Anterior compartment of thigh
The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which extend the knee and flex the hip. The anterior compartment is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh that contains groups of muscles together with their nerves and blood supply; the anterior compartment contains the sartorius muscle and the quadriceps femoris group, which consists of the rectus femoris muscle and the three vasti muscles – the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, the vastus medialis. The iliopsoas is sometimes considered a member of the anterior compartment muscles, as is the articularis genus muscle; the anterior compartment is separated from the posterior compartment by the lateral intermuscular septum and from the medial compartment by the medial intermuscular septum. The nerve of the anterior compartment of thigh is the femoral nerve. Innervation for the quadriceps muscles come from the posterior division of the femoral nerve, while the anterior division gives a lateral and a medial branch, the second being responsible for the innervation of the sartorius muscle.
The iliacus and the psoas major and psoas minor muscles, sometimes considered part of the anterior compartment, do not share the same innervation. Whereas the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve, the psoas is innervated by ventral rami of L1-L3; when the external iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament, it becomes the femoral artery, which supplies blood to the anterior compartment and is the largest blood vessel of the inferior member. The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which are extensors of the knee and flexors of the hip joints; the anterior compartment may be affected as part of a compartment syndrome. Antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman knee/muscles/thigh1 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at stanford.edu
The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips, its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates can not sustain standing erectly; the muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Three bursae are found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle: One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter.
When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabulofemoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur, its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and adductor magnus. The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed; the lower part of the muscle acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints; the gluteus maximus is involved from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg. Hip thrusts Glute bridge Quadruped hip extensions Kettlebell swings Squats and variations like split squats, pistol squats and wide-stance lunges Deadlift Reverse hyperextension Four-way hip extensions Glute-ham raise Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles.
These tests include: 30 Second Chair to Stand testThis test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility and endurance, which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done. Passive piriformis stretch; the piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required.
Table of muscles of the human body Coccyx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0403 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/GluteusMaximus at exrx.net
The peroneus brevis muscle lies under cover of the peroneus longus, is the shorter and smaller of the peroneus muscles. It arises from the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the fibula, medial to the peroneus longus, from the intermuscular septa separating it from the adjacent muscles on the front and back of the leg; the fibers pass vertically downward, end in a tendon which runs behind the lateral malleolus along with but in front of that of the preceding muscle, the two tendons being enclosed in the same compartment and lubricated by a common mucous sheath. It runs forward on the lateral side of the calcaneus, above the calcaneal tubercle and the tendon of the peroneus longus, is inserted into the tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, on its lateral side; when the base of the fifth metatarsal is fractured, the peroneus brevis may pull on and displace the proximal fragment. An inversion sprain of the foot may pull the tendon such that it avulses the tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal.
It is innervated by the superficial fibular nerve. The muscle assists in weak eversion of the foot; the terms "Peroneal" and "Peroneus" are derived from the Greek word Perone meaning pin of a brooch or a buckle. In medical terminology, both terms refer to being of or relating to the fibula or to the outer portion of the leg. Peroneus longus Peroneus tertius Schilling tendon procedure This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 487 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:15:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center PTCentral
Lateral rotator group
The lateral rotator group is a group of six small muscles of the hip which all externally rotate the femur in the hip joint. It consists of the following muscles: Piriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and the obturator externus. All muscles in the lateral rotator group originate from the hip bone and insert on to the upper extremity of the femur; the muscles are innervated by the sacral plexus, except the obturator externus muscle, innervated by the lumbar plexus. This group does not include all muscles which aid in lateral rotation of the hip joint: rather it is a collection of ones which are known for performing this action. Other muscles that contribute to lateral rotation of the hip include: Gluteus maximus muscle Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus muscle when the hip is extended Psoas major muscle Psoas minor muscle Sartorius muscle Hip anatomy Glutealregion at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
External obturator muscle
The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis. It is sometimes considered part of the medial compartment of thigh, sometimes considered part of the gluteal region, it arises from the margin of bone around the medial side of the obturator membrane and surrounding bone, viz. from the inferior pubic ramus, the ramus of the ischium. The fibers springing from the pubic arch extend on to the inner surface of the bone, where they obtain a narrow origin between the margin of the foramen and the attachment of the obturator membrane; the fibers converge and pass posterolateral and upward, end in a tendon which runs across the back of the neck of the femur and lower part of the capsule of the hip joint and is inserted into the trochanteric fossa of the femur. The obturator vessels lie between the obturator membrane. In 33 % of people a supernumerary muscle is found between the adductor minimus. While this muscle, when present, is similar to its neighbouring adductors, it is formed by separation from the superficial layer of the external obturator, is thus not ontogenetically related to the adductor muscles of the hip.
This muscle originates from the upper part of the inferior pubic ramus from where it runs downwards and laterally. In half of cases, it inserts into the anterior surface of the insertion aponeurosis of the adductor minimus. In the remaining cases, it is either inserted into the upper part of the pectineal line or the posterior part of the lesser trochanter, it has been demonstrated by the course of the posterior branch of obturator nerve that the obturator externus is divided into a superior muscle fascicle and a main belly. The supernumerary muscle described above originates from the superior fascicle, while an anomalous fascicle — derived from the external obturator — originates from the main belly; the "original" external obturator, i.e. without these supernumerary muscular parts occurs in only 20% of cases, the external obturator undergoes ontogenetic variations. The external obturator muscle acts as the lateral rotator of the hip joint; as a short muscle around the hip joint, it stabilizes the hip joint as a postural muscle.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman PTCentral
Quadratus femoris muscle
The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but acts to stabilize the femoral head in the acetabulum, it originates on the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity of the ischium of the pelvis. From there, it passes laterally to its insertion on the posterior side of the head of the femur: the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest and along the quadrate line, the vertical line which runs downward to bisect the lesser trochanter on the medial side of the femur. Along its course, quadratus is aligned edge to edge with the inferior gemellus above and the adductor magnus below, so that its upper and lower borders run horizontal and parallel. At its origin, the upper margin of the adductor magnus is separated from it by the terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex vessels. A bursa is found between the front of this muscle and the lesser trochanter. Sometimes absent.
Groin pain can be a disabling ailment with many potential root causes: one such cause overlooked, is quadratus femoris tendinitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can show abnormal signal intensity at the insertion of the right quadratus femoris tendon, which suggests inflammation of the area. Since the muscle works to laterally rotate and adduct the femur, actions involving the lower body can strain the muscle. In addition, patients present with hip pain and an increased signal intensity of the MRI of the quadratus femoris have been shown to have a narrower ischiofemoral space compared to the general populace; the ischiofemoral impingement may be a cause of the hip pain associated with quadratus femoris tendinitis. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Mcminn, R. M. H.. Last's Applied. Elsevier Australia. ISBN 0-7295-3752-8. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol 1: Locomotor system. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy.
Thieme. 2006. ISBN 978-1-60406-062-1. PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0409 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Tensor fasciae latae muscle
The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the thigh. It is related to the gluteus maximus in function and structure and is continuous with the iliotibial tract, which attaches to the tibia; the muscle assists in walking, or running. It arises from the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest, it is inserted between the two layers of the iliotibial tract of the fascia lata about the junction of the middle and upper thirds of the thigh. The tensor fasciae latae tautens the iliotibial tract and braces the knee when the opposite foot is lifted; the terminal insertion point lies on the lateral condyle of the tibia. Tensor fasciae latae is innervated by the superior gluteal nerve, L5 and S1. At its origins of the anterior rami of L4, L5, S1 nerves, the superior gluteal nerve exits the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis; the nerve courses between the gluteus medius and minimus. The superior gluteal artery supplies the tensor fasciae latae; the superior gluteal nerve arises from the sacral plexus and only has muscular innervation associated with it.
There is no cutaneous innervation for sensation. The tensor fasciae latae is a tensor of the fascia lata; the fascia lata is a fibrous sheath that encircles the thigh like a subcutaneous stocking and binds its muscles. On the lateral surface, it combines with the tendons of the gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae to form the iliotibial tract, which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia. In the erect posture, acting from below, it will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; the basic functional movement of tensor fasciae latae is walking. The tensor fasciae latae is utilized in horse riding and water skiing; some problems that arise when this muscle is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as pain in the lower back and lateral area of knees. Because of its insertion point on the lateral condyle of the tibia, it aids in the lateral rotation of the tibia; this lateral rotation may be initiated in conjunction with hip abduction and medial rotation of the femur while kicking a soccer ball.
The tensor fasciae latae works in synergy with the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles to abduct and medially rotate the femur. The TFL is a hip abductor muscle. To stretch the tensor fasciae latae, the knee may be brought medially across the body. If one leans against a wall with crossed legs and pushes the pelvis away from the wall sidebending the lumbar spine should be avoided as it stretches the lumbar region rather than the tensor fasciae latae and other muscles which cross the hip rather than the spine; because it is used for so many movements and is in a shortened position when seated, the TFL becomes tight easily. TFL stretches lengthen this important muscle. A small case notes that “it seems possible that a sloped or banked surface could predispose an individual to a TFL strain.” In such a case, “treatment consists of rest and flexibility exercises”, such as lliotibial band stretching. "Tensor fasciae latae" translates from Latin to English as "stretcher of the side band". "Tensor" is an agent noun that comes from the past participle stem "tens-" of the Latin verb "tendere", meaning "to stretch".
"Fasciae" is in the singular genitive case. "Latae" is the respective singular, feminine form of the Latin adjective "latus" meaning "side". This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 476 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/TensorFasciaeLatae at exrx.net Coachr