Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Strip District, Pittsburgh
The Strip District is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is a one-half square mile area of land northeast of the central business district bordered to the north by the Allegheny River and to the south by portions of the Hill District; the Strip District runs between 11th and 33rd Streets and includes three main thoroughfares — Smallman St. Penn Ave. and Liberty Ave. — as well as various side streets. In the early 19th century, the Strip District was home to many mills and factories as its location along the Allegheny River made for easy transportation of goods and shipping of raw materials, it was the home of the Fort Pitt Foundry, source of large cannons before and during the American Civil War, including a 20-inch bore Rodman Gun. Early industrial tenants of the Strip District included U. S. Steel, The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, The H. J. Heinz Company, famous ketchup and condiment manufacturer; the shipping infrastructure built around the manufacturing companies attracted other types of merchants to set up shop in the Strip.
By the early 20th century, the Strip District became a vibrant network of wholesalers—mostly fresh produce and poultry dealers. Soon, auction houses rose around the wholesale warehouses. Many restaurants and grocery stores opened to feed hungry shift workers at any hour of the day. By the 1920s, the Strip District was the economic center of Pittsburgh. By the mid-to-late 20th century, fewer of the Strip's products were being shipped by rail and boat, causing many produce sellers and wholesalers to leave the area for other space with easier access to highways, or where there was more land available for expansion. In the early 21st century, there are still several wholesalers and produce dealers in the Strip District, but some estimates say more than 80% of the produce industry left the area, preceded by the manufacturing plants and mills in the mid to late 20th century restructuring of industry. Today, many of the abandoned warehouses have been renovated as small specialty shops, restaurants and bars.
The historic St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, an 1891 landmark built in the ornate Polish Cathedral style, lies in the heart of the Strip District and served early generations of Polish immigrants. Since the late 20th century, the area has developed into a historic market district with many ethnic food purveyors, some art studios, antique dealers, unique boutiques, other businesses setting up shop where trains once delivered produce by the ton; the lack of weekday activity is in someways compensated by retail and leisure facilities which are used on weekends. In the summer months, there are open-air farmers' markets, a range of street vendors and facilities to enjoy open air drinks. Residential developers have begun to convert old factory and warehouse buildings into apartments and lofts. Examples include the Armstrong Cork Factory, Brake House Lofts, the Otto Milk Building. A mixed-use tower is planned for the Ayoob Fruit Warehouse site. More the area has attracted a number of technology companies and become a hotbed for autonomous vehicle and robotics technology.
The area is home to Uber's Advanced Technology Group, which leads the company's vehicular automation efforts, as well Argo AI and Aurora Innovation. Other technology companies with offices in the strip district include Apple, Robert Bosch GmbH, Target Corporation, Wombat Security, JazzHR, BossaNova Robotics; the Strip District has five land borders, including Downtown to the southwest, Crawford-Roberts, Bedford Dwellings and Polish Hill to the south, Lower Lawrenceville to the northeast. Across the Allegheny River, the Strip runs adjacent with the North Shore and Troy Hill with direct links to both neighborhoods via 16th Street and 31st Street Bridges, respectively. Wholey's Pittsburgh Public Market Enrico Biscotti Company Simcoach Games Heinz History Center Primanti Brothers Washington Post article Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Kadushin, Raphael. "15222: Come Hungry". National Geographic. Pp. 114–122. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
Riverview Park (Pittsburgh)
Riverview Park is the fourth largest municipal park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The park is located four miles north of Downtown in the neighborhood of Perry North and consists of 251 acres. Riverview Park appears to be the first park in the city of Pennsylvania. Allegheny City created it in response to the City of Pittsburgh's creation of Schenley Park; the land the Riverview Park occupies was known as Watson's Farm. Mayor William M. Kennedy and the residents of Allegheny City pooled their money and purchased Watson's farm in 1894 and donated the land to the City of Allegheny; when the park first opened, it had "meadows and grassy hills" as compared to the somewhat unmanaged landscape that park visitors enjoy today. The park had a small zoo, an elk paddock, a bear pit, a merry-go round, an amphitheatre. Today many of these structures are gone, but a stroll into some of the now undeveloped areas of the park may have you find some of these mementos of the past; the park now has a public pool, a playground, the only equestrian path in the City Park system, various shelters, the Allegheny Observatory, summertime concerts and movies.
Riverview Park Map Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Pittsburgh Dept. of Parks & Recreation website Riverview Park Overview at the Pittsburgh City Council Website Riverview Park History at Pittsburgh Parks Conservancy
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Brunot Island is a 129-acre island in the Ohio River. It is part of the Marshall-Shadeland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States, it was named for Dr. Felix Brunot; the family entertained the Lewis and Clark expedition on the island in August 1803. The island is home to the Brunot Island Generating Station, a 315 MW fossil fuel power plant; the Ohio Connecting Railroad Bridge crosses the Ohio River at the island. The island does not otherwise connect to the land, all vehicular traffic must use a ferry to access the island; the employees of the power plant use a pedestrian walkway on the railroad bridge to go to work. The walkway is not accessible to the public. From 1903 to 1914, the island was the home of Brunots Island Race Track. Type: Fossil fuel. Airgun Accident
Oliver Hazard Perry
Oliver Hazard Perry was an American naval commander, born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. He was the son of Sarah Wallace Alexander and United States Navy Captain Christopher Raymond Perry and the older brother of Commodore Matthew C. Perry. Perry served in the West Indies during the Quasi War of 1798–1800 against France, in the Mediterranean during the Barbary Wars of 1801–1815, in the Caribbean fighting piracy and the slave trade, but is most noted for his heroic role in the War of 1812 during the 1813 Battle of Lake Erie. During the war against Britain, Perry supervised the building of a fleet at Pennsylvania, he earned the title "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, receiving a Congressional Gold Medal and the Thanks of Congress. His leadership materially aided the successful outcomes of all nine Lake Erie military campaign victories, the victory was a turning point in the battle for the west in the war, he is remembered for the words on his battle flag, "Don't Give Up the Ship", a tribute to the dying command of his colleague Captain James Lawrence of USS Chesapeake.
He is known for his message to General William Henry Harrison which reads in part, "We have met the enemy and they are ours. Perry became embroiled in a long-standing and bitter controversy with the commander of USS Niagara, Captain Jesse Elliott, over their conduct in the Battle of Lake Erie, both were the subject of official charges. In 1815, he commanded Java in the Mediterranean during the Second Barbary War. So seminal was his career, he has been memorialized, many places and persons have been named in his honor. As a boy, Perry lived in Tower Hill, Rhode Island, sailing ships in anticipation of his future career as an officer in the United States Navy, he was the oldest of five boys born to Sarah Perry. Perry came from a long line of accomplished naval men from both sides of his family, his mother taught Perry and his younger brothers to read and write and had them attend Trinity Episcopal Church where he was baptized by Reverend William Smith on April 1, 1794 at the age of nine. Reverend Theodore Dehon, rector of the church from 1797 to 1810, had a significant influence on the young Perry.
He was educated in Rhode Island. Through his father's influence, Perry was appointed a midshipman in the United States Navy, at the age of thirteen, on April 7, 1799. Perry sailed aboard USS General Greene, of which his father was commanding officer, on her maiden voyage in June 1799; the ship made its first stop in Cuba, charged with receiving American merchant ships and providing escort from Havana to the United States. Perry's service aboard General Greene continued during the Quasi-War with France, he first experienced combat on February 9, 1800, off the coast of the French colony of Haiti, in a state of rebellion. During the First Barbary War, he served aboard USS Adams and was first lieutenant of USS Nautilus, he served under Captain John Rodgers on USS Constitution and USS Essex. He was placed in charge of construction of Rhode Island. Beginning in April 1809, he commanded the sloop USS Revenge, engaging in patrol duties to enforce the Embargo Act, as well as a successful raid to regain an American ship held in Spanish territory in Florida.
On January 9, 1811, Revenge was lost. "Seeing quickly that he could not save the vessel, turned his attention to saving the crew, after helping them down the ropes over the vessel's stern, he was the last to leave the vessel." The subsequent court-martial exonerated Perry. In January 2011, a team of divers claimed to have discovered the remains of Revenge, nearly 200 years to the day after it sank. Cannons from Revenge were salvaged by the U. S. Navy in 2017. Following the court-martial, Perry was given a leave of absence from the Navy. On May 5, 1811, he married Elizabeth Champlin Mason of Newport, Rhode Island, whom he had met at a dance in 1807, they enjoyed an extended honeymoon touring New England. The couple would have five children, with one dying in infancy. At the beginning of the War of 1812, the British Royal Navy controlled the Great Lakes, except for Lake Huron, while the United States Navy controlled Lake Champlain; the American naval forces were small, allowing the British to make many advances in the Great Lakes and northern New York waterways.
The roles played by commanders like Oliver Hazard Perry, at Lake Erie and Isaac Chauncey at Lake Ontario and Thomas Macdonough at Lake Champlain all proved vital to the naval effort. Naval historian E. B. Potter noted that "all naval officers of the day made a special study of Nelson's battles". Oliver Perry was no exception. At his request, he was given command of the American naval forces on Lake Erie during the war. Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton had charged prominent merchant seaman Daniel Dobbins with building the American fleet on Presque Isle Bay at Erie and Perry was named chief naval officer. Perry knew battle was coming, he "consciously followed Nelson's example in describing his battle plans to his captains." Perry's instructions were: Commanding officers are enjoined to pay attention in preserving their stations in the Line, in all cases to keep as near the Lawrence as possible.... Engage your designated adversary, in close action, at half cable's length. On September 10, 1813, Perry's command fought a successful fleet action against a squadron of the Royal Navy in the Battle of Lake Erie.
It was at the outse
Uptown or The Bluff is a neighborhood in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to the southeast of the city's Central Business District. It is bordered in the north by the Hill District and located across the Monongahela River from South Side; the predominant area zip code is 15219. This area is home to Mercy Hospital as well as Duquesne University, it includes a residential community, once flourishing during the first half of the 20th century. Uptown is the home of the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau 4 Engine and 4 Truck; the area was known to American frontiersmen and colonists as Ayer's Hill in honor of a fortification built by the English commander Ayers in the mid-1700s. Sometime near the Revolutionary War and throughout the 19th century the area was referred to as Boyd's Hill in the expanding frontier and than industrial city; the name is said to have been given to the neighborhood after a newly arrived businessman swayed by Hugh Brackenridge, left his downtown office and hanged himself on the hill.
The Uptown was first developed by James Tustin, an eccentric English émigré who built an estate in the area in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. His home featured an English taste in architecture and a fruit orchard, was acknowledged at the time to have been "the most beautiful place in Pittsburgh," according to a 1915 article in the Pittsburgh Gazette–Times. Tustin named his estate "Soho" after his previous residence in Britain, the name came to be applied to the neighborhood; the neighborhood was part of Pitt Township, but was annexed in 1846. The addition was precipitated by the city's efforts at regrowth following a cataclysmic fire in 1845, which destroyed 56 acres and 1,000 buildings. A 1922 guidebook, A History of Pittsburgh and Environs, noted that the area's houses were "old and not attractive, are populated by foreign mill workers and their families", a 1977 guide remarked that it was once "a pleasant residential area for many wealthy Pittsburghers" but "as industry moved in, the wealthy moved out".
The neighborhood was adversely affected by Pittsburgh's urban renewal campaign in the 1960s, in the estimation of some, "has never been reassembled". Construction projects in the area include expansion by Duquesne University, development surrounding the newly completed arena for the Pittsburgh Penguins. Fifth Avenue is home to law offices and a few restaurants, but vacant storefronts, rundown bars, small street parking lots for Downtown commuters are prevalent as well. Brick rowhouses are common in the neighborhood. There are significant efforts in the community to reassert a sense of identity, residents range from Downtown workers and long-time residents to university students and health professionals. Uptown has four land borders with Downtown Pittsburgh to the west and northwest, the Crawford-Roberts section of the Hill District to the north, West Oakland to the northeast and South Oakland to the east; the entire Bluff runs adjacent to the western section of the South Side Flats across the Monongahela River.
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Post Gazette article on the 19th century history of the area Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Post-Gazette on residential renovations in the Bluff