Croesus was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years, from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC. Croesus was renowned for his wealth and Pausanias noted that his gifts were preserved at Delphi, the fall of Croesus made a profound impact on the Greeks, providing a fixed point in their calendar. By the fifth century at least, J. A. S, evans has remarked, Croesus had become a figure of myth, who stood outside the conventional restraints of chronology.1, and Ctesias, whose account is an encomium of Cyrus. Croesus is a descendant of Gyges, of the Myrmnadae Clan, born about 595 BC, Croesus received tribute from the Ionian Greeks but was friendlier to the Hellenes than his father had been. Croesus is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation, they were quite crude, and were made of electrum, a naturally occurring pale yellow alloy of gold and silver. The composition of these first coins was similar to alluvial deposits found in the silt of the Pactolus river, including some in the British Museum, were made from gold purified by heating with common salt to remove the silver.
King Croesus gold coins follow the first silver coins that had been minted by King Pheidon of Argos around 700 BC, in Greek and Persian cultures the name of Croesus became a synonym for a wealthy man. Croesus wealth remained proverbial beyond classical antiquity, in English, expressions such as rich as Croesus or richer than Croesus are used to great wealth to this day. According to Herodotus, Croesus encountered the Greek sage Solon and showed him his enormous wealth, Solon goes on to explain that Croesus cannot be the happiest man because the fickleness of fortune means that the happiness of a mans life cannot be judged until after his death. The interview is in the nature of a philosophical disquisition on the subject Which man is happy and it is legendary rather than historical. Thus the happiness of Croesus is presented as an exemplum of the fickleness of Tyche. The story was retold and elaborated by Ausonius in The Masque of the Seven Sages, in the Suda. According to Herodotus, Croesus desired to discover which of the well known oracles of his time gave trustworthy omens.
Then on the 100th day the envoys entered the oracle of Delphi in order to ask for the omen, the Pythia answered in verse, I know the sands number, I understand the mute and hear him though he does not speak. The smell has come to my senses of a hard-shelled tortoise Being cooked in bronze together with meat, There is bronze beneath it. The envoys wrote down the answer and returned to Sardis, Croesus read all the answers brought by his envoys from all the oracles. As soon as he read the answer of the Pythia he bowed, because he was persuaded that it was the only real oracle, along with that of Amphiaraus. Indeed, on the specific date Croesus had put pieces of a tortoise and lamb to boil together in a bronze cauldron, Croesus wanted to thank and take on his side the oracle of Delphi
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold. Traditionally, gold coins have been circulation coins, including coin-like bracteates, since recent decades, gold coins are mainly produced as bullion coins to investors and as commemorative coins to collectors. While modern gold coins are legal tender, they are not observed in financial transactions. For example, the American Gold Eagle, given a denomination of 50 USD, has a value of more than 1,000 USD. The gold reserves of banks are dominated by gold bars. Gold has been used as money for many reasons and it is fungible, with a low spread between the prices to buy and sell. Gold is easily transportable, as it has a value to weight ratio, compared to other commodities. Gold can be re-coined, divided into units, or re-melted into larger units such as gold bars. The density of gold is higher than most other metals, making it difficult to pass counterfeits, gold is extremely unreactive, hence it does not tarnish or corrode over time.
Gold was used in commerce in the Ancient Near East since the Bronze Age, the name of king Croesus of Lydia remains associated with the invention. In 546 BC, Croesus was captured by the Persians, who adopted gold as the metal for their coins. Ancient Greek coinage contained a number of coins issued by the various city states. The Ying yuan is a gold coin minted in ancient China. Larger units such as the various talent measures were used for high value exchanges, the German gold mark was introduced in 1873 in the German Empire, replacing the various local Gulden coins of the Holy Roman Empire. Gold coins had a long period as a primary form of money. Most of the world stopped making gold coins as currency by 1933, gold-colored coins have made a comeback in many currencies. However, gold coin always refers to a coin that is made of gold, many countries continue to make legal tender gold coins, but these are primarily meant for collectors and investment purposes and are not meant for circulation. Many factors determine the value of a coin, such as its rarity, condition
The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in which both Thebes and Sparta intervened. The deeper cause was hostility towards Sparta provoked by that citys expansionism in Asia Minor and northern Greece, the war was fought on two fronts, on land near Corinth and Thebes and at sea in the Aegean. On land, the Spartans achieved several successes in major battles, but were unable to capitalize on their advantage. At sea, the Spartan fleet was defeated by a Persian fleet early in the war. Alarmed by these Athenian successes, the Persians stopped backing the allies and this defection forced the allies to seek peace. The Peace of Antalcidas, commonly known as the Kings Peace, was signed in 387 BC and this treaty declared that Persia would control all of Ionia, and that all other Greek cities would be independent. Sparta was to be the guardian of the peace, with the power to enforce its clauses, the effects of the war, were to establish Persias ability to interfere successfully in Greek politics and to affirm Spartas hegemonic position in the Greek political system.
This solid base of support, was fragmented in the following the war. Despite the collaborative nature of the victory, Sparta alone received the plunder taken from the defeated states and the tribute payments from the former Athenian Empire. Spartas allies were further alienated when, in 402 BC, Sparta attacked and subdued Elis and Thebes refused to send troops to assist Sparta in its campaign against Elis. Despite the absence of these states, Agesilaus campaigned effectively against the Persians in Lydia, the satrap Tissaphernes was executed for his failure to contain Agesilaus, and his replacement, bribed the Spartans to move north, into the satrapy of Pharnabazus. Agesilaus did so, but simultaneously began preparing a sizable navy, unable to defeat Agesilaus army, Pharnabazus decided to force Agesilaus to withdraw by stirring up trouble on the Greek mainland. He dispatched Timocrates of Rhodes, an Asiatic Greek, to ten thousand gold darics in the major cities of the mainland. Timocrates visited Athens, Thebes and Argos, the Thebans, who had previously demonstrated their antipathy towards Sparta, undertook to bring about a war.
In response, the Phocians invaded Locris, and ransacked Locrian territory, a Theban embassy was dispatched to Athens to request support, the Athenians voted to assist Thebes, and a perpetual alliance was concluded between Athens and the Boeotian confederacy. The Spartan plan called for two armies, one under Lysander and the other under Pausanias, to rendezvous at and attack the Boeotian city of Haliartus. Lysander, arriving before Pausanias, successfully persuaded the city of Orchomenus to revolt from the Boeotian confederacy, and advanced to Haliartus with his troops, arriving a day later, took back the bodies of the Spartan dead under a truce, and returned to Sparta. There, he was put on trial for his life for failing to arrive and he fled to Tegea before he could be convicted
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception
Alireza Shapour Shahbazi
Alireza Shapour Shahbazi was a prominent Persian archeologist, Iranologist and a world expert on Achaemenid archeology. Alireza Shahbazi got a BA degree in and an MA degree in East Asian archeology from SOAS, Shahbazi had a doctorate degree in Achaemenid archeology from University of London. Alireza Shapour Shahbazi was a lecturer in Achaemenid archeology and Iranology at Harvard University and he was a full professor of Archeology at Shiraz University and founded Achaemenid research Foundation in 1973. After the Islamic revolution, he moved to the USA and became a Full Professor of history in Eastern Oregon University. Shahbazi wrote numerous books and articles on archeology in English, French. He was transferred to Shiraz and buried in the surrounding the Tomb of Hafez. Cyrus the Great, Founder of the Persian Empire, Darius the Great, second revised version is in preparation. A Persian Prince, Cyrus the Younger, second revised edition in the press. The Irano-Lycian Monuments, The Antiquities of Xanthos and Its Region as Evidence for the Iranian Aspects of the Achaemenid Lycia, Persepolis Illustrated, second edition, third revised edition due out in April 2003.
Sharh-e Mosawwar-e Takht-e Jamshid, Tehran 1966, third revised edition in the press, the Medes and The Persians, Tehran Open University text book, Tehran. A History of Iranian Historiography to A. D.1000, Old Persian Inscriptions of Persepolis, I, Texts from the Platform Monuments, London. Persepolis IV, A comprehensive analysis of Persepolitan inscriptions and monument studied since E. F. Schmidt, ferdows, A Critical Biography, Centre for Near Eastern Studies, Harvard University. A Comprehensive and Illustrated Guide, Tehran 2000, a Political History of the Sasanian Period, Persian Heritage Series, New York. A Commentary on Tabari’s History of the Sasanian Kings, The University Press of Iran, the Authoritative Guide to Persepolis, SAFIR Publication, Tehran,200419. Rahnamaye Mostanade Takhte-Jamshid, Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation Publication, No, annotated ed. of P. J. Junge, Darieos I. König der Perser, Institute of Achaemenid Research Publications, No, Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, London 1987.
Festschrift for Professor Richard Nelson Frye = Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4, papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater Leiden. The Splendour of Iran, Vol. I, Ancient Times, Booth-Clibborn Editions of London and The University Press of Iran, “Cyrus the Great and Croesus”, Khirad va Kushish 2, 157-74
Small in stature and lame from birth, Agesilaus became ruler somewhat unexpectedly in his mid-forties. He was greatly admired by his friend, the historian Xenophon, Agesilaus was the son of Archidamus II and his second wife, brother to Cynisca, and younger half-brother of Agis II. There is little surviving detail on the youth of Agesilaus, born with one leg shorter, he was not expected to succeed to the throne after his brother king Agis II, especially because the latter had a son. Therefore, Agesilaus was trained in the curriculum of Sparta. However, Leotychidas was ultimately set aside as illegitimate and Agesilaus became king around 401 BC, Lysander and the young Agesilaus came to maintain an intimate relation, as was common of the period. Their unique relationship would serve an important role during Agesilaus campaigns in Asia Minor, Agesilaus is first recorded as king during the suppression of the conspiracy of Cinadon, shortly after 398 BC. Then, in 396 BC, Agesilaus crossed into Asia with a force of 2,000 neodamodes and 6,000 allies to liberate Greek cities from Persian dominion.
In these campaigns Agesilaus benefited from the aid of the Ten Thousand, after spending the winter organizing a cavalry force, he made a successful incursion into Lydia in the spring of 395 BC. Tithraustes was sent to replace Tissaphernes, who paid with his life for his continued failure, an armistice was concluded between Tithraustes and Agesilaus, who left the southern satrapy and again invaded Phrygia, which he ravaged until the following spring. He came to an agreement with Pharnabazus and once more turned southward, during these campaigns, Lysander attempted to manipulate Agesilaus into ceding his authority. Agesilaus, the passive lover of Lysander, would have nothing of this. He had Lysander sent away to assist the naval campaigns in the Aegean and this dominating move by Agesilaus earned the respect of his men-at-arms and of Lysander himself, who remained emotionally close with Agesilaus. A rapid march through Thrace and Macedonia brought him to Thessaly, reinforced by Phocian and Orchomenian troops and a Spartan army, he met the confederate forces at Coronea in Boeotia and in a hotly contested battle was technically victorious.
However, the Spartan baggage train was ransacked and Agesilaus himself was injured during the fighting, resulting in a subsequent retreat by way of Delphi to the Peloponnese. Shortly before this battle the Spartan navy, of which he had received the command, was totally defeated off Cnidus by a powerful Persian fleet under Conon. During these conflicts in mainland Greece, Lysander perished while attacking the walls of Thebes, pausanias failed to fight for the bodies of the dead, and because he retrieved the bodies under truce, he was disgraced and banished from Sparta. In 393 BC, Agesilaus engaged in an invasion of Argolis. In 392 BC he took a prominent part in the Corinthian War, making several expeditions into Corinthian territory and capturing Lechaeum
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia. A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the city of Babylon. Babylon greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, during the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called Māt Akkadī the country of Akkad in the Akkadian language. It was often involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia and it retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad. During the 3rd millennium BC, a cultural symbiosis occurred between Sumerian and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian and vice versa is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a scale, to syntactic, morphological.
This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the millennium as a sprachbund. Traditionally, the religious center of all Mesopotamia was the city of Nippur. The empire eventually disintegrated due to decline, climate change and civil war. Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC and they seem to have gained ascendancy over most of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time. The states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance, King Ilu-shuma of the Old Assyrian Empire in a known inscription describes his exploits to the south as follows, The freedom of the Akkadians and their children I established. I established their freedom from the border of the marshes and Ur and Nippur, past scholars originally extrapolated from this text that it means he defeated the invading Amorites to the south, but there is no explicit record of that. More recently, the text has been taken to mean that Asshur supplied the south with copper from Anatolia and these policies were continued by his successors Erishum I and Ikunum.
During the first centuries of what is called the Amorite period and his reign was concerned with establishing statehood amongst a sea of other minor city states and kingdoms in the region. However Sumuabum appears never to have bothered to give himself the title of King of Babylon, suggesting that Babylon itself was only a minor town or city. He was followed by Sumu-la-El, Apil-Sin, each of whom ruled in the same manner as Sumuabum. Sin-Muballit was the first of these Amorite rulers to be regarded officially as a king of Babylon, the Elamites occupied huge swathes of southern Mesopotamia, and the early Amorite rulers were largely held in vassalage to Elam
Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/ was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis, Darius II died in 404 BC, just before the final victory of the Egyptian general, over the Persians in Egypt. His successor was his eldest son Arsames who was crowned as Artaxerxes II in Pasargadae and he received the title of Mnemon from the Greeks who found his memory to be exceptional. Even before his coronation, Artaxerxes was facing threats to his rule from his younger brother, four years earlier, Cyrus was appointed by his father as the supreme governor of the provinces of Asia Minor. There, he managed to pacify local rebellions and become a ruler among both the Iranians and Greeks. Towards the end of 405 BC, Cyrus became aware of his father’s illness, Artaxerxes defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger who, with the aid of a large army of Greek mercenaries, attempted to usurp the throne. Though Cyrus mixed army fought to a victory at the Battle of Cunaxa in Babylon, Cyrus himself was killed in the exchange by Mithridates.
Artaxerxes became involved in a war with Persias erstwhile allies, the Spartans, in order to redirect the Spartans attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies, in particular the Athenians and Corinthians. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War, in 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, in 385 BC he campaigned against the Cadusians. Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, an attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia. He quashed the Revolt of the Satraps in 372–362 BC and he is reported to have had a number of wives.
His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes mother Parysatis in about 400 BC, another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia. Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives, much of Artaxerxes wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the Palace of Darius I at Susa, and the fortifications, including a strong redoubt at the south-east corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures. Plutarch in his Lives records alternative names Oarses and Arsicas for Artaxerxes II Mnemon given by Deinon and these derive from the Persian name Khshayarsha as do Ahasuerus and the hypocoristicon Arshu for Artaxerxes II found on a contemporary inscription. The 13th century Syriac historian Bar-Hebraeus in his Chronography, identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II citing the sixth century AD historian John of Ephesus, while authenticity of this pedigree is uncertain, it testifies to this kings long renown. Artaxerxes I History of Persia The Anabasis Ten Thousand Artaxerxes by Plutarch H.
Hunger & R. J. van der Spek, military operations in Babylonia in, Arta 2006.002 Inscriptions of Artaxerxes II in transcribed Persian and in English translation
Babylon was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The city was built upon the Euphrates and divided in parts along its left and right banks. Babylon was originally a small Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c.2300 BC, the town attained independence as part of a small city-state with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in 1894 BC. Babylon grew and South Mesopotamia came to be known as Babylonia, the empire quickly dissolved after Hammurabis death and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination. After being destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians, Babylon became the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 609 to 539 BC, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid empires. It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world from c.1770 to 1670 BC and it was perhaps the first city to reach a population above 200,000.
Estimates for the extent of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares. The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometres south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings, the English Babylon comes from Greek Babylṓn, a transliteration of the Akkadian Babili. The Babylonian name in the early 2nd millennium BC had been Babilli or Babilla, by the 1st millennium BC, it had changed to Babili under the influence of the folk etymology which traced it to bāb-ili. The Gate of God or Gate of El being from the Aramaic Hebrew Bab for Gate and El for God and this being similar to the Hebrew word for confusion Balal. In the Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Hebrew Scriptures Book of Genesis to mean confusion, the modern English verb, to babble, or to speak meaningless words, is popularly thought to derive from this name, but there is no direct connection. The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris.
The site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer, oriented north to south, along the Euphrates to the west. Originally, the river roughly bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the western part of the city are now inundated. Some portions of the city wall to the west of the river remain, remains of the city include, Kasr—also called Palace or Castle, it is the location of the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat Etemenanki and lies in the center of the site. Amran Ibn Ali—the highest of the mounds at 25 meters, to the south and it is the site of Esagila, a temple of Marduk which contained shrines to Ea and Nabu. Homera—a reddish colored mound on the west side, most of the Hellenistic remains are here
He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia. His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon, before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a satrap and commander of his fathers army. Artaxerxes came to power one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the family to secure his place as king. He started two major campaigns against Egypt, the first campaign failed, and was followed up by rebellions throughout the western part of his empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II, the Pharaoh of Egypt, driving him from Egypt, in Artaxerxes years, Philip II of Macedons power was increasing in Greece, where he tried to convince the Greeks to revolt against Achaemenid Persia. His activities were opposed by Artaxerxes, and with his support, according to a Greek source, Diodorus of Sicily, Bagoas poisoned Artaxerxes, but a cuneiform tablet suggests that the king died from natural causes.
Artaxerxes III was the name adopted by Ochus when he succeeded his father in 358 BC. He is generally referred to as Ochus, but in Iran he is known as Ardeshir III, in Babylonian inscriptions he is called Umasu, who is called Artakshatsu. The same form of the name occurs in the Syrian version of the Canon of Kings by Elias of Nisibis, before ascending the throne Artaxerxes had been a satrap and commander of his fathers army. In 359 BC, just before ascending the throne, he attacked Egypt as a reaction to Egypts failed attacks on coastal regions of Phoenicia and his first order was the execution of over 80 of his nearest relations to secure his place as king. In 355 BC, Artaxerxes forced Athens to conclude a peace which required the citys forces to leave Asia Minor, Artaxerxes started a campaign against the rebellious Cadusians, but he managed to appease both of the Cadusian kings. One individual who successfully emerged from this campaign was Darius Codomannus, the order was however ignored by Artabazus of Lydia, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king.
Orontes of Mysia supported Artabazus and the forces managed to defeat the forces sent by Artaxerxes in 354 BC. However, in 353 BC, they were defeated by Artaxerxes’ army and were disbanded, orontes was pardoned by the king, while Artabazus fled to the safety of the court of Philip II of Macedon. In around 351 BC, Artaxerxes embarked on a campaign to recover Egypt, at the same time a rebellion had broken out in Asia Minor, being supported by Thebes, threatened to become serious. Levying a vast army, Artaxerxes marched into Egypt, and engaged Nectanebo II, after a year of fighting the Egyptian Pharaoh, Nectanebo inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians with the support of mercenaries led by the Greek generals Diophantus and Lamius. Artaxerxes was compelled to retreat and postpone his plans to reconquer Egypt, soon after this defeat, Asia Minor and Cyprus declared their independence from Persian rule
Coins of the Achaemenid Empire were issued from 520 BCE-450 BCE to 330 BCE. It seems that before then, a continuation of Lydian coinage under Persian rule was highly likely, Achaemenid coinage includes the official imperial issues, as well as coins issued by the Achaemenid governors, such as those stationed in ancient Asia Minor. Darius first introduced a currency system at about 520-480, the precise period is debatable. The rate of exchange was 1 Daric =20 Siglos and it consisted of a Daric of between 8. 10-8.50 grams in weight and based on the Babylonian shekel of 8.33 grams. The purity was between 98-99% gold, after the capture of Babylon by Alexander, the Satrap Mazaeus issued the double Daric of 16.65 grams in weight whose image was based on the Daric coin and bore his name until his death in 328 BCE. 1 Daric =25 Attic Drachmae, Siglos is 5. 40-5.60 grams each, but is based on the 0.5 Lydian Siglos of 10. 73-10.92 grams for the full unit. Purity was at first issue 97-98% but by the middle 4th century was 94-95%,1 Siglos =7.5 Attic Obols Daric coins have been found in Asia Minor, Greece and Italy