SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Peroxide

Peroxides are a group of compounds with the structure R−O−O−R. The O − O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide peroxo group. In contrast to oxide ions, the oxygen atoms in the peroxide ion have an oxidation state of −1; the most common peroxide is hydrogen peroxide, colloquially known as "peroxide". It is marketed as a solution in water at various concentrations. Since hydrogen peroxide is nearly colorless, so are these solutions, it is used as an oxidant and bleaching agent. However, hydrogen peroxide is biochemically produced in the human body as a result of a range of oxidase enzymes. Concentrated solutions are dangerous when in contact with organic compounds. Aside from hydrogen peroxide, some other major classes of peroxides are: Peroxy acids, the peroxy derivatives of many familiar acids, examples being peroxymonosulfuric acid and peracetic acid. Metal peroxides, examples being sodium peroxide. Organic peroxides, compounds with the linkage C−O−O−C or C−O−O−H. One example is tert-butylhydroperoxide.

Main group peroxides, compounds with the linkage E−O−O−E, one example of, potassium peroxydisulfate

Joe Grech

Joseph “Joe” Grech, is a Maltese singer, born in Cospicua, Malta. He is best known for introducing Maltese language singing to an international audience through his participation in Eurovision Song Contest 1971, the first appearance from Malta on this pan-European television event. At a early stage in his life, Joe started to play the trumpet with the Zejtun Band Club. However, he soon switched to singing, he was the first singer to win the first Malta Song Festival in 1960, a festival, organized by the Żgħażagħ Ħaddiema Nsara, the local section of the Young Christian Workers. The festival was held at the Radio City Opera House in Malta. Ten songs were presented in the semi final of Thursday 3 November and another ten songs on the semi-final of Friday 4 November. Out of these twenty songs, ten made it to the final night of Saturday 5 November 1960; the Winning Song was Joe Grech's own composition "Vola Uccellino". The festival was transmitted on Rediffusion Malta a cable radio service provider in Malta since September 1935.

Victor Aquilina and Marlene Lauri were the comperes of this festival. Two orchestras conducted by Mro. Dominic Vella accompanied the ten songs. Eight of these songs were sung in Italian, one in English and one in Maltese, the latter being "L-Għada tal-Festa Ma' Vitorin"; this song was sung by Terry L. Bencini. Incidentally Terry was awarded the Best Singer Trophy of this festival. Again in 1962 Joe was classified as the winner of the Malta Song Festival with the song "Żgħażagħ Rebbieħa" written and composed by Ivo Galea B. A. Hons L. P; this was interpreted by Carmen Schembri Gusman. Carmelo Abela was responsible for the orchestration. Joe married Josephine née' Buttigieg on 24 September 1961, they have a daughter Marcelle a versatile singer. In 1965, the "Impresa Valente" chose Joe Grech to represent Malta in the Italian Festival of Martina Franca. Another Maltese singer, Tony Agius participated in this festival. In those days, it was rare for a Maltese singer to participate in an Italian festival, let alone win a trophy as the Best Foreign Singer of this Italian festival.

The Italian High Commissioner of Italy for Malta, Signor Antonio Spada, presented a trophy to Joe Grech In 1967, Joe managed to establish himself as one of Malta's most popular pop singers. His 45 rpm entitled " Il- Kaċċatur", The Hunter, published on Maltadisk APL 1005 B, recorded by Audiovision Productions, with their studios located in Zachary Street and now at Mile End in Hamrun, started selling like pastizzi in Malta, it made a tremendous success in countries where the Maltese and the Gozitans had a diaspora Australia. "Il-Kaċċatur" was composed by Mro. Joseph Ciappara with lyrics by Dr. George Zammit. Incidentally "Il-Kaċċatur" was designated as the "B" side of the record, with Carmen Schembri singing "L-Għanja tal-Emigranti", The Emigrants' Song, being the "A" side; this success prompted Audiovision Productions to issue another follow-up record for Joe still as a "B" side entitled "Il-Festa Taghna". This was another composition by Mro. Joseph Ciappara with lyrics by J. B. Cassar.. Joe's first "A" side was entitled "Ku Klu Ku Klu" with lyrics by Albert M. Cassola and music by F.

X. Pisani.. In 1968 two other "A" sides were published: "Il-Lejl Tal-Vitorja" and "Nhar San Girgor"; the lyrics of these two songs were written by Dr. George Zammit whilst Mro. Guzeppi Ciappara composed the music. In those days, in Malta it was a landmark for a Maltese singer to record four consecutive 45 rpm in less than two years; these records continued to increase the popularity of Joe Grech both in Malta and in the Maltese diaspora. In these four recordings Joe Grech was always accompanied by the orchestra of Mro. Spiro Zammit. Again in 1967, Rediffusion Malta, published the first 33 RPM long playing album of Maltese compositions, entitled "Malta Song Festival 1967". Joe Grech, together with Mary Rose Darmanin, won this festival with the song "Serenata". Roger Moore was the guest of honour in this 8th Malta Song Festival, held at the Radio City Opera House in Hamrun on Saturday 8 December 1967. In this same festival, Joe Grech sang "O Carina Madalena"; the song was composed by Arthur Desira. It is included as the 2nd track on Side 1 of this album.

Joe Grima and Victor Aquilina Head of Programmes and Assistant Head of Programmes of Rediffusion Malta, were the producers of this first 33 rpm of Maltese songs. On 3 April 1971, Joe was the first Maltese singer to represent Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest with the song Marija l-Maltija. Since it was sung in the Maltese language, this rendered it the first Eurovision song, sung in a Semitic language; the song was composed by Joe Grech himself, the lyrics were written by Charles Mifsud. The orchestra of the Eurovision Song Contest was conducted by Mro. Twanny Chircop, the brother of another Maltese tenor and film star Oreste Kirkop of The Vagabond King. Incidentally it was Oreste Kirkop who presented the winning trophy to Joe Grech on the night of that first 1960 Malta Song Festival; the song "Marija l-Maltija" was translated into Swedish and was included in the repertoire of the Swedish singer Lasse Berghagen. In the 1970s, Joe toured the London and Irish circuits, he had many successful tours in Canada, America and Australia.

It was during one of these tours that Joe Grech, under the management of Joe Stafrace, recorded a Long Playing Album "Sahha Malta With Joe Grech". The orchestra on this LP w

T28 Super Heavy Tank

The T28 Super Heavy Tank was an American armored tank/self-propelled gun designed for the United States Army during World War II. It was designed to be used to break through German defenses of the Siegfried Line, was considered as a possible participant in the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland; the 100-ton vehicle was designated a heavy tank. It was re-designated as the 105 mm Gun Motor Carriage T95 in 1945, renamed in 1946 as the Super Heavy Tank T28. Only two prototypes were built. Named Heavy Tank T28 when construction was authorized in 1944, the design did not fit in the usual categories of vehicles leading to reclassification; as it did not have its armament in a revolving turret, Ordnance requested a name change to 105 mm Gun Motor Carriage T95, the change becoming official in March 1945. However, due to its heavy armor and armament—while self-propelled guns in United States service were armored—it was renamed Super Heavy Tank T28 in June 1946 by OCM 37058; the T28/T95 was designed to be used for attacking the heavy defenses expected of the German Siegfried Line.

The 105mm T5E1 gun selected was known to have good performance against concrete and "expected to be effective at reducing heavy fortifications" After the vehicle passed trials, the German Siegfried Line had been infiltrated and overwhelmed by the allied forces, so the designers decided to have the T28/T95 tanks to fight on the Japanese mainland in the war. Japan surrendered; the need for an assault tank was first identified in 1943, Ordnance proposing that 25 vehicles could be ready for operations. A conference in March 1944 between Ordnance Department and Army Ground Forces resulted in agreement to build five; the Pacific Car and Foundry Company were supplied with the design in March 1945, completed final design and had the first hull welded by August. By the time the first tank was completed and ready for combat, the war was over; the plan for five was reduced to two. As it did not have a turret, but a fixed casemate mount instead for its main armament, the 105 mm gun fitted could only elevate from 19.5° to −5° and traverse from 10° right to 11° left of the centerline, the T28/T95 more resembled a self-propelled gun, was redesignated as "T95 Gun Motor Carriage" in 1945, but in June 1946, the vehicle was redesignated again as "Super Heavy Tank T28".

Two prototypes of the T28 were built. They underwent evaluation at the Aberdeen Proving Ground and Fort Knox facilities until 1947. In 1947, one of the T28s was damaged by an engine fire during trials at Yuma Proving Ground and was broken up and sold for scrap; the T28 never went into service due to the obsolete design, expensive maintenance costs, the heavy weight, which prevented it from being transported across seas, but was retained to test the "durability of components on such a heavy vehicle". Work on it ended before completion as the War Department decided to stop the development of vehicles of that sort of weight and the T28 program terminated in October 1947. By that point, the T29 and T30 turreted; the T29 mounted the same gun as the T28 in a conventional rotating turret. The T30 was developed with more powerful engine; the T29 program was used to test mechanical components for future tank designs In 1974, the last prototype was discovered abandoned in a field at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

Camouflaged in the middle of some bushes, it is unknown. It is the sole remaining example of these tanks and was exhibited at the Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor in Kentucky. In 2011, it was shipped to its new home at Georgia, it was placed in the new Patton Park, a plot of 30 acres where all of the tanks being stored at Fort Benning are now displayed. The vehicle was damaged in January 2017 during transit to another facility for external refurbishment when it broke loose from the M1070 HET carrying it; the transporter failed to negotiate a downhill slope and subsequent turn at a safe speed, causing the securing chains to break and allowing the T28 to slide off the trailer. Despite rolling into a ditch, only minor repairable damage was sustained to two bogies; the outer track units had been removed. The mechanical superstructure was taken from a T23; the original plan was to build five prototype vehicles, with a production total of 25. Its total weight when equipped would have reached 95 short tons.

To lower ground pressure, instead of two tracks, it used four tracks that projected forward of the hull, each 12.9 inches wide. The outer tracks could be detached within two hours for rail transport: After removal, they could be fixed together to make a unit that could be towed behind the tank. Due to its extreme weight and low engine power, the T28 had limited obstacle-crossing ability and could not cross any of the portable bridges available at the time, so was considered impractical in the field and not suitable for production; the T28 had no conventional turret, with a casemate style hull instead, giving it a comparatively low profile, as the examples of the enclosed Jagdpanzer-family of German tank destroyers, not dissimilar to the 50 short-ton weight German Jagdpanther. Its main armament was a 105 mm T5E1 gun, in a ball-shaped gun mantlet set into the vertical hull front; the traverse was limited to 10° right and 11° left, elevation from 19.5° to −5°. When traveling, the gun was locked at the maximum elevation.

The only other armament was a.50 cal. M2 Browning machi