SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Peroxidase

Peroxidases or peroxide reductases are a large group of enzymes which play a role in various biological processes. They are named after the fact that they break up peroxides. Peroxidases catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR ′ + 2 e − electron donor + 2 H + → Peroxidase ROH + R ′ OH For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides. Peroxidases can contain a heme cofactor in their active sites, or alternately redox-active cysteine or selenocysteine residues; the nature of the electron donor is dependent on the structure of the enzyme. For example, horseradish peroxidase can use a variety of organic compounds as electron donors and acceptors. Horseradish peroxidase has an accessible active site, many compounds can reach the site of the reaction. On the other hand, for an enzyme such as cytochrome c peroxidase, the compounds that donate electrons are specific, due to a narrow active site. Protein families that serve as peroxidases include: Haem-using haem peroxidase and the related animal heme-dependent peroxidases DyP-type peroxidase family Catalase some haloperoxidase Di-haem cytochrome c peroxidase Non-heme Thiol: glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin vanadium bromoperoxidase Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase Manganese peroxidase NADH peroxidase The glutathione peroxidase family consists of 8 known human isoforms.

Glutathione peroxidases use glutathione as an electron donor and are active with both hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxide substrates. Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas Gpx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents. Amyloid beta, when bound to heme, has been shown to have peroxidase activity. A typical group of peroxidases are the haloperoxidases; this group is able to form reactive halogen species and, as a result, natural organohalogen substances. A majority of peroxidase protein sequences can be found in the PeroxiBase database. While the exact mechanisms have yet to be determined, peroxidases are known to play a part in increasing a plant's defenses against pathogens. Many members of the Solanaceae, notably Solanum melongena and Capsicum chinense use Guaiacol and the enzyme guaiacol peroxidase as a defense against the bacterial parasite Ralstonia solanacearum: the gene expression for this enzyme commences within minutes of bacterial attack.

Peroxidase can be used for treatment of industrial waste waters. For example, which are important pollutants, can be removed by enzyme-catalyzed polymerization using horseradish peroxidase, thus phenols are oxidized to phenoxy radicals, which participate in reactions where polymers and oligomers are produced that are less toxic than phenols. It can be used to convert toxic materials into less harmful substances. There are many investigations about the use of peroxidase in many manufacturing processes like adhesives, computer chips, car parts, linings of drums and cans. Other studies have shown that peroxidases may be used to polymerize anilines and phenols in organic solvent matrices. Peroxidases are sometimes used as histological markers. Cytochrome c peroxidase is used as a soluble purified model for cytochrome c oxidase. Ascorbate peroxidase Chloride peroxidase Cytochrome c peroxidase Haloperoxidase Hemoprotein Immunoperoxidase Lactoperoxidase Myeloperoxidase Thyroid peroxidase Peroxibase, a database of peroxidases

Caroline Kennard

Caroline Augusta Kennard, née Smith was an American amateur scientist and advocate of women's rights. In correspondence with Charles Darwin she challenged his views on the inferiority of women. Caroline Augusta Smith was born on 15 January 1827 in New Hampshire, she was the daughter of James Wiggin Smith and Eliza Folsom, who lived first in Exeter, New Hampshire and in New York City. She married Martin Parry Kennard, a businessman in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 1846. Martin Kennard was an anti-slavery activist, who moved to Brookline, Massachusetts in 1854, he helped the black sculptor Edmonia Lewis apply for a passport in 1865. In 1882 Caroline Kennard entered into correspondence with Darwin, arguing against women being judged intellectually inferior to men. Kennard was listed in the 1885 Scientist's International Directory as interested in the botany of ferns and mosses, she published a biography of Dorothea Dix in the late 1880s. On Kennard's death a science scholarship at Radcliffe College was established in her memory by her sister, Mrs Martha T.

Fiske Collord. Kennard's son Frederic. After Caroline Kennard married Martin Perry Kennard in 1847, the newly wedded couple decided on a home located within the outskirts of Boston in Brookline, MA, moving here in 1854. Caroline Kennard was a prominent member of a woman's group located within Boston, called the New England Woman's Club; this Club was the first woman's club that had formed at this time within the US. During the 1880s and 1890s, Kennard was not only an active member of the New England Woman's Club, serving as the Vice President in 1893 for one year, she was a member of the board of directors. Furthermore, Kennard was passionate about women's issues and she attended various meetings for the Association of the Advancement of Women, it was at one of these meetings in 1896 where she read a paper aloud to all in attendance arguing that housework should be considered formal work similar to other professions because it is not only demanding, but contributes to the economy as well. She was interested in educational reforms for women and became dedicated to promoting many issues involved in the woman's movement, including the inferior status of women within society.

In the 1880s and 1890s, Kennard's concern regarding the status and treatment of women in society persisted as she served as an officer within the Women's Educational and Industrial Union. She was involved in social reform her entire life as she published a variety of articles on social reform. For example, in 1895 she became a member of the Brookline Education Society, concerned about the development of children both at school and within the home. More Kennard prepared a paper for this organization emphasizing the need for children to study nature as she believed this positively impacted their development and education in the long run. In addition, she wrote an article entitled, “Progress in the Employment of Police Matrons”, which encouraged the police force to employ more female officers, she wrote articles about important, well-known female activists and poets. Nonetheless, despite her interests in women's issues and social reform within the nation, she was intrigued by science the study of mosses and ferns.

Due to her interests in both science and improving women's social status, she challenged Charles Darwin's theory regarding the biological inferiority of women. Kennard is best known for her correspondence with Darwin himself in regards to his belief that women are biologically inferior to men, which she wholeheartedly disagreed with; the theory that Kennard questioned was found within Darwin's On the Origin of Species, which emphasized that women are in fact inferior to men. Kennard became uneasy after she heard a woman use Darwin's Origin of Species theory regarding women's inferiority as evidence that women are scientifically inferior to their male counterparts; as a result, this incident motivated Kennard to write Darwin in 1881 declaring that this was inaccurate as she attested that women are not scientifically inferior to men. Kennard's goal was to receive clarification from Darwin as she did not think this theory held any truth. In response, Darwin wrote back to Kennard referencing his work titled Descent of Man as he stated, “I think that women though superior to men moral qualities are inferior intellectually.”

In addition, Darwin noted that the only way to solve this inferiority and for the sexes to be considered equal was for women to become “breadwinners”, or to assume economic responsibility and make their own money through work. However, Darwin continued by emphasizing that if women became “breadwinners”, this would negatively harm the domestic, household sphere that he felt women belonged by resulting in the neglect of children and other household duties; this is illustrated in his letter to Kennard claiming, “To do this, as I believe, women must become as regular ‘bread-winners’ as are men. Darwin’s response infuriated Kennard and she wrote him back on January 28, 1882, arguing that women are “breadwinners” and are not inferior to men. Nonetheless, she continued by saying that women are not given the same opportunities that men are, including environmental and educational opportunities. Kennard maintained that women are capable of being just as intellectual as men, yet the lack of opportunities afforded to women in society negatively impacts their level of intellect.

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Jimmy Thompson (rugby league)

James "Jimmy" Thompson is an English former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. He played at representative level for Great Britain and Yorkshire, at club level for Featherstone Rovers, Bradford Northern and Carlisle, as a prop or second-row, i.e. number 8 or 10, or, 11 or 12, during the era of contested scrums. Jimmy Thompson won caps for England while at Featherstone Rovers in 1970 against France, in the 1975 Rugby League World Cup against Australia, in 1977 against Wales, while at Bradford Northern in 1978 against France, Wales, won caps for Great Britain while at Featherstone Rovers in 1970 against Australia, New Zealand, in the 1970 Rugby League World Cup Australia, New Zealand, Australia, in 1971 against France, in 1974 against Australia, New Zealand, in the 1977 Rugby League World Cup against France, New Zealand, Australia, while at Bradford Northern in 1978 against Australia. Jimmy Thompson won caps for Yorkshire while at Featherstone Rovers.

Jimmy Thompson played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in Featherstone Rovers' 17–12 victory over Barrow in the 1966–67 Challenge Cup Final during the 1966–67 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 13 May 1967, in front of a crowd of 76,290, played right-second-row in the 33–14 victory over Bradford Northern in the 1972–73 Challenge Cup Final during the 1972–73 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 12 May 1973, in front of a crowd of 72,395, played right-second-row in the 9–24 defeat by Warrington in the 1973–74 Challenge Cup Final during the 1973–74 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 11 May 1974, in front of a crowd of 77,400. Jimmy Thompson played right-second-row, i.e. number 12, in Featherstone Rovers' 9–12 defeat by Hull F. C. in the 1969–70 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1969–70 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 20 September 1969, played right-second-row in the 7–23 defeat by Leeds in the 1970–71 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1970–71 season at Odsal Stadium, Bradford on Saturday 21 November 1970, played left-prop, i.e. number 8, in Bradford Northern's 18–8 victory over York in the 1978–79 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1978–79 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 28 October 1978.

Jimmy Thompson played left-prop, i.e. number 8, in Bradford Northern's 6–0 victory over Widnes in the 1979–80 John Player Trophy Final during the 1979–80 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 5 January 1980. Jimmy Thompson made his début for Featherstone Rovers on Saturday 1 October 1966. Jimmy Thompson's benefit season/testimonial match at Featherstone Rovers took place during the 1976–77 season. Jimmy Thompson is a Featherstone Rovers Hall of Fame inductee; the Millennium Masters – Forwards Image "Thompson tries to tackle - Jimmy Thompson tries to tackle the Warrington attacker. - 04/09/1977" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Thompson waits - The Northern players wait as an Australian is cautioned. - 08/10/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Thompson with the Cup - Jimmy Thompson with the Yorkshire Cup won today at Headingley versus York. - 28/10/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Jimmy Thompson scores - Referee Mean points for a try as colleagues congratulate Jimmy Thompson on scoring. - 26/02/1977" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Team photo 1978 - Team photo 1978 - 01/01/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Northern celebrate John Player win - Jimmy Thompson cracks the champagne after Northern's win v Widnes at Headingley.

- 05/01/1980" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Ronnie Firth sprays the champagne - Chairman Ronnie Firth celebrates with the players in the Headingley dressing room after the win against Widnes. - 05/01/1980" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Jimmy Thompson shows the John Player Trophy to fans. - Jimmy Thompson shows the John Player Trophy to fans. - 15/01/1980" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Northern celebrate the Championship win - Dressing room shot of Northern's Championship winning team. - 20/04/1981" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Jimmy and Nigel parade the Trophy - Jimmy Thopmpson and Nigel Stephenson parade the Trophy in front of the fans at Odsal before the game v St Helens - 29/05/1981" at rlhp.co.uk Image "The Mayor shows off the Trophy - The Mayor is held high by Jimmy Thompson and Dick Jasiewicz at the Civic Reception to celebrate winning the Championship. - 18/06/1981" at rlhp.co.uk Image "1981 team v. Hull - The 1981 team which retained the Championship. -20/04/1981" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Jimmy Thompson scores - Jimmy Thompson about to ground the ball to score a vital try in today's cup tie against Leeds - 20/08/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Delighted Northern players with the cup - On the left a delighted David Barends shows Garth Budge and Ian Slater his winners medal.

- 20/05/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Jimmy Thompson leaves the defenders trailing - International prop forward Jimmy Thompson leaves four Leeds defenders behind as he crosses for his try at Odsal today. - 30/07/1978" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Thompson Clears His Line - Skipper Thompson is brought down whilst clearing his line. Roe looks on. - 25/11/1979" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Graham Idle In Action - Northern's new signing Graham Idle in action today with skipper Jimmy Thompson and hooker Noble watching. - 17/08/1980" at rlhp.co.uk Image "Ian Van Bellen bursts through - Ian Van Bellen bursts out of a do