The Persian Empire refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th century BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era. The first dynasty of the Persian Empire was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC with the conquest of Median and Babylonian empires, it covered much of the Ancient world. Persepolis is the most famous historical site related to Persian Empire in the Achaemenid era and it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. From 247 BC to 224 AD, Persia was ruled by the Parthian Empire, which supplanted the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, by the Sassanian Empire, which ruled up until the mid-7th century; the Persian Empire in the Sasanian era was interrupted by the Arab conquest of Persia in 651 AD, establishing the larger Islamic caliphate, by the Mongol invasion. The main religion of ancient Persia was the native Zoroastrianism, but after the seventh century, it was replaced by Islam which achieved a majority in the 10th century.
The Safavid Empire was the first Persian Empire established after the Arab conquest of Persia by Shah Ismail I. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavid Persians established control over parts of Greater Persia/Iran and reasserted the Persian identity of the region, becoming the first native Persian dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a unified Persian state. Literature and architecture flourished in the Safavid era once again, it is cited as the "rebirth of the Persian Empire". Safavids announced Shia Islam as the official religion in the empire versus the Sunni Islam in the neighbouring Ottoman Empire. Achaemenid Empire Sasanian Empire Safavid dynasty Afsharid dynasty Qajar dynasty List of monarchs of Persia Iranian monarchy List of Iranian dynasties and countries Persia Iranian peoples Persian people List of tombs of Iranian people Briant, Pierre. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. University Park, Pennsylvania: Eisenbrauns. P. 15. ISBN 978-1575060316. DK. History of the World in 1,000 Objects.
London: DK. p. 71. ISBN 978-1465422897. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Persia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the dictionary definition of Persian Empire at Wiktionary Persian Empire travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Persian Empire at Wikimedia Commons
In Greek mythology, Andromeda is the daughter of the Aethiopian king Cepheus and his wife Cassiopeia. When Cassiopeia's hubris leads her to boast that Andromeda is more beautiful than the Nereids, Poseidon sends the sea monster Cetus to ravage Andromeda as divine punishment. Andromeda is chained to a rock as a sacrifice to sate the monster, but is saved from death by Perseus, her name is the Latinized form of the Greek Ἀνδρομέδα or Ἀνδρομέδη: "ruler of men", from ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός "man", medon, "ruler". As a subject, Andromeda has been popular in art since classical times. From the Renaissance, interest revived in the original story as derived from Ovid's account. In Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia and queen of the African kingdom of Aethiopia, her mother Cassiopeia boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids, the nymph-daughters of the sea god Nereus and seen accompanying Poseidon. To punish the queen for her arrogance, brother to Zeus and god of the sea, sent a sea monster named Cetus to ravage the coast of Aethiopia including the kingdom of the vain queen.
The desperate king consulted the Oracle of Apollo, who announced that no respite would be found until the king sacrificed his daughter, Andromeda, to the monster. She was chained to a rock on the coast. Perseus was returning from having slain Medusa. After he happened upon the chained Andromeda, he held up the head of medusa to the sea monster, turning it into a giant sand-stone statue, which dissolved into the waves, he set Andromeda free, married her in spite of her having been promised to her uncle Phineus. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the Gorgon's head. Andromeda followed her husband, first to his native island of Serifos, where he rescued his mother Danaë, to Tiryns in Argos. Together, they became the ancestors of the family of the Perseidae through the line of their son Perses. Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons: Perses, Heleus, Sthenelus and Cynurus as well as two daughters and Gorgophone, their descendants ruled Mycenae from Electryon down to Eurystheus, after whom Atreus attained the kingdom, would include the great hero Heracles.
According to this mythology, Perseus is the ancestor of the Persians. At the port city of Jaffa an outcrop of rocks near the harbour has been associated with the place of Andromeda's chaining and rescue by the traveler Pausanias, the geographer Strabo and the historian of the Jews Josephus. After Andromeda's death, as Euripides had promised Athena at the end of his Andromeda, produced in 412 BC, the goddess placed her among the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia. Andromeda was the daughter of the king and queen of Aethiopia, not to be confused with modern day Ethiopia, called Abyssinia during the time period of the story; the term Aethiopia, as a generic or ethnic designation, comprises the people who dwelt above the equator, between the Atlantic ocean and the Indian ocean. The etymology of the word Aithiop details a ‘sunburnt’ complexion as the word'Aithiops' is derived from the two Greek words, from αἴθω + ὤψ. Hecataeus of Miletus stated that Aethiopia was located to the east of the Nile, as far as the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Ancient Aithiopia was seen as a region that “many ancient writers liken to ancient India.” Homer places Aethiopia at the world’s edge, somewhere vaguely in Asia. In her 1992 article The Black Andromeda, Prof. Elizabeth McGrath discusses the idea of Andromeda being black based on Ovid's writings. Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote about the black Andromeda in a 2014 article for The Root magazine. In his article Gates points out the so-called ‘inaccuracies’ seen in the film Clash of the Titans; the original, the remake and the sequel all have Andromeda cast as a white woman when Ovid describes her as black and both her parents were black. In his book 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro Gates has at No 68: What was the original colour of the mythical beauty Andromeda - and why does it matter? The book is his homage to Joel Augustus Rogers 100 Amazing Facts About The Negro With Complete Proof. In his works, Ovid described Andromeda as having been of the colour black. In his first work, the Heroides or Epistulae Heroidum, Ovid uses the Latin word "fusca" to describe Andromeda, with “fusca” being used to describe the colour black or brown.
In the same work, Ovid has Sappho explain to Phaon: "though I'm not pure white, Cepheus's dark/Andromeda/charmed Perseus with her native colour. White doves choose mates of different hue and the parrot loves the black turtle dove." In his Ars Amatoria, Ovid mentions the following in regards to Andromeda: That Perseus found her among "the black Indians", in terms of attraction Andromeda's colouring was no problem to Perseus, that that when it came to fashion "White suits da
The Perseids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle. The meteors are called the Perseids because the point from which they appear to hail lies in the constellation Perseus; the name is derived from the sons of Perseus in Greek mythology. The stream of debris is called the Perseid cloud and stretches along the orbit of the comet Swift–Tuttle; the cloud consists of particles ejected by the comet. Most of the particles have been part of the cloud for around a thousand years. However, there is a young filament of dust in the stream, pulled off the comet in 1865, which can give an early mini-peak the day before the maximum shower; the dimensions of the cloud in the vicinity of the Earth are estimated to be 0.1 astronomical units across and 0.8 AU along the latter's orbit, spread out by annual interactions with the Earth's gravity. The shower is visible from mid-July each year, with the peak in activity between 9 and 14 August, depending on the particular location of the stream.
During the peak, the rate of meteors reaches 60 or more per hour. They can be seen all across the sky; as with many meteor showers the visible rate is greatest in the pre-dawn hours, since more meteoroids are scooped up by the side of the Earth moving forward into the stream, corresponding to local times between midnight and noon, as can be seen in the accompanying diagram. While many meteors arrive between dawn and noon, they are not visible due to daylight; some can be seen before midnight grazing the Earth's atmosphere to produce long bright trails and sometimes fireballs. Most Perseids burn up in the atmosphere while at heights above 80 kilometres; some Catholics refer to the Perseids as the "tears of Saint Lawrence", suspended in the sky but returning to earth once a year on August 10, the canonical date of that saint's martyrdom in 258 AD. The saint is said to have been burned alive on a gridiron, this tradition is certainly the origin of the Mediterranean folk legend that the shooting stars are the sparks of that fire and that during the night of August 9–10 its cooled embers appear in the ground under plants, which are known as the "coal of Saint Lawrence".
The transition in favor of the Catholic saint and his feast day on August 10 and away from pagan gods and their festivals, known as Christianization, was facilitated by the phonetic assonance of the Latin name Laurentius with Larentia. In 1835, Adolphe Quetelet identified the shower as emanating from the constellation Perseus. In 1866, after the perihelion passage of Swift-Tuttle in 1862, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli discovered the link between meteor showers and comets; the finding is contained in an exchange of letters with Angelo Secchi. In his song "Rocky Mountain High", American singer-songwriter John Denver refers to his experience watching the Perseid meteor shower during a family camping trip in the mountains near Aspen, with the chorus lyric, "I've seen it raining fire in the sky." In the popular Japanese band Sandaime J Soul Brothers's song "R. Y. U. S. E. I", they describe the Perseid meteor as falling like an evening rain shower – its shooting stars like raindrops pulling their tails behind them.
In the song “RPG,” by Japanese band Sekai no Owari, the narrator mentions watching the Perseid meteor shower on the night something “precious to them fell apart.” In his novel Against the Day, American novelist Thomas Pynchon refers to the Perseid meteor showers being watched by three characters west of the Dolores Valley after playing a game of tarot. Where to see the Perseids and public stargazing events in the UK Worldwide viewing times for the 2016 Perseids meteor shower All you need to know about the Perseid meteor shower How to photograph the Perseid meteor shower Perseid Observing Conditions 2014 Perseids Radio results Perseid Visibility Map 2009 Perseid Meteor Fireball NASA website on the Perseid shower of 2009 Sky & Telescope Magazine – Perseids at Their Prime 2012 Image of Perseids emanating from the radiant What are the perseids
In Greek mythology, Atreus was a king of Mycenae in the Peloponnese, the son of Pelops and Hippodamia, the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Collectively, his descendants are known as Atreidae. Atreus and his twin brother Thyestes were exiled by their father for murdering their half-brother Chrysippus in their desire for the throne of Olympia, they took refuge in Mycenae, where they ascended to the throne in the absence of King Eurystheus, fighting the Heracleidae. Eurystheus had meant for their stewardship to be temporary, but it became permanent after his death in battle. According to most ancient sources, Atreus was the father of Pleisthenes, but in some lyric poets Pleisthenides is used as an alternative name for Atreus himself; the word Atreides refers to one of the sons of Atreus -- Menelaus. The plural form Atreidai refers to both sons collectively; this term is sometimes used for more distant descendants of Atreus. The House of Atreus begins with Tantalus. Tantalus was a son of Zeus who enjoyed cordial relations with the gods until he decided to slay his son Pelops and feed him to the gods as a test of their omniscience.
Most of the gods, as they sat down to dinner with Tantalus understood what had happened, because they knew the nature of the meat they were served, were appalled and did not partake. But Demeter, distracted due to the abduction by Hades of her daughter Persephone, obliviously ate Pelops' shoulder; the gods threw Tantalus into the underworld, where he spends eternity standing in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree with low branches. Whenever he reaches for the fruit, the branches raise his intended meal from his grasp. Whenever he bends down to get a drink, the water recedes, thus is derived the word "tantalising". The gods brought Pelops back to life, replacing the bone in his shoulder with a bit of ivory with the help of Hephaestus, thus marking the family forever afterwards. Pelops married Hippodamia after winning a chariot race against her father, King Oenomaus, by arranging for the sabotage of his would-be-father-in-law's chariot and resulting in his death; the versions of the story differ.
The sabotage was arranged by Myrtilus, a servant of the king, killed by Pelops for one of three reasons: because he had been promised the right to take Hippodamia's virginity, which Pelops retracted, because he attempted to rape her or because Pelops did not wish to share the credit for the victory. As Myrtilus died, he cursed his line, further adding to the house's curse. Pelops and Hippodamia had many sons. Depending on myth versions, they murdered Chrysippus, their half-brother; because of the murder, Hippodamia and Thyestes were banished to Mycenae, where Hippodamia is said to have hanged herself. Atreus vowed to sacrifice his best lamb to Artemis. Upon searching his flock, Atreus discovered a golden lamb which he gave to his wife, Aerope, to hide from the goddess, she gave it to Thyestes, her lover and Atreus' brother, who convinced Atreus to agree that whoever had the lamb should be king. Thyestes claimed the throne. Atreus retook the throne using advice. Thyestes agreed to give the kingdom back when the sun moved backwards in the sky, a feat that Zeus accomplished.
Atreus retook banished Thyestes. Atreus learned of Thyestes' and Aerope's adultery and plotted revenge, he cooked them, save their hands and feet. He tricked Thyestes into eating the flesh of his own sons and taunted him with their hands and feet. Thyestes was forced into exile for eating the flesh of a human. Thyestes responded by asking an oracle what to do, who advised him to have a son by his daughter, who would kill Atreus. However, when Aegisthus was first born, he was abandoned by his mother, ashamed of the incestuous act. A shepherd found the infant gave him to Atreus, who raised him as his own son. Only as he entered adulthood did Thyestes reveal the truth to Aegisthus, that he was both father and grandfather to the boy. Aegisthus killed Atreus, although not before Atreus and Aerope had had two sons and Menelaus, a daughter Anaxibia. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra, Menelaus married Helen, her famously attractive sister. Helen left Sparta with Paris of Troy, Menelaus called on all of his wife's former suitors to help him take her back.
Prior to sailing off to war against Troy, Agamemnon had angered the goddess Artemis because he had killed a sacred deer in a sacred grove, had boasted that he was a better hunter than she was. When the time came, Artemis stilled the winds. A prophet named Calchas told him that in order to appease Artemis, Agamemnon would have to sacrifice the most precious thing that had come to his possession in the year he killed the sacred deer; this was Iphigenia. He sent word home for her to come. Iphigenia was honored to be a part of the war. Clytemnestra was sent away. After doing the deed, Agamemnon's fleet was able to get under way. While he was fighting the Trojans, his wife Clytemnestra, enraged by the murder of her daughter, began an affair with Aegisthus; when Agamemnon returned home he brought with him the doomed prophetess, Cassandra. Upon his arrival that evening, before the great banq
Zeus is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter, his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun and Thor. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is said to have fathered Ares and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad states that he fathered Aphrodite. Zeus was infamous for his erotic escapades; these resulted in many divine and heroic offspring, including Athena, Artemis, Persephone, Perseus, Helen of Troy and the Muses. He was respected as an allfather, chief of the gods and assigned the others to their roles: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, all the gods rise in his presence."
He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". Zeus' symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty; the god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ. Diogenes Laërtius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς. Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky called *Dyeus ph2tēr; the god is known under this name in the Rigveda, deriving from the root *dyeu-. Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology; the earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek, di-we and, di-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script.
Plato, in his Cratylus, gives a folk etymology of Zeus meaning "cause of life always to all things," because of puns between alternate titles of Zeus with the Greek words for life and "because of." This etymology, along with Plato's entire method of deriving etymologies, is not supported by modern scholarship. Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Hera and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by his son as he had overthrown Uranus, his own father, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished to avert; when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed. Varying versions of the story exist: According to Hyginus ) Zeus was raised by a nymph named Amalthea. Since Saturn ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
According to Pseudo-Apollodorus ) Zeus was raised by a goat named Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Antron. A a company of soldiers called Kouretes danced and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry. After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus's stomach open. Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe; as a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, hidden by Gaia. Together, his brothers and sisters and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy; the defeated Titans were cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.
After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, Hades the world of the dead. The ancient Earth, could not be claimed. Gaia resented. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna, he left Echidna and her children alive. When Zeus was atop Mount Olympus he was appalled by human sac
Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from 1600–1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art, writing system; the most prominent site was Mycenae, in the Argolid. Other centers of power that emerged included Pylos, Midea in the Peloponnese, Thebes, Athens in Central Greece and Iolcos in Thessaly. Mycenaean and Mycenaean-influenced settlements appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant and Italy; the Mycenaean Greeks introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean was essential for the Mycenaean economy. Their syllabic script, the Linear B, offers the first written records of the Greek language and their religion included several deities that can be found in the Olympic Pantheon. Mycenaean Greece was dominated by a warrior elite society and consisted of a network of palace-centered states that developed rigid hierarchical, political and economic systems.
At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization. Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the "Sea Peoples". Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been suggested; the Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle. The Bronze Age in mainland Greece is termed as the "Helladic period" by modern archaeologists, after Hellas, the Greek name for Greece; this period is divided into three subperiods: The Early Helladic period was a time of prosperity with the use of metals and a growth in technology and social organization.
The Middle Helladic period faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type dwellings and cist grave burials. The Late Helladic period coincides with Mycenaean Greece; the Late Helladic period is further divided into LHI and LHII, both of which coincide with the early period of Mycenaean Greece, LHIII, the period of expansion and collapse of the Mycenaean civilization. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean; the decipherment of the Mycenaean Linear B script, a writing system adapted for the use of the Greek language of the Late Bronze Age, demonstrated the continuity of Greek speech from the second millennium BC into the eighth century BC when a new script emerged. Moreover, it revealed that the bearers of Mycenaean culture were ethnically connected with the populations that resided in the Greek peninsula after the end of this cultural period. Various collective terms for the inhabitants of Mycenaean Greece were used by Homer in his 8th century BC epic, the Iliad, in reference to the Trojan War.
The latter was supposed to have happened in the late 13th – early 12th century BC, when a coalition of small Greek states under the king of Mycenae, besieged the walled city of Troy. Homer used the ethnonyms Achaeans and Argives, to refer to the besiegers; these names appear to have passed down from the time they were in use to the time when Homer applied them as collective terms in his Iliad. There is an isolated reference to a-ka-wi-ja-de in the Linear B records in Knossos, Crete dated to c. 1400 BC, which most refers to a Mycenaean state on the Greek mainland. Egyptian records mention a T-n-j or Danaya land for the first time c. 1437 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmoses III. This land is geographically defined in an inscription from the reign of Amenhotep III, where a number of Danaya cities are mentioned, which cover the largest part of southern mainland Greece. Among them, cities such as Mycenae and Thebes have been identified with certainty. Danaya has been equated with the ethnonym Danaoi, the name of the mythical dynasty that ruled in the region of Argos used as an ethnonym for the Greek people by Homer.
In the official records of another Bronze Age empire, that of the Hittites in Anatolia, various references from c. 1400 BC to 1220 BC mention a country named Ahhiyawa. Recent scholarship, based on textual evidence, new interpretations of the Hittite inscriptions, as well as on recent surveys of archaeological evidence about Mycenaean-Anatolian contacts during this period, concludes that the term Ahhiyawa must have been used in reference to the Mycenaean world, or at least to a part of it; this term may have had broader connotations in some texts referring to all regions settled by Mycenaeans or regions under direct Mycenaean political control. Another similar ethnonym Ekwesh in twelfth century BC Egyptian inscriptions, has been identified with the Ahhiyawans; these Ekwesh were mentioned as a group of the Sea People. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic period in mainland Greece under influences from Minoan Crete. Towards the end of the Middl
In Greek mythology, Eurystheus was king of Tiryns, one of three Mycenaean strongholds in the Argolid, although other authors including Homer and Euripides cast him as ruler of Argos. Eurystheus was the son of Sthenelus and Nicippe, he was a grandson of the hero Perseus, as was his opponent Heracles, he was married to daughter of Amphidamas. In the contest of wills between Hera and Zeus over whose candidate would be hero, fated to defeat the remaining creatures representing an old order and bring about the reign of the Twelve Olympians, Eurystheus was Hera's candidate and Heracles – though his name implies that at one archaic stage of myth-making he had carried "Hera's fame" – was the candidate of Zeus; the arena for the actions that would bring about this deep change are the Twelve Labors imposed on Heracles by Eurystheus. The immediate necessity for the Labours of Heracles is as penance for Heracles' murder of his own family, in a fit of madness, sent by Hera. Details of the individual episodes may be found in the article on the Labours of Heracles, but Hera was connected with all of the opponents Heracles had to overcome.
Heracles' human stepfather Amphitryon was a grandson of Perseus, since Amphitryon's father was older than Eurystheus' father, he might have received the kingdom, but Sthenelus had banished Amphitryon for accidentally killing the eldest son in the family. When, shortly before his son Heracles was born, Zeus proclaimed the next-born descendant of Perseus should get the kingdom, Hera thwarted his ambitions by delaying Alcmene's labour and having her candidate Eurystheus born prematurely. Heracles' first task was to slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its skin, which Heracles decided to wear. Eurystheus was so scared by Heracles' fearsome guise that he hid in a subterranean bronze winejar, from that moment forth all labors were communicated to Heracles through a herald, Copreus. For his second labour, to slay the Lernaean Hydra, Heracles took with him his nephew, Iolaus, as a charioteer; when Eurystheus found out that Heracles' nephew had helped him he declared that the labour had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the ten labours set for him.
Eurystheus' third task did not involve killing a beast, but capturing one alive - the Ceryneian Hind, a golden-horned stag sacred to Artemis. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind, as he had promised, to Artemis, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. Eurystheus did come out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, she sprinted back to her mistress, Heracles departed, saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough; when Heracles returned with the Erymanthian Boar, Eurystheus was again frightened and hid in his jar, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast. The fifth labour proposed by Eurystheus was to clear out the numerous stables of Augeias. Striking a deal with Augeias, Heracles proposed a payment of a tenth of Augeias' cattle if the labour was completed successfully. Not believing the task feasible, Augeias agreed. Heracles rerouted two nearby rivers through the stable; when Augeias learned of Heracles' bargain for the task, he refused payment.
Heracles brought the case to court, Phyleus testified against his father. Enraged, Augeias banished both Phyleus and Heracles from the land before the court had cast their vote. However, Eurystheus refused to credit the labour to Heracles. So Heracles drove Augeias out of the kingdom and installed Phyleus as king. Heracles took his tenth of the cattle and left them to graze in a field by his home. For his sixth labour, Heracles had to drive the Stymphalian Birds off the marshes, he did so, shooting down several birds with his Hydra-poisoned arrows and bringing them back to Eurystheus as proof. For his seventh labour, Heracles captured the Cretan Bull, he rode it back to his cousin. Eurystheus offered to sacrifice the bull to Hera his patron, she refused the sacrifice. The bull was wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull; when Heracles brought back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes Eurystheus dedicated the horses to Hera and allowed them to roam in the Argolid. Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse, was said to be descended from these mares.
To acquire the belt of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons was Heracles ninth task. This task was at the request of Admete. For the tenth labour, he stole the cattle of the giant Geryon, which Eurystheus had sacrificed to Hera. To extend what may have once been ten Labours to the canonical dozen, it was said that Eurystheus didn't count the Hydra, as he was assisted, nor the Augean stables, as Heracles received payment for his work. For the eleventh labour Heracles had to obtain the Apples of the Hesperides. For his final labour, he was to capture Cerberus, the three-headed hound that guarded the entrance to Hades; when he managed to bring the struggling animal back, the terrified Eurystheus hid in his jar one more time, begging Heracles to leave for good and take the dog with him. After Heracles died, Eurystheus remained bitter over the ind