A pager is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can acknowledge, reply to, originate messages using an internal transmitter. Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters, as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users; these systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations. Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, became used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cellphones and smartphones has diminished the pager industry. Pagers continue to be used by some emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disasters.
This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging. The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of remaining pagers in 2017, with an annual cost of £6.6 million. Matt Hancock announced in February 2019; the first telephone pager system was patented in 1949 by Alfred J. Gross. One of the first practical paging services was launched in 1950 for physicians in the New York City area. Physicians paid $12 per month for the service and carried a 200-gram pager that would receive phone messages within 40 kilometres of a single transmitter tower; the system was operated by Telanswerphone. In 1960, John Francis Mitchell combined elements of Motorola's walkie-talkie and automobile radio technologies to create the first transistorized pager, from that time, paging technology continued to advance, pager adoption among emergency personnel is still popular, as of July 2016. In 1962 the Bell System—the U. S. telephone monopoly colloquially known as "Ma Bell"—presented its Bellboy radio paging system at the Seattle World's Fair.
Bellboy was the first commercial system for personal paging. It marked one of the first consumer applications of the transistor, for which three Bell Labs inventors received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Solid-state circuitry enabled the Bellboy pager, about the size of a small TV remote device, to fit into a customer's pocket or purse, quite a feat at that time; the Bellboy was a terminal. When the person received an audible signal on the pager, he found a telephone and called the service centre, which informed him of the caller's message. Bell System Bellboy radio pagers each used three reed receiver relays, each relay tuned to one of 33 different frequencies, selectively ringing a particular customer when all three relays were activated at the same time—a precursor of DTMF; the ReFLEX protocol was developed in the mid-1990s. While Motorola announced the end of its new pager manufacturing in 2001, pagers remained in use in large hospital complexes. Another is a facility handling classified information, where various radio transmitter or data storage devices are excluded to ensure security.
First responders in rural areas with inadequate cellular coverage are issued pagers. The 2005 London bombings resulted in overload of TETRA systems by the emergency services, showed that pagers, with their absence of necessity to transmit an acknowledgement before showing the message, the related capability to operate on low signal levels, are not outclassed by their successors. Volunteer firefighters, EMS paramedics, rescue squad members carry pagers to alert them of emergency call outs for their department; these pagers receive a special tone from a fire department radio frequency. Restaurant pagers were in wide use in the 2000s. Customers were given a portable receiver that vibrates, flashes, or beeps when a table becomes free or when their meal is ready. Pagers have been popular with birdwatchers in Britain and Ireland since 1991, with companies Rare Bird Alert and Birdnet Information offering news of rare birds sent to pagers that they sell; the U. S. paging industry generated $2.1 billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.
In Canada, 161,500 Canadians paid $18.5 million for pager service in 2013. Telus, one of the three major mobile carriers, announced the end to its Canadian pager service as of March 31, 2015, but rivals Bell and PageNet intend to continue service. Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email; this is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email. This can result in pager messages being lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, GOLAY, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include 5/6-tone. In the United States, pagers receive signals using the FLEX protocol in th
Fixed wireless is the operation of wireless communication devices or systems used to connect two fixed locations with a radio or other wireless link, such as laser bridge. Fixed wireless is part of a wireless LAN infrastructure; the purpose of a fixed wireless link is to enable data communications between the two sites or buildings. Fixed wireless data links are a cost-effective alternative to leasing fiber or installing cables between the buildings; the point-to-point signal transmissions occur through the air over a terrestrial microwave platform rather than through copper or optical fiber. The advantages of fixed wireless include the ability to connect with users in remote areas without the need for laying new cables and the capacity for broad bandwidth, not impeded by fiber or cable capacities. Fixed wireless devices derive their electrical power from the public utility mains, unlike mobile wireless or portable wireless devices which tend to be battery powered. Fixed wireless services use a directional radio antenna on each end of the signal.
These antennas are larger than those seen in Wi-Fi setups and are designed for outdoor use. Several types of radio antennas are available that accommodate various weather conditions, signal distances and bandwidths, they are selected to make the beam as narrow as possible and thus focus transmit power to their destination, increasing reliability and reducing the chance of eavesdropping or data injection. The links are arranged as a point-to-point setup to permit the use of these antennas; this permits the link to have better speed and or better reach for the same amount of power. These antennas are designed to be used in the unlicensed ISM band radio frequency bands, however, in most commercial installations, licensed frequencies may be used to ensure quality of service or to provide higher connection speeds. With the growing infrastructure of wireless networks, improving speed and reliability, fixed wireless has become a viable solution for broadband access. Businesses and homes can use fixed-wireless antenna technology to access broadband Internet and Layer 2 networks using fixed wireless broadband.
Networks which have redundancy and saturation and antennas that can aggregate signal from multiple carriers are able to offer fail-over and redundancy for connectivity not afforded by wired connections. In rural areas where wired infrastructure is not yet available, fixed-wireless broadband can be a viable option for Internet access. Internet access Mobile wireless communication Mobile broadband Ethernet bridge
Total Access Communication System
Total Access Communication System and ETACS are mostly-obsolete variants of Advanced Mobile Phone System, announced as the choice for the first two UK national cellular systems in February 1983, less than a year after the UK government announced the T&Cs for the two competing mobile phone networks in June 1982. Vodafone opted for a £30 million turnkey contract from Ericsson to design and set up its initial network of 100 base station sites. Cellnet used development labs in the facilities at General Electric based at Lynchburg, United States; the reason Cellnet used the General Electric labs was because the AMPS system was in development there, the company had set up a production facility in readiness for AMPS production in 1985 which the Cellnet TACS was to share. In March 1984 development of prototypes began at General Electric. Production began in 1985 and General Electric produced 20,000 systems that year for Cellnet's distribution in the UK. Production of what was to become the Motorola model were made at Stotfold, England.
This production facility continued making TACS until the advent of GSM. TACS cellular phones were used in other countries. TACS was used in Japan under the name Japanese Total Access Communication, it was used in Hong Kong. ETACS was an extended version of TACS with more channels. TACS and ETACS are now obsolete in Europe. In the United Kingdom, the last ETACS service operated by Vodafone was discontinued on 31 May 2001, after 16 years of service; the competing service in the UK operated by Cellnet was closed on Sunday 1 October 2000. Eircell closed its TACS network on 26 January 2001; this followed a long period. When the network was closed, there were few, if any, active TACS customers left. Customers who switched network were able to keep their phone number, but the prefix was changed to either 087 GSM or 086 GSM. At the time, full mobile number portability was not available to TACS customers and the prefix was closed. An automatic voice message was left in place for 12 months advising callers of the customer's new prefix.
ETACS is however still in use in a handful of countries elsewhere in the world. Nordic Mobile Telephone is another 1G analog cellular standard, used in Europe in the Nordic countries, which has now been replaced by GSM except for limited use in rural areas due to its superior range. TACS BAND Summary ESNs were issued in batches of 65535 by BABT for phone manufactures to program into each cellular phone to make each one unique to the TACS network with which it attempted to register; the following countries had more than two batches of ESNs allocated to them: UK, Austria, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Bahrain, UAE, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Australia
International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations, responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN; the ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks; the agency organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception, its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector. ITU was formed in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; the International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932. ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947; the ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom. The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
Radio communication Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR, this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R. Standardisation Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT, this sector standardizes global telecommunications. In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T. Development Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable and affordable access to information and communication technologies. ITU Telecom ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors; the basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union".
In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences and Meetings of the Union. The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea, his four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015. Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai. Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011; the Republic of China was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown and Tegucigalpa; the sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters. Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are: Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Arab Spectrum Management Group African Telecommunications Union European Conference of Posta
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Personal Handy-phone System
The Personal Handy-phone System marketed as the Personal Communication Telephone in Thailand, the Personal Access System and commercially branded as Xiaolingtong in Mainland China, is a mobile network system operating in the 1880–1930 MHz frequency band, used in Japan, China and some other Asian countries and regions. PHS is a cordless telephone like DECT, with the capability to handover from one cell to another. PHS cells are small, with transmission power of base station a maximum of 500 mW and range measures in tens or at most hundreds of metres, contrary to the multi-kilometre ranges of CDMA and GSM; this makes PHS suitable for dense urban areas, but impractical for rural areas, the small cell size makes it difficult if not impossible to make calls from moving vehicles. PHS uses TDMA/TDD for its radio channel access method, 32 kbit/s ADPCM for its voice codec. Modern PHS phone can support many value-added services such as high speed wireless data/Internet connection, WWW access, e-mailing, text messaging.
PHS technology is a popular option for providing a wireless local loop, where it is used for bridging the "last mile" gap between the POTS network and the subscriber's home. It was developed under the concept of providing a wireless front-end of an ISDN network, thus a PHS base station is compatible with ISDN and is connected directly to ISDN telephone exchange equipment e.g. a digital switch. In spite of its low-cost base station, micro-cellular system and "Dynamic Cell Assignment" system, PHS offers higher number-of-digits frequency use efficiency with lower cost, compared with typical 3G cellular telephone systems, it enables flat-rate wireless service such as AIR-EDGE, throughout Japan. The speed of an AIR-EDGE data connection is accelerated by combining lines, each of, 32 kbit/s; the first version of AIR-EDGE, introduced in 2001, provided 32 kbit/s service. In 2002, 128 kbit/s service started and in 2005, 256 kbit/s service started. In 2006, the speed of each line was upgraded to 1.6 times with the introduction of "W-OAM" technology.
The speed of AIR-EDGE 8× is up to 402 kbit/s with the latest "W-OAM" capable instrument. In April 2007, "W-OAM typeG" was introduced allowing data speeds of 512 kbit/s for AIR-EDGE 8x users. Furthermore, the "W-OAM typeG" 8× service was planned to be upgraded to a maximum throughput of 800 kbit/s, when the upgrading for access points in its system are completed, thus it was expected to exceed the speeds of popular W-CDMA 3G service like NTT DoCoMo's FOMA in Japan. Developed by NTT Laboratory in Japan in 1989 and far simpler to implement and deploy than competing systems like PDC or GSM, the commercial services were started by three PHS operators in Japan in 1995, forming the PIAF. However, the service was pejoratively dubbed as the "poor man's cellular", due to its limited range and roaming abilities. Market share in Japan has been declining and NTT DoCoMo, which has absorbed NTT Personal, ASTEL terminated the PHS service in January 2008. Most other countries with PHS networks have terminated offering PHS services and migrated to GSM.
In Thailand, TelecomAsia integrated the PHS system with Intelligent Network and marketed the service as Personal Communication Telephone. The integrated system was the world's first that allowed the fixed line telephone subscribers of the public switched telephone network to use PHS as a value added service with the same telephone number and shared the same voice mailbox; the PCT service was commercially launched in November 1999 with the peak of 670,000 subscribers in 2001. However, the number of subscribers had declined to 470,000 in 2005 before the breakeven in 2006 after six years of heavy investment up to 15 billion THB. With the popularity of other cellular phone services, the company shifted the focus of the PCT to a niche market segment of youths ages 10-18. Wireless local loop systems based on PHS technology are in use in some of the above-mentioned countries. WILLCOM DDI-Pocket, introduced flat-rate wireless network and flat-rate calling in Japan, which reversed the local fate of PHS up to an extent.
In China, there was an explosive expansion of subscribers until around 2005. In Chile, Telefónica del Sur launched a PHS-based telephony service in some cities of the southern part of the country in March 2006. In Brazil, Suporte Tecnologia has a PHS-based telephony service in Betim, state of Minas Gerais, Transit Telecom announced a rollout of a PHS network in 2007. China Telecom operated a PAS system in China, although technically it was not regarded as allowed to provide mobile services, because of some particularities of the Chinese governance. China Netcom, the other fixed-line operator in China provides Xiaolingtong service; the system was a runaway hit, with over 90 million subscribers signed up as of 2007. However, low priced mobile phones replaced PHS; the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China issued notices on 13 February 2009 that both registration of new users and expansion of the network were to be discontinued, with the service to be ended by the end of 2011.
A PHS global roaming service was available between Japan and Thailand. This is a list of commercial PHS deployments around the world: PHS-enabled PCMCIA/CompactFlash cards include: TDK DF56CF NTT DoCoMo P-in Comp@ct NTT DoCoMo P-in m@ster NTT DoCoMo P-in memory DDI AirH”Ca