comfortable day trip by motor car from Fremantle and Perth, a sufficient distance from those centres for the'travellers' to purchase alcoholic beverages at the Rockingham hotel on Sundays during an era when such sales were regulated to protect the sanctity of that day. Holidaymakers had the use of the old port's jetties while they remained, but by 1947 they were gone, destroyed through the effects of decay and storms. From the earliest years of the 20th Century, holiday shacks were developed in the town, by the 1970s Rockingham had become a desirable locale for retirement villas - of a modest scale. In recent decades Rockingham has become a satellite city in Perth's southwest, together with Mandurah, is among Australia's fastest-growing residential districts; the maritime tradition has been strengthened by steady growth of the Royal Australian Navy's main fleet base HMAS Stirling and by the development of major shipbuilding and marine support services at nearby Henderson.
Since the nineteenth century, abundant sightseeing and recreational attributes have been the basis of a tourism industry. Visitors can launch small boats or board ferries to view dolphins, seals and penguins in the adjacent Marine Park; the coast at nearby Safety Bay is ideal for kitesurfing. Rockingham Centre is the regional centre which attracts significant non-local business, having a licence to trade on Sundays during public and school holidays. On 7 May 2009, a boundary realignment of Cooloongup and Hillman approved by the Minister for Lands incorporated the Rockingham Train Station into Rockingham. Rockingham is topographically flat, has coastal vegetation, it has a northern aspect from Rockingham Beach and Palm Beach. High-frequency passenger services are acccessible at the Rockingham Railway Station and Warnbro railway station on the Mandurah Line. A bus network operates throughout Rockingham with multiple routes terminating at the railway stations; the "Rockingham Shuttle Bus 555" is a frequent service which connects the train station with the Rockingham Beach foreshore.
Frequent services connect Rockingham with Fremantle via the bus service 549 running at 15-minute intervals Monday to Friday and the 548. All three of these routes service the primary centre via dedicated bus lanes. Local heavy industry is serviced by branches of the Kwinana freight railway which has a number of level crossings within the City of Rockingham. A Rockingham Light Rail service is proposed to connect the railway station with the city centre and foreshore; the Kwinana Freeway is about 15 minutes' drive from the primary centre via Kulija Road or via Safety Bay Road, giving fast access to Perth and Bunbury. National Highway 1 provides alternative road connection with Perth and Mandurah. Perth Bicycle Network route SW38 links Rockingham Beach with Waikiki Beach in Safety Bay. Rockingham Beach Primary School was founded in 1895 and is supplemented by Bungaree, East Waikiki, Safety Bay and Waikiki primary schools. Public secondary schools are Safety Bay Senior High School. Private schools in the district include the Roman Catholic Star of the Sea Primary School, Kolbe Catholic College, Rockingham Montessori School, South Coast Baptist College, Living Waters Luthe