Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work. Plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, it is subject to sanctions such as penalties and expulsion from school or work. Cases of "extreme plagiarism" have been identified in academia; the modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe in the 18th century with the Romantic movement. Plagiarism is not in itself a crime. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, many types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism is not punished by law, but rather by institutions. In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses".
Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620; the Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", plagium, "kidnapping", have the root plaga, based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave". Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud. "Plagiarism" is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil. Some cases may be treated as a violation of the doctrine of moral rights; the increased availability of copyrighted material due to the development of information technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit".
Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, false claims of authorship constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience. Plagiarism is considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is supposed to be original content. In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong. Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, articulated honor codes. Indeed, there is a uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong; each year students are brought before their institutions’ disciplinary boards on charges that they have misused sources in their schoolwork." However, the practice of plagiarizing by use of sufficient word substitutions to elude detection software, known as rogeting, has evolved as students and unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software. An extreme form of plagiarism, known as contract cheating involves students paying someone else, such as an essay mill, to do their work for them. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, reporters caught plagiarizing face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment.
Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Predicated upon an expected level of learning/comprehension having been achieved, all associated academic accreditation becomes undermined if plagiarism is allowed to become the norm within academic submissions. For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed to
Haptic communication is a branch of nonverbal communication that refers to the ways in which people and animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch. Touch or haptics, from the ancient Greek word haptikos is important for communication; the sense of touch allows one to experience different sensations such as: pleasure, heat, or cold. One of the most significant aspects of touch is the ability to enhance physical intimacy; the sense of touch is the fundamental component of haptic communication for interpersonal relationships. Touch can be categorized in many terms such as positive, control, task-related or unintentional, it can be both sexual, platonic. Touch is the earliest sense; the development of an infant's haptic senses and how it relates to the development of the other senses such as vision has been the target of much research. Human babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch if they retain sight and hearing. Infants who can perceive through touch without sight and hearing, tend to fare much better.
To infants, in chimpanzees the sense of touch is developed. As newborns they see and hear poorly but cling to their mothers. Harry Harlow conducted a controversial study involving rhesus monkeys and observed that monkeys reared with a "terry cloth mother", a wire feeding apparatus wrapped in softer terry cloth which provided a level of tactile stimulation and comfort, were more stable as adults than those with a mere wire mother. For his experiment, he presented the infants with a clothed surrogate mother and a wire surrogate mother which held a bottle with food, it turns out that the rhesus monkeys spent most of their time with the terry cloth mother, over the wire surrogate with a bottle of food, which indicates that they preferred touch and comfort over sustenance. Striking, pulling, kicking and hand-to-hand fighting are forms of touch in the context of physical abuse. Stoeltje wrote about. Heslin outlines five haptic categories: Functional/professional expresses task-orientation Social/polite expresses ritual interaction Friendship/warmth expresses idiosyncratic relationship Love/intimacy expresses emotional attachment Sexual/arousal expresses sexual intentThe intent of a touch is not always exclusive and touching can evolve to each one of Heslin's categories.
Managers should know the effectiveness of using touch while communicating to subordinates, but need to be cautious and understand how touch can be misunderstood. A hand on the shoulder for one person may mean a supportive gesture, while it could mean a sexual advance to another person. Working with others and using touch to communicate, a manager needs to be aware of each person's touch tolerance. Henley's research found that a person in power is more to touch a subordinate, but the subordinate is not free to touch in kind. Touch is a powerful nonverbal communication tool and this different standard between a superior and subordinate can lead to confusion whether the touch is motivated by dominance or intimacy according to Borisoff and Victor. Walton stated in his book that touching is the ultimate expression of closeness or confidence between two people, but not seen in business or formal relationships. Touching stresses how special the message is, being sent by the initiator. "If a word of praise is accompanied by a touch on the shoulder, that’s the gold star on the ribbon," wrote Walton.
Moving from one haptic category to another can become blurred by culture. There are many areas in the United States where a touch on the forearm is accepted as correct and polite. However, in the Midwest, this is not always an acceptable behavior; the initial connection to another person in a professional setting starts off with a touch a handshake. A person's handshake can speak volumes about their personality. Chiarella wrote an article for Esquire magazine explaining to the predominantly male readership how handshakes differ from person to person and how they send nonverbal messages, he mentioned that holding the grip longer than two seconds will result in a stop in the verbal conversation, thus the nonverbal will override the verbal communication. Jones explained communication with touch as the most intimate and involving form which helps people to keep good relationships with others, his study with Yarbrough covered individual touches. Touch sequences fall into two different types and strategic.
Repetitive is when the other person reciprocates. The majority of these touches are considered positive. Strategic touching is a series of touching with an ulterior or hidden motive thus making them seem to be using touch as a game to get someone to do something for them. More common than the sequential touches are the single touches, they must be read by using the total context of what was said, the nature of the relationship and what kind of social setting was involved when the person was touched. Yarbrough designed a blueprint for, she designated the different body areas as to. Non-vulnerable body parts are the hand, arm and upper back, vulnerable body parts are all other body regions. Civil inattention is defined as the polite way to manage interaction with strangers by not engaging in any interpersonal communication or needing to respond to a stranger's touch. Goffman uses
A comfort zone is a psychological state in which things feel familiar to a person and they are at ease and in control of their environment, experiencing low levels of anxiety and stress. In this zone, a steady level of performance is possible. Bardwick defines the term as "a behavioral state where a person operates in an anxiety-neutral position." Brown describes it as "Where our uncertainty and vulnerability are minimized—where we believe we'll have access to enough love, talent, admiration. Where we feel we have some control." Created by pugal: -Stepping out of a comfort zone raises anxiety and generates a stress response. This results in an enhanced level of focus. White refers to the "optimal performance zone", in which performance can be enhanced by some amount of stress. Yerkes who reported, "Anxiety improves performance until a certain optimum level of arousal has been reached. Beyond that point, performance deteriorates as higher levels of anxiety are attained." Beyond the optimum performance zone, lies the "danger zone" in which performance declines under the influence of greater anxiety.
However, stress in general can have an adverse effect on decision making: Fewer alternatives are tried out and more familiar strategies are used if they are not helpful anymore. Optimal performance management requires maximizing time in the optimum performance zone. Flow Personal boundaries Yerkes–Dodson law
Collective unconscious, a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts and by archetypes: universal symbols such as The Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, the Tree of Life, many more. Jung considered the collective unconscious to underpin and surround the unconscious mind, distinguishing it from the personal unconscious of Freudian psychoanalysis, he argued that the collective unconscious had profound influence on the lives of individuals, who lived out its symbols and clothed them in meaning through their experiences. The psychotherapeutic practice of analytical psychology revolves around examining the patient's relationship to the collective unconscious. Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Lionel Corbett argues that the contemporary terms "autonomous psyche" or "objective psyche" are more used today in the practice of depth psychology rather than the traditional term of the "collective unconscious."Critics of the collective unconscious concept have called it unscientific and fatalistic, or otherwise difficult to test scientifically.
Proponents suggest that it is borne out by findings of psychology and anthropology. The term "collective unconscious" first appeared in Jung's 1916 essay, "The Structure of the Unconscious"; this essay distinguishes between the "personal", Freudian unconscious, filled with sexual fantasies and repressed images, the "collective" unconscious encompassing the soul of humanity at large. In "The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology", Jung wrote: And the essential thing, psychologically, is that in dreams and other exceptional states of mind the most far-fetched mythological motifs and symbols can appear autochthonously at any time apparently, as the result of particular influences and excitations working on the individual, but more without any sign of them; these "primordial images" or "archetypes," as I have called them, belong to the basic stock of the unconscious psyche and cannot be explained as personal acquisitions. Together they make up that psychic stratum, called the collective unconscious.
The existence of the collective unconscious means that individual consciousness is anything but a tabula rasa and is not immune to predetermining influences. On the contrary, it is in the highest degree influenced by inherited presuppositions, quite apart from the unavoidable influences exerted upon it by the environment; the collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. It is the matrix of all conscious psychic occurrences, hence it exerts an influence that compromises the freedom of consciousness in the highest degree, since it is continually striving to lead all conscious processes back into the old paths. On October 19, 1936, Jung delivered a lecture "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious" to the Abernethian Society at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, he said: My thesis is as follows: in addition to our immediate consciousness, of a personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche, there exists a second psychic system of a collective and impersonal nature, identical in all individuals.
This collective unconscious is inherited. It consists of pre-existent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite form to certain psychic contents. Jung linked the collective unconscious to'what Freud called "archaic remnants" – mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal and inherited shapes of the human mind', he credited Freud for developing his "primal horde" theory in Totem and Taboo and continued further with the idea of an archaic ancestor maintaining its influence in the minds of present-day humans. Every human being, he wrote, "however high his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche."As modern humans go through their process of individuation, moving out of the collective unconscious into mature selves, they establish a persona—which can be understood as that small portion of the collective psyche which they embody and identify with.
The collective unconscious exerts overwhelming influence on the minds of individuals. These effects of course vary since they involve every emotion and situation. At times, the collective unconscious can terrify, but it can heal. Jung contrasted the collective unconscious with the personal unconscious, the unique aspects of an individual study which Jung says constitute the focus of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Psychotherapy patients, it seemed to Jung described fantasies and dreams which repeated elements from ancient mythology; these elements appeared in patients who were not exposed to the original story. For example, mythology offers many examples of the "dual mother" narrative, according to which a child has a biological mother and a divine mother. Therefore, argues Jung, Freudian psychoanalysis would neglect important sources for unconscious ideas, in the case of a patient with neurosis around a dual-mother image; this divergence over the nature of the unconscious has been cited as a key aspect of Jung's famous split from Sigmund Freud and his school of psychoanalysis.
Some commentators have rejected Jung's characterization of Freud, observing that in texts such as Totem an
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay
Emotion is a mental state variously associated with thoughts, behavioural responses, a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotion is intertwined with mood, personality and motivation. Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, endocrinology, history, sociology of emotions, computer science; the numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain."Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience, associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival and kin selection.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Consciously experiencing an emotion is exhibiting a mental representation of that emotion from a past or hypothetical experience, linked back to a content state of pleasure or displeasure; the content states are established by verbal explanations of experiences, describing an internal state. Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior; the physiology of emotion is linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating to particular emotions.
Emotion is linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more to be more withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, so on. More emotion is said to consist of all the components; the different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline.
In psychology and philosophy, emotion includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels, expressive body actions, the appraisal of situations and contexts; the word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions and affections; the word emotion was coined in the early 1800s by Thomas Brown and it is around the 1830s that the modern concept of emotion first emerged for English Language. "No one felt emotions before about 1830. Instead they felt other things - "passions", "accidents of the soul", "moral sentiments" - and explained them differently from how we understand emotions today."Some cross cultural studies indicate that the categorization of "emotion" and classification of basic emotions such as "anger" and "sadness" are not universal and that the boundaries and domains of these concepts are categorized differently by all cultures.
However, others argue that there are some basic universal but spurious bases of emotions in some cultures. In anthropology, an inability to express or perceive emotion is sometimes referred to as alexithymia; the Oxford Dictionary definition of emotion is "A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others." Emotions are responses to significant external events. Emotions can be occurrences or dispositions, short-lived or long-lived. Psychotherapist Michael C. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity, thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame. Emotions have been described as consisting of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal, physiological and neural mechanisms. Emotions have been categorized, with some relationships existing between emotions and some direct oppos
National Alliance on Mental Illness
The National Alliance On Mental Illness is a nationwide grassroots advocacy group, representing people affected by mental illness in the United States. NAMI educates and advocates for people living with mental illnesses and their families. NAMI offers classes and trainings for people living with mental illnesses, their families, community members, professionals. Many of these programs include most are free of cost. NAMI's public education and community building events include Mental Illness Awareness Week and NAMIWalks. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, NAMI has 1,000 state and local affiliates and is represented in all 50 U. S. states as well as in Washington, D. C. and Puerto Rico. NAMI is funded through pharmaceutical company donations, individual donors, as well as sponsorships and grants. NAMI publishes a magazine at least twice a year called The Advocate. NAMI runs a HelpLine five days a week. NAMI was founded in Wisconsin by Harriet Shetler and Beverly Young; the two women cared for sons diagnosed with schizophrenia, were tired of their sons being blamed for their mental illness.
Unhappy with the lack of services available and the treatment of those living with mental illness, the women sought out others with similar concerns. The first meeting held to address these issues in mental health was much larger than expected, led to the formation of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill in 1979. In 1997, the legal name was changed to the acronym, NAMI, by a vote of the membership due to concerns that the name National Alliance for the Mentally Ill did not use person-first language. In 2005, the meaning of NAMI was changed to the backronym National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI aims to promote recovery by preserving and strengthening family relationships challenged by severe and persistent mental illness. Through peer-directed education classes, support group offerings and community outreach programs, NAMI's programs and services draw on the experiences of mental health consumers and their family members, teaching them to manage mental illness more and to help others do the same.
In addition, NAMI works to eliminate pervasive stigma around mental illness and to increase public and professional understanding of it, to improve the mental health system. The National Alliance on Mental Illness is a 5013 nonprofit run by a board of directors who are elected by membership. NAMI is organized into state and local city- or county-wide affiliates in an attempt to more represent those in the surrounding communities. Since 2015, NAMI has been using a four-year strategic plan which expires in 2019; the national chief executive officer since 2014 has been Mary Giliberti. Her predecessor was Michael Fitzpatrick, she clerked for Judge Phyllis A. Kravitch. Before coming to NAMI, Giliberti worked as a senior attorney at Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law for ten years and the Senate Health, Education and Pensions Committee from 2008 to 2014, she worked for NAMI during this time as the director of public policy and advocacy for federal and state issues. In 2017, she was "appointed by the Secretary of the U.
S. Department of Health and Human Service to serve as one of 14 non-federal members of HHS’ Interdepartmental Serious Mental Illness Coordinating Committee."National and state NAMI organizations function to provide Governance, Public Education, Political Advocacy, management of NAMI's Educational Programs. Providing support for mental health consumers occurs at more local levels, involves assistance in obtaining mental health resources and administration of NAMI's programs, hosting local meetings and events for NAMI members in the community. In 2017 alone, NAMI partnered with Alpha Kappa Alpha, tumblr, Women's Health, Fox Sports, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute and Jill of America, The Jed Foundation, Lokai. Celebrity partnerships included Utkarsh Ambudkar, Maria Bamford, Andrea Barber, AJ Brooks, Sterling K. Brown, Corinne Foxx, Naomi Judd, Dawn McCoy, Stefania Owen, Alessandra Torresani, Wil Wheaton, DeWanda Wise, Chris Woods; the National Alliance on Mental Illness offers an array of support and education programs at no cost for individuals and families.
The programs are set up through local NAMI Affiliate organizations, with different programs varying in their targeted audience. The NAMI Family-to-Family Education Program is a free 12-week course targeted toward family and friends of individuals with mental illness; the courses are taught by a NAMI-trained family member of a person diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Family-to-Family is taught in 44 states, two provinces in Canada; the program was developed by Clinical Psychologist Joyce Burland, PhD. The Family-to-Family program provides general information about mental illness and how it is treated; the programs cover mental illnesses including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, etc.), as well as the benefits and side effects of medications. Family-to-Family, like the rest of NAMI programs, takes a biologically-based approach to explaining mental illness and its treatments. In addition to providing information on mental illness, the Family-to-Family program teaches coping skills and the power of advocacy to students.
Empathy is hoped to be gained by students' better understanding of the subjective experience of living with a mental illness. Special workshops teach problem solving and communication techniques. Family-to-Family provides advocacy support, offering family members guidance on locating support and services within surrounding areas, information on current advocacy initiatives ded