Fang Lizhi was a Chinese astrophysicist, vice-president of the University of Science and Technology of China, activist whose liberal ideas inspired the pro-democracy student movement of 1986–87 and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Because of his activism, he was expelled from the Communist Party of China in January 1987. For his work, Fang was a recipient of the Robert F Kennedy Human Rights Award in 1989, given each year to an individual whose courageous activism is at the heart of the human rights movement and in the spirit of Robert F. Kennedy's vision and legacy, he was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1980, but it was revoked after 1989. Fang was born on 12 February 1936 in Beijing, his father worked on the railway. In 1948, one year before the PLA took over the city, as a student of the Beijing No.4 High School, he joined an underground youth organization, associated to CCP. One of his extracurricular activities was assembling radio receivers from used parts.
In 1952, he enrolled in the Physics Department at Peking University. There he fell in love with his future wife, Li Shuxian. Both Fang and Li were among the top students in their class, he joined CCP upon graduation, worked the Institute of Modern Physics and became involved in the secret atomic bomb program of China, while Li stayed at Peking University as a junior faculty. In 1957, during the Hundred Flowers Campaign, people were encouraged by the CCP to express their opinions and criticisms; as party members, Li, Fang and another person in the physics department planned to write a letter to the party to offer their suggestions on education. This letter was still unfinished by the time the Hundred Flowers Campaign abruptly came to an end and the Anti-Rightist Campaign started; the opinions and criticisms solicited during the earlier campaign were interpreted as "attacks on the party", those who expressed such opinions were labelled "rightist" and persecuted. Although no one knew about the unfinished letter, out of loyalty to the party, the three naive young people confessed about it, Li confessed to the party her doubts on the party.
Li was expelled from the party, was sentenced to hard labour at Zhaitang near Beijing. Fang was not expelled from the party, because he played a lesser role in writing the letter, because he had left Peking University, where the punishment was severe. Still, he was removed from the nuclear program, sent to do hard labour in Zanhuang, Hebei province from December 1957 to August 1958. Out of political pressure, Li and Fang put their relationship on hold until early 1959, when Fang was expelled from the party. Fang was reassigned to the faculty of the University of Science and Technology of China in August 1958, in 1961 married Li, who remained a faculty of Peking University. In spite of his experience in the anti-Rightist campaign, he published an article in the Guangming Daily, encouraging the independent thinking of students. Fang published his first research paper on nuclear physics in Acta Physica Sinica 17, p. 57 under the pseudonym Wang Yunran, since as a rightist he was not entitled to publish research papers.
With the recommendation of Qian Linzhao, he became an associated member of a research group led by Professor Li Yinyuan at the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since Professor Li Yinyuan's group was located at a different institute, this arrangement took advantage of a loophole in management rules, allowing him to publish papers under his own name. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, Fang conducted research in particle physics, solid state physics and laser physics. By 1965, he had published 13 research papers and was considered one of the most productive physics researchers in China; that year, as part of the effort of cleansing Peking of "undesirable elements", Fang was to be removed from the faculty of USTC and sent to work in an electronics factory in Liaoning province. Learning about this, vice president Prof. Yan Jici intervened on Fang's behalf. Academic activities were interrupted when the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966. In 1969, along with other universities and research institutes, the USTC was ordered to be evacuated out of Beijing, ostensibly in anticipation of an impending Soviet Union invasion.
USTC was moved to the capital of Anhui Province, where it remains to this day. Upon arriving in Hefei in 1969, along with other "problematic members" of the faculty, were sent to do hard labour for "re-education by the worker class" in a coal mine. Fang secretly brought with him one physics book, the "Classical Theory of Fields" by Lev Landau and learned the theory of general relativity by reading this book in the evening. In 1971, along with a number of other faculty members, he was assigned to do labour work in a brick factory, which produced the bricks for constructing the USTC university buildings. In 1972, the Cultural Revolution calmed down a bit, scientific research resumed. Fang found an opportunity to read some recent astrophysics papers in western journals, soon wrote his first paper on cosmology, "A Cosmological Solution in Scalar-tensor Theory with Mass and Blackbody Radiation", published on the journal Wu Li, Vol. 1, 163. This was the first modern cosmological research paper in mainland China.
Fang assembled a group of young faculty members of USTC around him to conduct astrophysics research. At the time, conducting research on relativity theory and cosmology in China was risky politically, because these theories were co
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
University of California, Riverside
The University of California, Riverside, is a public research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system; the main campus sits on 1,900 acres in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres in Palm Desert. In 1907 the predecessor to UCR was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months; some of the world's most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside. UCR's undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954; the Regents of the University of California declared UCR a general campus of the system in 1959, graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999.
Preliminary accreditation of the UC Riverside School of Medicine granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years. UCR is ranked as one of the most ethnically and economically diverse universities in the United States; the 2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UCR tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UCR's academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UCR 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility and community service, while U. S. News ranks UCR as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants, the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UCR students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity.
UCR's extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a "university of choice" for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option. UCR's sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UCR women's basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men's baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001. At the turn of the 20th century, Southern California was a major producer of citrus, the region's primary agricultural export; the industry developed from the country's first navel orange trees, planted in Riverside in 1873. Lobbied by the citrus industry, the UC Regents established the UC Citrus Experiment Station on February 14, 1907, on 23 acres of land on the east slope of Mount Rubidoux in Riverside.
The station conducted experiments in fertilization and crop improvement. In 1917, the station was moved to 475 acres near Box Springs Mountain; the 1944 passage of the GI Bill during World War II set in motion a rise in college enrollments that necessitated an expansion of the state university system in California. A local group of citrus growers and civic leaders, including many UC Berkeley alumni, lobbied aggressively for a UC-administered liberal arts college next to the CES. State Senator Nelson Dilworth, former Assemblyman Philip L. Boyd and Riverside State Assemblyman John Babbage were instrumental in shepherding the legislation through the State Legislature. Governor Earl Warren signed the bill in 1949. Gordon S. Watkins, dean of the College of Letters and Science at UCLA, became the first provost of the new college at Riverside. Conceived of as a small college devoted to the liberal arts, he ordered the campus built for a maximum of 1,500 students and recruited many young junior faculty to fill teaching positions.
He presided at its opening with 65 faculty and 127 students on February 14, 1954, remarking, "Never have so few been taught by so many."UCR's enrollment exceeded 1,000 students by the time Clark Kerr became president of the UC system in 1958. Anticipating a "tidal wave" in enrollment growth required by the baby boom generation, Kerr developed the California Master Plan for Higher Education and the Regents designated Riverside a general university campus in 1959. UCR's first chancellor, Herman Theodore Spieth, oversaw the beginnings of the school's transition to a full university and its expansion to a capacity of 5,000 students. UCR's second chancellor, Ivan Hinderaker led the campus through the era of the free speech movement and kept student protests peaceful in Riverside. According to a 1998 interview with Hinderaker, the city of Riverside received negative press coverage for smog after the mayor asked Governor Ronald Reagan to declare the South Coast Air Basin a disaster area in 1971. Hinderaker's development of innovative programs in business administration and biomedical sciences created incentive for enough students to enroll at Riverside to keep the campus open.
In the 1990s, the UC experienced a new surge of enrollment applications, now known as "Tidal Wave II". The Regents targeted UCR for an annual growth rate of 6.3%, the fastest in th
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Andrew J. Nathan
Andrew J. Nathan is a professor of political science at Columbia University, he specializes in foreign policy, human rights and political culture. Nathan attended Harvard University, where he earned a B. A. in history, an M. A. in East Asian Studies, a Ph. D. in Political Science. He has taught at Columbia University since 1971, serves as the chair of the steering committee for the Center for the Study of Human Rights, his previous appointments include as the chair of the Department of Political Science, chair of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute. Nathan serves as an advisor or board member with Freedom House, Human Rights in China, the National Endowment for Democracy and Human Rights Watch Asia and is a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Democracy, China Quarterly, the Journal of Contemporary China, among others. Nathan is best known as a co-author of the Tiananmen Papers, along with Perry Link, he was awarded a 2013 Berlin Prize Fellowship at the American Academy in Berlin. A History of the China International Famine Relief Commission..
Peking Politics, 1918-1923: Factionalism and the Failure of Constitutionalism.. Reprinted: Ann Arbor, Mich.: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1998. ISBN 0520027841. Chinese Democracy.. ISBN 039451386X. with David G. Johnson and Evelyn Sakakida Rawski, ed. Popular Culture in Late Imperial China.. ISBN 0520051203. Human Rights in Contemporary China China's Crisis with Robert Ross, The Great Wall and the Empty Fortress: China's Search for Security China's Transition with Perry Link, The Tiananmen Papers Negotiating Culture and Human Rights: Beyond Universalism and Relativism with Bruce Gilley, China's New Rulers: The Secret Files Constructing Human Rights in the Age of Globalization How East Asians View Democracy with Robert Ross, The Great Wall and the Empty Fortress, second edition with Andrew Scobell. China's Search for Security.. ISBN 0231140509. WorldCat Identity Page Andrew J. Nathan Andrew J. Nathan at the American Academy Berlin as Axel Springer Fellow