William James was an American philosopher and psychologist, the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential U. S. philosophers, has been labelled the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, is cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place, after Wilhelm Wundt, regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. James developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, Richard Rorty, has influenced former US President Jimmy Carter.
Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr. and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James. James never practiced medicine. Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and philosophy. James wrote on many topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, psychology and mysticism. Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology, a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology. William James was born at the Astor House in New York City on January 11, 1842, he was the son of Henry James Sr. a noted and independently wealthy Swedenborgian theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several of its members have made them a subject of continuing interest to historians and critics. William James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education, developing fluency in both German and French.
Education in the James household encouraged cosmopolitanism. The family made two trips to Europe while William James was still a child, setting a pattern that resulted in thirteen more European journeys during his life, his early artistic bent led to an apprenticeship in the studio of William Morris Hunt in Newport, Rhode Island, but he switched in 1861 to scientific studies at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University. In his early adulthood, James suffered from a variety of physical ailments, including those of the eyes, back and skin, he was tone deaf. He was subject to a variety of psychological symptoms which were diagnosed at the time as neurasthenia, which included periods of depression during which he contemplated suicide for months on end. Two younger brothers, Garth Wilkinson and Robertson, fought in the Civil War; the other three siblings all suffered from periods of invalidism. He took up medical studies at Harvard Medical School in 1864, he took a break in the spring of 1865 to join naturalist Louis Agassiz on a scientific expedition up the Amazon River, but aborted his trip after eight months, as he suffered bouts of severe seasickness and mild smallpox.
His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867. He traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until November 1868. During this period, he began to publish. James earned his M. D. degree in June 1869 but he never practiced medicine. What he called his "soul-sickness" would only be resolved in 1872, after an extended period of philosophical searching, he married Alice Gibbens in 1878. In 1882 he joined the Theosophical Society. James's time in Germany proved intellectually fertile, helping him find that his true interests lay not in medicine but in philosophy and psychology. In 1902 he would write: "I studied medicine in order to be a physiologist, but I drifted into psychology and philosophy from a sort of fatality. I never had any philosophic instruction, the first lecture on psychology I heard being the first I gave". In 1875–1876, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Charles Pickering Putnam, James Jackson Putnam founded the Putnam Camp at St. Huberts, Essex County, New York.
James interacted with a wide array of writers and scholars throughout his life, including his godfather Ralph Waldo Emerson, his godson William James Sidis, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce, Bertrand Russell, Josiah Royce, Ernst Mach, John Dewey, Macedonio Fernández, Walter Lippmann, Mark Twain, Horatio Alger, G. Stanley Hall, Henri Bergson, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud. James spent all of his academic career at Harvard, he was appointed instructor in physiology for the spring 1873 term, instructor in anatomy and physiology in 1873, assistant professor of psychology in 1876, assistant professor of philosophy in 1881, full professor in 1885, endowed chair in psychology in 1889, return to philosophy in 1897, emeritus professor of philosophy in 1907. James studied medicine and biology, began to teach in those subjects, but was drawn to the scientific study of the human mind at a time when psychology was constituting itself as a science. James's acquaintance
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of psychiatry, archaeology, literature and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist under Eugen Bleuler. During this time, he came to the attention of the founder of psychoanalysis; the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his "new science" of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as President of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association. Jung's research and personal vision, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleague's doctrine, a schism became inevitable; this division was painful for Jung, it was to have historic repercussions lasting well into the modern day. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual's conscious and unconscious elements.
Jung considered it to be the main task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the collective unconscious, the psychological complex, extraversion and introversion. Jung was an artist and builder as well as a prolific writer. Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk, their first child, born in 1873, was a boy named Paul. Being the youngest son of a noted Basel physician of German descent called Karl Gustav Jung, whose hopes of achieving a fortune never materialised, Paul Jung did not progress beyond the status of an impoverished rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes, the title given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel University.
When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen, but the tension between his parents was growing. Emilie Jung was an depressed woman. Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious, he reported that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body. Jung had a better relationship with his father. Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment, his father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but he was brought back to his father's residence. Emilie Jung's continuing bouts of absence and depression troubled her son and caused him to associate women with "innate unreliability", whereas "father" meant for him reliability but powerlessness. In his memoir, Jung would remark; these early impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed."
After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer. In 1879 he was called to Kleinhüningen, next to Basel, where his family lived in a parsonage of the church; the relocation lifted her melancholy. When he was nine years old, Jung's sister Johanna Gertrud was born. Known in the family as "Trudi", she became a secretary to her brother. Jung was a introverted child. From childhood, he believed that, like his mother, he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century. "Personality Number 1", as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time. "Personality Number 2" was a dignified and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father's academic approach to faith. A number of childhood memories made lifelong impressions on him; as a boy, he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper and lower halves, hid the case in the attic.
Periodically, he would return to the mannequin bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language. He reflected that this ceremonial act brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. Years he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous cultures, such as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia, he concluded that his intuitive ceremonial act was an unconscious ritual, which he had practiced in a way, strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about. His observations about symbols and the collective unconscious were inspired, in part, by these early experi
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal and ratio scales. Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science and quantitative research in many disciplines. Many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields; these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators. Since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units.
This system reduces all physical measurements to a mathematical combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology; the measurement of a property may be categorized by the following criteria: type, magnitude and uncertainty. They enable unambiguous comparisons between measurements; the level of measurement is a taxonomy for the methodological character of a comparison. For example, two states of a property may be compared by difference, or ordinal preference; the type is not explicitly expressed, but implicit in the definition of a measurement procedure. The magnitude is the numerical value of the characterization obtained with a suitably chosen measuring instrument. A unit assigns a mathematical weighting factor to the magnitude, derived as a ratio to the property of an artifact used as standard or a natural physical quantity. An uncertainty represents the systemic errors of the measurement procedure. Errors are evaluated by methodically repeating measurements and considering the accuracy and precision of the measuring instrument.
Measurements most use the International System of Units as a comparison framework. The system defines seven fundamental units: kilogram, candela, ampere and mole. Six of these units are defined without reference to a particular physical object which serves as a standard, while the kilogram is still embodied in an artifact which rests at the headquarters of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres near Paris. Artifact-free definitions fix measurements at an exact value related to a physical constant or other invariable phenomena in nature, in contrast to standard artifacts which are subject to deterioration or destruction. Instead, the measurement unit can only change through increased accuracy in determining the value of the constant it is tied to; the first proposal to tie an SI base unit to an experimental standard independent of fiat was by Charles Sanders Peirce, who proposed to define the metre in terms of the wavelength of a spectral line. This directly influenced the Michelson–Morley experiment.
With the exception of a few fundamental quantum constants, units of measurement are derived from historical agreements. Nothing inherent in nature dictates that an inch has to be a certain length, nor that a mile is a better measure of distance than a kilometre. Over the course of human history, first for convenience and for necessity, standards of measurement evolved so that communities would have certain common benchmarks. Laws regulating measurement were developed to prevent fraud in commerce. Units of measurement are defined on a scientific basis, overseen by governmental or independent agencies, established in international treaties, pre-eminent of, the General Conference on Weights and Measures, established in 1875 by the Metre Convention, overseeing the International System of Units and having custody of the International Prototype Kilogram; the metre, for example, was redefined in 1983 by the CGPM in terms of light speed, while in 1960 the international yard was defined by the governments of the United States, United Kingdom and South Africa as being 0.9144 metres.
In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a division of the United States Department of Commerce, regulates commercial measurements. In the United Kingdom, the role is performed by the National Physical Laboratory, in Australia by the National Measurement Institute, in South Africa by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and in India the National Physical Laboratory of India. Before SI units were adopted around the world, the British systems of English units and imperial units were used in Britain, the Commonwealth and the United States; the system came to be known as U. S. is still in use there and in a few Caribbean countries. These various systems of measurement have at times been called foot-pound-second systems after the Imperial units for length and time though the tons, hundredweights and nautical miles, for example, are different for the U. S. units. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain, which has switched to the SI system—with a few exceptions such as road signs, which are still in miles.
Draught beer and cider must be sold by the imperial pint, milk in returnable bottles can be sold by the imperial pint. Many people meas
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
Koenigsberg Observatory was an astronomical observatory and research facility, attached to the Albertina University in Königsberg, what is now Kaliningrad, Russia. The observatory was destroyed by Royal Air Force bombs in August 1944 during the Second World War, it was founded in 1810 and started working in 1813. Well-known astronomers who used the observatory included Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Arthur Auwers and Hermann Struve. In 1838, the parallax of a star was determined for first time by Bessel using a heliometer of Fraunhofer. Koenigsberg observatory, sciencephoto.com
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including sensation & perception, cognition, motivation, emotion. Experimental psychology emerged as a modern academic discipline in the 19th century when Wilhelm Wundt introduced a mathematical and experimental approach to the field. Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in Germany. Other experimental psychologists, including Hermann Ebbinghaus and Edward Titchener, included introspection among their experimental methods. Charles Bell was a British physiologist, whose main contribution was research involving the nervous system, he wrote a pamphlet summarizing his research on rabbits. His research concluded that sensory nerves enter at the posterior roots of the spinal cord and motor nerves emerge from the anterior roots of the spinal cord. Eleven years a French physiologist Francois Magendie published the same findings without being aware of Bell’s research.
Due to Bell not publishing his research, the discovery was called the Bell-Magendie law. Bell's discovery disproved the belief that nerves transmitted either spirits. Weber was a German physician, credited with being one of the founders of experimental psychology, his main interests were the sense of touch and kinesthesis. His most memorable contribution is the suggestion that judgments of sensory differences are relative and not absolute; this relativity is expressed in "Weber's Law," which suggests that the just-noticeable difference, or jnd is a constant proportion of the ongoing stimulus level. Weber's Law is stated as an equation: Δ I I = k, where I is the original intensity of stimulation, Δ I is the addition to it required for the difference to be perceived, k is a constant. Thus, for k to remain constant, Δ I must rise as I increases. Weber’s law is considered the first quantitative law in the history of psychology. Fechner published in 1860 what is considered to be the first work of experimental psychology, "Elemente der Psychophysik."
Some historians date the beginning of experimental psychology from the publication of "Elemente." Weber was not a psychologist, it was Fechner who realized the importance of Weber’s research to psychology. Fechner was profoundly interested in establishing a scientific study of the mind-body relationship, which became known as psychophysics. Much of Fechner's research focused on the measurement of psychophysical thresholds and just-noticeable differences, he invented the psychophysical method of limits, the method of constant stimuli, the method of adjustment, which are still in use. Oswald Külpe is the main founder of the Würzburg School in Germany, he was a pupil of Wilhelm Wundt for about twelve years. Unlike Wundt, Külpe believed. In 1883 he wrote Grundriss der Psychologie, which had scientific facts and no mention of thought; the lack of thought in his book is odd because the Würzburg School put a lot of emphasis on mental set and imageless thought. The work of the Würzburg School was a milestone in the development of experimental psychology.
The School was founded by a group of psychologists led by Oswald Külpe, it provided an alternative to the structuralism of Edward Titchener and Wilhelm Wundt. Those in the School focused on mental operations such as mental set and imageless thought. Mental set affects problem solving without the awareness of the individual. According to Külpe, imageless thought consists of pure mental acts that do not involve mental images. An example of mental set was provided by William Bryan, an American student working in Külpe’s laboratory. Bryan presented subjects with cards; the subjects were told to attend to the syllables, in consequence they did not remember the colors of the nonsense syllables. Such results made people question the validity of introspection as a research tool, led to a decline of voluntarism and structuralism; the work of the Würzburg School influenced many Gestalt psychologists, including Max Wertheimer. Experimental psychology was introduced into the United States by George Trumbull Ladd, who founded Yale University's psychological laboratory in 1879.
In 1887, Ladd published Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook that extensively discussed experimental psychology. Between Ladd's founding of the Yale Laboratory and his textbook, the center of experimental psychology in the US shifted to Johns Hopkins University, where George Hall and Charles Sanders Peirce were extending and qualifying Wundt's work. With his student Joseph Jastrow, Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights. Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the 1800s; the Peirce–Jastrow experiments were conducted as part of Peirce's pragmatic program to understand human perception. While Peirce was making advance
Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another in a way considered to be unfair. Biases can be learned implicitly within cultural contexts. People may develop biases toward or against an individual, an ethnic group, a sexual or gender identity, a nation, a religion, a social class, a political party, theoretical paradigms and ideologies within academic domains, or a species. Biased means lacking a neutral viewpoint, or not having an open mind. Bias is related to prejudice and intuition. In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average; the word derives from Old Provençal into Old French biais, "sideways, against the grain". Whence comes French biais, "a slant, a slope, an oblique", it seems to have entered English via the game of bowls, where it referred to balls made with a greater weight on one side.
Which expanded to the figurative use, "a one-sided tendency of the mind", and, at first in law, "undue propensity or prejudice". A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, recollecting, or other cognitive processes; that is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably. People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality; however some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation. Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing. Anchoring is a psychological heuristic that describes the propensity to rely on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions.
According to this heuristic, individuals begin with an implicitly suggested reference point and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiations, so that prices lower than the initial price seem more reasonable if they are still higher than what the car is worth. Apophenia known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. Apophenia is well documented as a rationalization for gambling. Gamblers may imagine that they see patterns in the numbers which appear in lotteries, card games, or roulette wheels. One manifestation of this is known as the "gambler's fallacy". Pareidolia is the auditory form of apophenia, it has been suggested that pareidolia combined with hierophany may have helped ancient societies organize chaos and make the world intelligible. An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors.
People make attributions about others' behaviors. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world; when judging others we tend to assume their actions are the result of internal factors such as personality, whereas we tend to assume our own actions arise because of the necessity of external circumstances. There are a wide range of sorts of attribution biases, such as the ultimate attribution error, fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, self-serving bias. Examples of attribution bias: Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it; the effect is stronger for charged issues and for entrenched beliefs. People tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization, belief perseverance, the irrational primacy effect and illusory correlation.
Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in organizational contexts. Framing involves the social construction of social phenomena by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, so on, it is an influence over how people organize and communicate about reality. It can be positive or negative, depending on the audience and what kind of information is being presented. For political purposes, framing presents facts in such a way that implicates a problem, in need of a solution. Members of political parties attempt to frame issues in a way that makes a solution favoring their own political leaning appear as the most appropriate course of action for the situation at hand; as understood in social theory, framing is a schema of interpretation, a collection of anecdotes and stereo