Media is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes. During the Achaemenid period, it comprised present-day Azarbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan and western Tabaristan; as a satrapy under Achaemenid rule, it would encompass a wider region, stretching to southern Dagestan in the north. However, after the wars of Alexander the Great, the northern parts were separated due to the Partition of Babylon and became known as Atropatene, while the remaining region became known as Lesser Media. In 678 BC, Deioces made the first Iranian empire, his grandson Cyaxares managed to unite all Iranian tribes of Ancient Iran and made his empire a major power. When Cyaxares died he was succeeded by his son, the last king of the Median empire. In 553 BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandfather, the Median King, Astyages son of Cyaxares. After Cyrus's victory against Astyages, the Medes were subjected to the Persians. In the new empire they retained a prominent position.
At the beginning the Greek historians referred to the Achaemenid Empire as a Median empire. After the assassination of the usurper Smerdis, a Mede Fravartish, claiming to be a scion of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Mede kingdom, but was defeated by the Persian generals and executed in Ecbatana. Another rebellion, in 409 BC, against Darius II was of short duration, but the Iranian tribes to the north the Cadusii, were always troublesome. Under Persian rule, the country was divided into two satrapies: the south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae, Media proper, or Greater Media, as it is called, formed in Darius I the Great's organization the eleventh satrapy, together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians. Caucasian Albania was incorporated by the Achaemenid Persians and were under the command of the satrapy of Media in the period; when the Persian empire decayed and the Cadusii and other mountainous tribes made themselves independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while Assyria seems to have been united with Media.
Following Alexander's invasion of the satrapy of Media in the summer of 330 BC, he appointed as satrap a former general of Darius III the Great named Atropates in 328 BC, according to Arrian. In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Peithon. While southern Media, with Ecbatana, passed to the rule of Antigonus, afterwards to Seleucus I, Atropates maintained himself in his own satrapy and succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, thus the partition of the country, that Persia had introduced, became lasting. The capital of Atropatene was Gazaca in the central plain, the castle Phraaspa, discovered on the Araz river by archaeologists in April 2005. Atropatene is that country of western Asia, least of all other countries influenced by Hellenism. Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid Empire for a century and a half, Hellenism was introduced everywhere. Media was surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in pursuance of Alexander's plan to protect it from neighboring barbarians, according to Polybius.
Only Ecbatana retained its old character. But Rhagae became the Greek town Europus. Most of them were founded by Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I. In 221 BC, the satrap Molon tried to make himself independent, together with his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed by Antiochus the Great. In the same way, the Mede satrap Timarchus conquered Babylonia, but with Demetrius I, the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire began, brought about chiefly by the intrigues of the Romans, shortly afterwards, in about 150, the Parthian king Mithradates I conquered Media. From this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids or Parthians, who changed the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsacia, divided the country into five small provinces. From the Parthians, it passed in 226 to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene; the Medes spoke Median, a Northwestern Iranian language
Qom is the seventh metropolis and the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province, it is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158, it is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida; the city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world. Qom is famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as Sohan, considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops. Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran, it is a regional centre for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf.
Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran. Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south on a low plain; the shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, comprising 528,332 women. Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiʿah both around the globe. Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten Marja'-e taqlid or "Source to be Followed" that reside there; the number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty.
Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Another popular religious site of pilgrimage outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Qom. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Naraq, Pardisan City and Jasb; the surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh and Ashtian and Jafarieh. Qom has a hot desert climate with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Summer weather is hot and rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972.
The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Excavations at Tepe Sialk indicate that the region had been settled since ancient times, more recent surveys have revealed traces of large inhabited places south of Qom, dating from the 4th and 1st millennium BC. While nothing is known about the area from Elamite and Achaemenid times, there are significant archeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian epochs, of which the ruins of Khurha are the most famous and important remnants, their dating and function have instigated long and controversial debates and interpretations, for they have been interpreted and explained variously as the remains of a Sasanian temple, or of a Seleucid Dionysian temple, or of a Parthian complex. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times.
The published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building. Besides Khurha, mentioned as Khor Abad at Qomi in the 9th century, the region has turned up a few other remnants from this epoch, including the four Parthian heads found near Qom, now kept in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran. Qomi names Parthian personalities as founders of villages in the Qom area; the possible mention of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works remains doubtful. The Sasanian epoch offers many archeological findings and remnants, besides the fact that various sources mention Qom; the most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use. The wider surroundings of Qom contain numerous traces from palaces, religious and administrative buildings; some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who names many more fire temples in the urban area of present
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Clifford Edmund Bosworth
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies. Bosworth was born in Yorkshire, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Oxford and MA and PhD degrees from the University of Edinburgh. He held permanent posts at the University of St Andrews, University of Manchester, at the Center for the Humanities at Princeton University, he was a visiting professor at the University of Exeter, where he held the post since 2004. Bosworth died on 28 February 2015, Somerset, he is the author of hundreds of articles in composite volumes. His other contributions include nearly 200 articles in the Encyclopaedia of Islam and some 100 articles in the Encyclopædia Iranica, as well as articles for Encyclopædia Britannica and Encyclopedia Americana, he was the chief editor of the Encyclopaedia of Islam and a consulting editor of Encyclopædia Iranica. His book The Islamic Dynasties has been translated to Persian; the Ghaznavids, their empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran 994–1040, Edinburgh University Press 1963, 2nd ed. Beirut 1973, repr.
New Delhi 1992. The Islamic dynasties, a chronological and genealogical handbook, Edinburgh University Press 1967, revised ed. 1980. Sistan under the Arabs, from the Islamic conquest to the rise of the Saffarids, IsMEO, Rome 1968; the Book of curious and entertaining information, the Lata'if al-ma'arif of Tha'ālibī translated into English, Edinburgh University Press 1968. Iran and Islam, in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press 1971; the legacy of Islam, new edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. The mediaeval Islamic underworld, the Banu Sasan in Arabic society and literature, 2 vols. Brill, Leiden 1976; the medieval history of Iran and Central Asia, Collected Studies Series, London 1977. The Ghaznavids and decay: the dynasty in Afghanistan and northern India 1040–1186, Edinburgh University Press 1977, repr. New Delhi 1992 Al-Maqrizi's "Book of contention and strife concerning the relations between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim" translated into English, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs, 3, Manchester 1981.
Medieval Arabic culture and administration, Collected Studies Series, London 1982. Qajar Iran, political and cultural change 1800–1925, Edinburgh University Press 1984; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXII; the reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate. The caliphate of al-Ma'mun A. D. 812-833/A. H. 198–213, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1987; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXX; the Abbasid Caliphate in equilibrium. The caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A. D. 785-809/A. H. 169–193, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1989. Baha' al-Din al-Amili and his literary anthologies, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs 10, Manchester 1989; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXIII. Storm and stress along the northern frontiers of the Abbasid Caliphate; the caliphate of al-Mu'tas'im A. D. 833-842/A. H. 218–227, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1991. Richard Bell, A commentary on the Qur'an, University of Manchester 1991, 2 vols.
The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz, Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies no. 7, Costa Mesa, Calif. and New York 1994. The Arabs and Iran. Studies in early Islamic history and culture, Collected Studies Series, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot 1996; the New Islamic dynasties. A chronological and genealogical manual, Edinburgh University Press 1996; the UNESCO history of civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, The age of achievement. A. D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part 1, The historical and economic setting, Paris 1998. Part 2, The literary, cultural and scientific achievements, Paris 2000; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. V; the Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids and Yemen and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1999. A century of British orientalists 1902–2001, Oxford University Press for the British Academy 2001. Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarkh-i Mas'udi translated into English with a historical and linguistic commentary, to appear in the Persian Heritage Series, Columbia University, 3 volumes, New York, 2006.
Some 100 articles in learned journals, composite volumes, etc.. III, IV, V, in The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature, vols. I, III, in UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vols. IV, V. UNESCO Avicenna Silver Medal, 1998 Dr Mahmud Afshar Foundation Prize for contributions to Iranian Studies, 2001 Prize by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, for contributions to Iranian historical studies, 2003 Triennial Award, 2003 Curriculum vitae Works by or about Clifford Edmund Bosworth in libraries (World
Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days corresponding to most of Iraq, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders. The Sumerians and Akkadians dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, it fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians; the division of Mesopotamia between Roman and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines.
A number of neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene and Hatra. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC, it has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics and agriculture". The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος "middle" and ποταμός "river" and translates to " between two/the rivers", it is used throughout the Greek Septuagint to translate the Aramaic equivalent Naharaim. An earlier Greek usage of the name Mesopotamia is evident from The Anabasis of Alexander, written in the late 2nd century AD, but refers to sources from the time of Alexander the Great. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was used to designate the land east of the Euphrates in north Syria.
The Aramaic term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept. The term Mesopotamia was more applied to all the lands between the Euphrates and the Tigris, thereby incorporating not only parts of Syria but almost all of Iraq and southeastern Turkey; the neighbouring steppes to the west of the Euphrates and the western part of the Zagros Mountains are often included under the wider term Mesopotamia. A further distinction is made between Northern or Upper Mesopotamia and Southern or Lower Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia known as the Jazira, is the area between the Euphrates and the Tigris from their sources down to Baghdad. Lower Mesopotamia is the area from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf and includes Kuwait and parts of western Iran. In modern academic usage, the term Mesopotamia also has a chronological connotation, it is used to designate the area until the Muslim conquests, with names like Syria and Iraq being used to describe the region after that date. It has been argued that these euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th-century Western encroachments.
Mesopotamia encompasses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, both of which have their headwaters in the Taurus Mountains. Both rivers are fed by numerous tributaries, the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region. Overland routes in Mesopotamia follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are steep and difficult; the climate of the region is semi-arid with a vast desert expanse in the north which gives way to a 15,000-square-kilometre region of marshes, mud flats, reed banks in the south. In the extreme south, the Euphrates and the Tigris empty into the Persian Gulf; the arid environment which ranges from the northern areas of rain-fed agriculture to the south where irrigation of agriculture is essential if a surplus energy returned on energy invested is to be obtained. This irrigation is aided by a high water table and by melting snows from the high peaks of the northern Zagros Mountains and from the Armenian Highlands, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that give the region its name.
The usefulness of irrigation depends upon the ability to mobilize sufficient labor for the construction and maintenance of canals, this, from the earliest period, has assisted the development of urban settlements and centralized systems of political authority. Agriculture throughout the region has been supplemented by nomadic pastoralism, where tent-dwelling nomads herded sheep and goats from the river pastures in the dry summer months, out into seasonal grazing lands on the desert fringe in the wet winter season; the area is lacking in building stone, precious metals and timber, so has relied upon long-distance trade of agricultural products to secure these items from outlying areas. In the marshlands to the south of the area, a complex water-borne fishing culture has existed since prehistoric times, has added to the cultural mix. Periodic breakdowns in the cultural system have occurred for a number of reasons; the demands for labor has from time to time led to population increases that push the limits of the ecological carrying capacity, should a period of climatic instability ensue, collapsing central government a
Ajam is an Arabic word that refers to someone whose mother tongue is not Arabic. During the Arab conquest of Persia, the term became a racial pejorative. Colloquially, it now refers to non-Arabs in general. According to traditional etymology, the word ʿajam comes from the Semitic root aʿ-j-m. Related forms of the same root include, but are not limited to: mustaʿjim: mute, incapable of speech ʿajama / ʾaʿjama / ʿajjama: to dot – in particular, to add the dots that distinguish between various Arabic letters to a text, it is now an obsolete term. This may be linked to ʿajām / ʿajam "pit, seed". Inʿajama: to be incomprehensible istaʿjama: to fall silent. Modern use of "ajam" has the meaning of "non-Arab"; the verb ʿajama meant "to mumble, speak indistinctly", the opposite of ʿaraba, “to speak clearly”. Accordingly, the noun ʿujma, of the same root, is the opposite of fuṣḥa, which means "chaste, Arabic language". In general, during the Umayyad period ajam was a pejorative term used by Arabs who believed in their social and political superiority, in early history after Islam.
However, the distinction between Arab and Ajam is discernible in pre-Islamic poetry. During the Umayyad period, the term developed a derogatory meaning as the word was used to refer to non-Arab speakers as illiterate and uneducated. Arab conquerors in that period tried to impose Arabic as the primary language of the subject peoples throughout their empire. Angry with the prevalence of the Persian language in the Divan and Persian society, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ordered the official language of the conquered lands to be replaced with Arabic, sometimes by force. Persian resistance to this mentality was popularised in the final verse of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. Under the Umayyad dynasty, official association with the Arab dominion was only given to those with the ethnic identity of the Arab and required formal association with an Arab tribe and the adoption of the client status. According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "by the 3rd/9th century, the non-Arabs, above all the Persians, were asserting their social and cultural equality with the Arabs, if not their superiority over them.
In any case, there was always in some minds a current of admiration for the ʿAǰam as heirs of an ancient, cultured tradition of life. The great proponent of the Arab cause, Jāḥeẓ, wrote a Ketāb al-taswīa bayn al-ʿArab wa’l-ʿAǰam. After these controversies had died down, the Persians had achieved a position of power in the Islamic world comparable to their numbers and capabilities, "ʿAjam" became a simple ethnic and geographical designation.". Thus by the ninth century, the term was being used by Persians themselves as an ethnic term, examples can be given by Asadi Tusi in his poem comparing the superiority of Persians and Arabs. Accordingly: "territorial notions of “Iran,” are reflected in such terms as irānšahr, irānzamin, or Faris, the Arabicized form of Pārs/Fārs; the ethnic notion of “Iranian” is denoted by the Persian words Pārsi or Irāni, the Arabic term Ahl Faris or ʿAjam, referring to non-Arabs, but to Persians as in molk-e ʿAjam or moluk-e ʿAjam.". According to The Political Language of Islam, during the Islamic Golden Age,'Ajam' was used colloquially as a reference to denote those whom Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula viewed as "alien" or outsiders.
The early application of the term included all of the non-Arab peoples with whom the Arabs had contact including Persians, Byzantine Greeks, Armenians, Mandaeans, Jews, Sabians, Egyptians and the related Nabataeans. During the early age of the Caliphates, Ajam was synonymous with "foreigner" or "stranger". In the Western Asia, it was applied to the Persians, while in al-Andalus it referred to speakers of Romance languages - becoming "Aljamiado" in Spanish in reference to Arabic-script writing of those languages - and in West Africa refers to the Ajami script or the writing of local languages such as Hausa and Fulani in the Arabic alphabet. In Zanzibar ajami and ajamo means Persian which came from the Persian Gulf and the cities of Shiraz and Siraf. In Turkish, there are many letters that used Ajam to refer to Persian. In the Persian Gulf region today, people still refer to Persians as Ajami, referring to Persian carpets as sajjad al Ajami, Persian cat as Ajami cats, Persian Kings as Ajami kings.
The Persian community in Bahrain is called Ajami.'Ajam was used by the Ottomans to refer to the Safavid dynasty. The Abbasid Iraq Al-Ajam province; the Kurdish historian, Sharaf Khan Bidlisi, uses the term Ajam in his book Sharafnama to refer to the Shia Persians. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azerbaijanis are sometimes referred to as acem. Although claimed otherwise by Mahmood Reza Ghods, Modern Sunni Kurds of Iran do not use this term to denote Persians and Southern Kurds. Adjam, Ajaim, Ajam