Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the data movement are similar to those of other open movements such as open source, open hardware, open content and open access. gov. Open data may include non-textual material such as maps, connectomes, chemical compounds and scientific formulae, medical data and practice, problems often arise because these are commercially valuable or can be aggregated into works of value. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, control may be through access restrictions, copyright and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the communal good, in addition, it is important that the data are re-usable without requiring further permission, though the types of re-use may be controlled by a license. We are busy locking up that data and preventing the use of advanced technologies on knowledge.
Creators of data often do not consider the need to state the conditions of ownership, licensing and re-use, the lack of a license makes it difficult to determine the status of a data set and may restrict the use of data offered in an Open spirit. Because of this uncertainty it is possible for public or private organizations to aggregate said data, protect it with copyright. The issue of indigenous knowledge poses a challenge in terms of capturing, storage. Many societies in third-world countries lack the technicality processes of managing the IK, at his presentation at the XML2005 conference, Connolly displayed these two quotations regarding open data, I want my data back. Ive long believed that customers of any application own the data they enter into it, Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields that publish a large amount of open data, the concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system, in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–1958.
The Human Genome Project was an initiative that exemplified the power of open data. More recent initiatives such as the Structural Genomics Consortium have illustrated that the open data approach can be used productively within the context of industrial R&D, linkedscience. org/data – Open scientific datasets encoded as Linked Data. There are a range of different arguments for government data. Some make the case that opening up official information can support technological innovation and economic growth by enabling third parties to develop new kinds of digital applications, several national governments have created web sites to distribute a portion of the data they collect. It is a concept for a project in municipal Government to create. Additionally, other levels of government have established open data websites, there are many government entities pursuing Open Data in Canada
Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California. Facebook gradually added support for students at other universities. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students, Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, schools attended and so on. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, hobbies or other topics, in groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people, because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies.
Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13,2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poors 500 Index to reach a market cap of $250 billion, Facebook has more than 1.86 billion monthly active users as of December 31,2016. As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, Facebook classifies users from the ages of 13 to 18 as minors and therefore sets their profiles to share content with friends only. Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28,2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore, to accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvards computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online, the site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by the Harvard administration.
Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section and he shared the site with his classmates, and people started sharing notes. The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004 and he said that he was inspired by an editorial about the Facemash incident in The Harvard Crimson. On February 4,2004, Zuckerberg launched Thefacebook, originally located at thefacebook. com. com and they claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation and they filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, within the first month, eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website
A public space is a social space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public squares and beaches are considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas. Recently, the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space used by automobiles. Public space has become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, visual art, cultural studies, social studies. The term public space is often misconstrued to mean other things such as gathering place. One of the earliest examples of spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, non-government-owned malls are examples of private space with the appearance of being public space. In Nordic countries like Norway and Finland, all areas are considered public space, due to a law. In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech, the government cannot usually limit ones speech beyond what is reasonable in a public space, which is considered to be a public forum.
This is not to say that the government can control what one says in their own home or to others, malls, waiting rooms, etc. may be closed at night. As this does not exclude any specific group, it is not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks cannot be restricted based upon a users residence, in some cultures, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space, however civil inattention is a process whereby individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. Public space is shared and created for open usage throughout the community. The area is built for a range of types of recreation. The physical setting is socially constructed, which creates a behavior influence, limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior that is considered obnoxious or out of character --and are supported by law or ordinance. Police forces are involved in moving unwanted members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are excluded from some spaces
Eli Pariser is the chief executive of Upworthy, a website for meaningful viral content. He is a political and internet activist, the board president of MoveOn. org. Parisers rise to prominence as a political activist began when he, at the time, he was working as a program assistant for the national nonprofit More Than Money. In less than a month, half a million people had signed the petition, Pariser joined Moveon. org in November 2001, when founders Wes Boyd and Joan Blades invited him to merge his efforts with theirs. Writing for The New York Times Magazine in 2003, journalist George Packer referred to MoveOn as the element of what may be the fastest-growing protest movement in American history. Pariser was the Executive Director of MoveOn. org from 2004 to 2008, Pariser became concerned about the development of web personalization. For example, a liberal typing BP might get information about the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and this led to his development of the concept of a filter bubble, a danger that people do not get exposed to viewpoints different from their own.
In 2013, Pariser joined the board of advisors for tech startup State. com and he grew up in Lincolnville, and in 2000 graduated summa cum laude from Bard College at Simons Rock with a B. A. in law and political science. In 2005, he returned to Simons Rock to give the commencement speech, Pariser is married to Gena Konstantinakos. The Filter Bubble official website Senior Fellow at the Roosevelt Institute MoveOn
Collaborative filtering is a technique used by recommender systems. Collaborative filtering has two senses, a one and a more general one. In the newer, narrower sense, collaborative filtering is a method of making predictions about the interests of a user by collecting preferences or taste information from many users. For example, a collaborative filtering system for television tastes could make predictions about which television show a user should like given a partial list of that users tastes. Note that these predictions are specific to the user, but use information gleaned from many users and this differs from the simpler approach of giving an average score for each item of interest, for example based on its number of votes. Applications of collaborative filtering typically involve very large data sets, the remainder of this discussion focuses on collaborative filtering for user data, although some of the methods and approaches may apply to the other major applications as well. The growth of the Internet has made it more difficult to effectively extract useful information from all the available online information.
The overwhelming amount of data necessitates mechanisms for efficient information filtering, Collaborative filtering is one of the techniques used for dealing with this problem. The motivation for collaborative filtering comes from the idea that people often get the best recommendations from someone with similar to themselves. Collaborative filtering encompasses techniques for matching people with interests and making recommendations on this basis. Collaborative filtering algorithms often require users active participation, a way to represent users interests. Typically, the workflow of a filtering system is, A user expresses his or her preferences by rating items of the system. These ratings can be viewed as a representation of the users interest in the corresponding domain. The system matches this users ratings against other users and finds the people with most similar tastes, users can immediately rate the recommended items. As a result, the system gains an increasingly accurate representation of user preferences over time, Collaborative filtering systems have many forms, but many common systems can be reduced to two steps, Look for users who share the same rating patterns with the active user.
Use the ratings from those like-minded users found in step 1 to calculate a prediction for the active user This falls under the category of user-based collaborative filtering, a specific application of this is the user-based Nearest Neighbor algorithm. Another form of filtering can be based on implicit observations of normal user behavior. These predictions have to be filtered through business logic to determine how they affect the actions of a business system
Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital-based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and it allows for on-demand printing, short turnaround time, and even a modification of the image used for each impression. This results in quicker turnaround time and lower cost when using digital printing, fine art digital inkjet printing is printing from a computer image file directly to an inkjet printer as a final output. Initially, these printers were limited to glossy papers, but the IRIS Graphics printer allowed the use of a variety of papers that included traditional and non-traditional media. Substrates in fine art inkjet printmaking include traditional fine-art papers such as Rives BFK, Arches watercolor paper and untreated canvas, experimental substrates, inkjet reproductions can be printed and sold individually in accordance with demand. Digital inkjet printing allows for the output of art of all types as finished pieces or as an element in a further art piece.
Experimental artists often add texture or other media to the surface of a final print, many terms for the process have been used over the years, including digigraph and giclée. Thousands of print shops and digital printmakers now offer services to painters, digital images are exposed onto true, light sensitive photographic paper with lasers and processed in photographic developers and fixers. These prints are true photographs and have continuous tone in the image detail, the archival quality of the print is as high as the manufacturers rating for any given photo paper used. In large format prints, the greatest advantage is that, since no lens is used, digital printing technology has grown significantly over the past few years with substantial developments in quality and sheet sizes. Digital printing has many advantages over traditional methods, print on Demand – digital printing is used for personalized printing for example, childrens books customized with a childs name, photo books, or any other books.
Advertising – often used for banner advertising and event signage, in trade shows, in the retail sector at point of sale or point of purchase. Photos – digital printing has revolutionized photo printing in terms of the ability to retouch, architectural Design – new media that conforms to a variety of surfaces has enabled interior and exterior spaces to be transformed using digitally printed wall murals and floor graphics
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. User-generated content, such as posts or comments, digital photos or videos. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the media organization. Social media facilitate the development of social networks by connecting a users profile with those of other individuals or groups. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses, organizations and individuals, Social media changes the way individuals and large organizations communicate. These changes are the focus of the field of technoself studies. In America, a reported that 84 percent of adolescents in America have a Facebook account. Over 60% of 13 to 17-year-olds have at least one profile on social media, according to Nielsen, Internet users continue to spend more time on social media sites than on any other type of site.
For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building a reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income. Social media differ from paper-based or traditional media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, immediacy. Social media operate in a Dialogic transmission system and this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a paper newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers. Some of the most popular social media websites are Baidu Tieba, Gab, Google+, LinkedIn, Reddit, Tumblr, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp, and YouTube. These social media websites have more than 100,000,000 registered users, observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment.
Currently, about half of adults have been cyberbullied and of those,20 percent said that they have been cyberbullied on a regular basis. Another survey was carried out among 7th grade students in America which is known as the Precaution Process Adoption Model, according to this study,69 percent of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying and they said that it is worse than face to face bullying. The variety and evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services introduces a challenge of definition, the terminology is unclear, with some referring to social media as social networks. A2015 paper reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to then-current social media services, in 2016, Merriam-Webster defined social media as Forms of electronic communication through which people create online communities to share information, personal messages, etc
Evgeny Morozov is a writer and researcher from Belarus who studies political and social implications of technology. Morozov was born in 1984 in Soligorsk, Belarus and he attended the American University in Bulgaria and lived in Berlin before moving to the United States. He has previously been a Yahoo, as of 2013, Morozov is pursuing a PhD in the history of science from Harvard. He has criticized what he calls The Internet Freedom Agenda of the US government, finding it naïve, in January 2011, Morozov published his first book The Net Delusion, The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Morozov argues against the ideas of what he calls cyber-utopianism and Internet-centrism, in March 2013, Morozov published a second book, To Save Everything, Click Here. Morozov criticizes what he calls technology solutionism, the idea that, as Tim Wu put it, Morozov believes that technology should be debated alongside debates about politics, economics and culture. About Internet libertarians, Morozov told The New Yorker, They want to be open, they want to be disruptive, the open agenda is, in many ways, the opposite of equality and justice.
They think anything that helps you to bypass institutions is, by default, texting Toward Utopia, Does the internet spread democracy. By James Rainey, Los Angeles Times
A protagonist is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The protagonist is at the center of the story, typically makes the key decisions, the protagonist usually affects the main characters circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a made up of several stories. The word protagonist is used notably in stories and forms of literature and culture that contain stories, in those forms the protagonist may simply be the leading actor, or the principal character in the story. The antagonist will provide obstacles and complications and create conflict that test the protagonist, thus revealing the strengths, the earliest known examples of protagonist are dated back to Ancient Greece. At first dramatic performances involved merely dancing and recitation by the chorus, but in Poetics, Aristotle describes how a poet named Thespis introduced the idea of having one actor step out and engage in a dialogue with the chorus.
This was the invention of tragedy, which occurred about 536 B. C, the poet Aeschylus, in his plays, introduced a second actor, inventing the idea of dialogue between two characters. Sophocles wrote plays that required a third actor, euripides play Hippolytus may be considered to have two protagonists. The protagonist of the first half is Phaedra, who dies partway through the play and her stepson, the titular Hippolytus, assumes the dominant role in the second half of the play. In Ibsen’s play The Master Builder, the protagonist is the architect Halvard Solness, the young woman, Hilda Wangel, whose actions lead to the death of Solness, is the antagonist. In Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is the protagonist and he is actively in pursuit of his relationship with Juliet, and the audience is invested in that story. The character of Tybalt opposes Romeo’s desires, he is the antagonist, in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Prince Hamlet, who seeks revenge for the murder of his father, is the protagonist.
The antagonist would be the character who most opposes Hamlet, Claudius, in the novel The Catcher in the Rye, the character Holden Caulfield is the protagonist. He is the character, and the reader is invested in his story. Sometimes, a work will have a false protagonist, who may seem to be the protagonist, the character Marion in Alfred Hitchcocks film Psycho is an example. A novel that contains a number of narratives may have a number of protagonists, alexander Solzhenitsyns The First Circle, for example, depicts a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp. Leo Tolstoys War and Peace, depicts fifteen major characters involved in or affected by a war
An application program is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator. The collective noun application software refers to all applications collectively and this contrasts with system software, which is mainly involved with running the computer. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its software or published separately. Apps built for mobile platforms are called mobile apps, in information technology, an application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from a system, a utility. Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, graphics, some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing, called integrated software include several applications.
User-written software tailors systems to meet the specific needs. User-written software includes templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics. Even email filters are a kind of user software, users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. The delineation between system software such as operating systems and application software is not exact, and is occasionally the object of controversy. As another example, the GNU/Linux naming controversy is, in part, the above definitions may exclude some applications that may exist on some computers in large organizations. For an alternative definition of an app, see Application Portfolio Management, the word application, once used as an adjective, is not restricted to the of or pertaining to application software meaning. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform and this is called a killer application or killer app. There are many different ways to divide up different types of application software, web apps have indeed greatly increased in popularity for some uses, but the advantages of applications make them unlikely to disappear soon, if ever.
Furthermore, the two can be complementary, and even integrated, Application software can be seen as being either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal applications are more popular and widespread, because they are general purpose, vertical applications are niche products, designed for a particular type of industry or business, or department within an organization. Integrated suites of software will try to handle every aspect possible of, for example, manufacturing or banking systems, or accounting