Young Democrats (Netherlands)
The Young Democrats is the social-liberal youth organisation of the Netherlands, founded in 1984. With over 5,000 members it's the largest political youth organisation of the Netherlands. Although independent, the Young Democrats are affiliated with the Dutch social-liberal party Democrats 66. According to the Declaration of Principles, the Young Democrats are a liberal-democratic youth organisation; the main objective of the Young Democrats is to contribute to the individual development of every person. Core values of the Young Democrats are liberty, solidarity and pragmatism; the Young Democrats are in favour of radical democratisation of society. The Young Democrats advocate preparing the Netherlands for the consequences of an ageing society, they suggest increasing labour participation by reforming social security. JD is in favour of raising the retirement age to 67 years from the current age of 65; the Young Democrats are in favour of ending the right of faith-based schools to refuse enrolment by pupils on the basis of religion.
The Young Democrats are supporters of phasing out tax breaks for home owners paying interest on a mortgage. The Young Democrats are staunch defenders of civil liberties, they continue to support liberal reforms attained by D66 in the past in eras such as euthanasia, gay marriage and the legalisation of prostitution. The JD wishes to see the production of softdrugs legalised; the Young Democrats oppose counter-terrorism measures that are not both proportional and have proven effective. In particular, JD opposes current legislation obliging citizens to be able to prove their identity at any time. JD rejects a ban on the wearing of the burqa in public spaces; the Young Democrats are in favour of more direct democracy in the form of referenda and direct elections for the offices of prime-minister and mayor. The Young Democrats are in favour of more investment in renewable energy sources and support the Kyoto Protocol; the JD is not opposed to nuclear energy. The Young Democrats are European federalists and wish to see more European cooperation on immigration and foreign policy.
The Young Democrats are strong supporters of human rights. Within the Young Democrats power lies with the members; the Congress meets three times a year. During the Congress members of the National Board are elected individually and JD policy is decided through resolutions and motions. All members have equal say through one vote system; the day-to-day management of the Young Democrats is in the hands of the National Board, the members of which are: President: Dennis van Driel Secretary-General andere Vice-President: Michiel Lemmers Treasurer: Marten Porte Political & International Officer: Marten Porte Press & Campaign Officer: Marit Gorissen Organisation & Education Officer: Cyriel van Vugt Currently the Young Democrats have ten local branches, most of which are based in university cities, such as Amsterdam, Utrecht and Leiden. Every branch has a local board and organises regular general meetings where local board members are elected and policy is decided; every local member has the right to vote at the local general meetings.
The sections are: Amsterdam, for the province of North Holland and the city of Almere Leiden-Haaglanden, for Leiden, The Hague and Delft Rotterdam, for the southern part of the province of South Holland Brabant, for the provinces of North Brabant and Zeeland Limburg Arnhem-Nijmegen, for the cities of Arnhem and Nijmegen Utrecht, for Utrecht and Wageningen Overijssel, for the province of Overijssel and the northern part of Gelderland Groningen, for the provinces of Groningen and Drenthe Friesland The Young Democrats of the Netherlands, together with the Youth Organisation Freedom and Democracy, are members of both the European Liberal Youth and the International Federation of Liberal Youth. Young Democrat Bart Woord was the president of the IFLRY Bureau from November 2009 to November 2010. From November 2010, Ivo Thijssen is the representative of the LYMEC Bureau in the IFLRY Bureau. Furthermore, there exist close bilateral ties with the German, Belgian and Tunisian young liberals. Young Democrats website Democrats 66 website European Liberal Youth website International Federation of Liberal Youth website
Communist Youth Movement (Netherlands)
Communist Youth Movement is a political youth organisation in the Netherlands. The CJB was founded on 21 September 2003, as an independent, though politically allied, continuation of the youth of the New Communist Party of the Netherlands, NCPN Jongeren, it is the official youth organisation of the NCPN, it publishes Voorwaarts!, an online magazine. Its membership count remains unpublished, but the growth of the CJB, due to their activity, has shown to be a factor of the revitalisation of their mother party, its members are present at most demonstrations and massorganisations that the NCPN and other European communist youth groups participate in, as well as active in Cuban solidarity campaigns. General Dutch Youth League English CJB website Voorwaarts!, webmagazine of the CJB
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Amersfoort is a city and municipality in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands. In August 2017, the municipality had a population of 155,089, making it the second-largest of the province and fifteenth-largest of the country. Amersfoort is one of the largest Dutch railway junctions with its three stations—Amersfoort and Vathorst—due to its location on two of the Netherlands' main east to west and north to south railway lines; the city was used during the 1928 Summer Olympics as a venue for the modern pentathlon events. Amersfoort marked its 750th anniversary as a city in 2009; the municipality of Amersfoort consists of the following cities, towns and districts: Bergkwartier, Binnenstad, Hoogland-West, Kruiskamp, de Koppel, Rustenburg, Randenbroek, Schothorst, Vathorst, Vermeerkwartier, Leusderkwartier and Stoutenburg-Noord. Hunter gatherers set up camps in the Amersfoort region in the Mesolithic period. Archaeologists have found traces of these camps, such as the remains of hearths, sometimes microlithic flint objects, to the north of the city.
Remains of settlements in the Amersfoort area from around 1000 BC have been found, but the name Amersfoort, after a ford in the Amer River, today called the Eem, did not appear until the 11th century. The city grew around what is now known as the central square, the Hof, where the Bishops of Utrecht established a court in order to control the "Gelderse Vallei" area, it was granted city rights in 1259 by the bishop of Henry I van Vianden. A first defensive wall, made out of brick, was finished around 1300. Soon after, the need for enlargement of the city became apparent and around 1380 the construction of a new wall was begun and completed around 1450; the famous Koppelpoort, a combined land and water gate, is part of this second wall. The first wall was demolished and houses were built in its place. Today's Muurhuizen Street is at the exact location of the first wall; the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwentoren is one of the tallest medieval church towers in the Netherlands at 98 metres. The construction of the tower and the church was started in 1444.
The church was destroyed by an explosion in 1787, but the tower survived, the layout of the church still can be discerned today through the use of different types of stone in the pavement of the open space, created. It is now the reference point of the RD coordinate system, the coordinate grid used by the Dutch topographical service: the RD coordinates are; the inner city of Amersfoort has been preserved well since the Middle Ages. Apart from the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwetoren, the Koppelpoort, the Muurhuizen, there is the Sint-Joriskerk, the canal-system with its bridges, as well as medieval and other old buildings. In the Middle Ages, Amersfoort was an important centre for the textile industry, there were a large number of breweries. Jews lived in Amersfoort in the Middle Ages, before being expelled from the province in 1546 and beginning to return to the city in 1655; the nickname for Amersfoort, originates in the Amersfoortse Kei, a 9-tonne boulder, dragged from the Soest moors into the city in 1661 by 400 people because of a bet between two landowners.
The people got their reward when the winner pretzels. Other nearby towns nicknamed the people of Amersfoort Keientrekker; this story embarrassed the inhabitants, they buried the boulder in the city in 1672, but after it was found again in 1903 it was placed in a prominent spot as a monument. There are not many boulders in the Netherlands, so it can be regarded as an icon. One of the six Dutch towns established in the 17th Century in what is now Brooklyn was called "Nieuw Amersfoort"; the original patentees were Andries Hudde. Unlike other Dutch names which were retained up to the present, Nieuw Amersfoort is now called "Flatlands". In the 18th century the city flourished because of the cultivation of tobacco, but from about 1800 onwards began to decline; the decline was halted by the establishment of the first railway connection in 1863, some years by the building of a substantial number of infantry and cavalry barracks, which were needed to defend the western cities of the Netherlands. After the 1920s growth stalled again, until in 1970 the national government designated Amersfoort numbering some 70,000 inhabitants, as a "growth city".
Since Amersfoort was the largest garrison town in the Netherlands before the outbreak of the Second World War, with eight barracks, part of the main line of defence, the whole population of 43,000 was evacuated at the start of the invasion by the Germans in May 1940. After four days of battle, the population was allowed to return. There was a functioning Jewish community in the town, at the beginning of the war numbering about 700 people. Half of them were deported and killed in Auschwitz and Sobibor. In 1943, the synagogue, dating from 1727, was damaged on the orders of the Nazi-controlled city government, it was restored and opened again after the war, has been served since by a succession of rabbis. There was a Nazi concentration camp near the city of Amersfoort during the war; the camp called Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Amersfoort, better known as Kamp Amersfoort, was located in the neighbouring municipality of Leusden. After the war the leader of the camp, Jos
Kortenberg is a Belgian municipality located in the province of Flemish Brabant, about halfway between the cities of Brussels and Leuven. The municipality comprises the subdivisions or deelgemeenten of Erps-Kwerps, Kortenberg proper and Meerbeek. On January 1, 2013 Kortenberg had a total population of 19,393; the total area is 34.52 km² which gives a population density of about 562 inhabitants per km². In the southern part of Everberg there is a hamlet called Vrebos, while between Erps-Kwerps and Meerbeek there is another hamlet called Schoonaarde, which can be found in the proximity of the train station of Erps-Kwerps. On the territory of Erps-Kwerps an ancient Roman villa has been excavated; the same archeological site revealed a burial-ground of the Frankish civilisation. In 1095, Bishop of Cambrai, acknowledged the existence of a religious community on the Curtenbergh. For this reason, 1095 has been accepted as the founding year of Kortenberg; the conventuals moved in 1222 from the hill to lower grounds at the Minneveld, where the Abbey of Kortenberg still exists on this day.
From these early days, the Lords of Cortenberg lived in this village. They were of great significance in the history of the duchy of Brabant; the independent municipality of Erps had the main bailiwick in the area since 1286. The construction of a paved road from 1706 until 1709 was an important event in the growth of the municipality, together with the construction of a railroad in 1866. In the end of the nineteenth century the new bourgeoisie built a whole range of new residences in the style of the Belle Epoque with the typical spires. On August 27, 1914, German troops put a local brewery, some residences and a little castle on fire while invading Kortenberg. There has been a Benedictine abbey in Kortenberg since 1222. In 1312, John II, Duke of Brabant signed the Charter of Kortenberg in the abbey, thereby establishing a constitution for the entire Duchy of Brabant and granting powers to a precursory democratic institution. After the Magna Carta, it is the second document in western history to limit the powers of monarchs in favour of a number of civil freedoms.
The abbey has a stirring history of arson and reconstruction. The oldest still remaining parts are the gate building with the gothic spired gate from the early seventeenth century, the Cattle Courtyard from 1650, the lease courtyard, the Brewery from 1732, the abbey castle, built from 1779 until 1783; the traditional great hall and the baroque chapel are dated from 1934. The abbey, owned by the diocese, became a protected monument on February 14, 2005 as part of resolution made by the Flemish government; the Old Abbey Kortenberg is a center of contemplation. Today, the grounds have been opened to the public as a park for recreational use; the municipality is crossed by the highway A3/E40. Although the territory contains a parking lot adjacent to this highway, it doesn't have any access or exits roads, it lies between exit 21 and exit 22. The main secondary road is the N2. Kortenberg has a train station; the town of Erps-Kwerps has its own train station on that same line. A network of public transport via buses is maintained by the Flemish bus service company De Lijn.
Bus services: 358. The Flemish Community organizes educational facilities in the community school Hertog-Jan, a primary school and a middle school as well. Secondary schools are attended in other municipalities such as Tervuren, Wezembeek-Oppem, Haacht, in the Brussels-Capital Region. Citizens who were born or died in Kortenberg, lived a considerable time in Kortenberg, or still live there. Marie Abts-Ermens, sewed the first Belgian flag Félicien Marceau, French novelist family de Mérode, prominent Belgian noble family William Charles Ghislain of Merode, Prince of Rubempré-Everberg Charles-Antoine-Ghislain Count de Mérode-Westerloo, Minister of State Baron Albert Jozef de Vleeschauwer van Braekel, politician Robert J. Houben, Minister of State Jean Meeus, astronomer General Bernard Montgomery, British Army officer Edward Schillebeeckx, theologian Karel Van Miert, Minister of State and European Commissioner Official website Website with some more pictures and history Gazetteer Entry Heritage House Kortenberg: Historical and Cultural Society
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
ROOD: jong in de SP is a Dutch youth wing linked to the left-wing, Socialist Party. ROOD's main goals are the promotion of a socialist society and promotion of its mother party and attempts to attract new people into it. Formally, ROOD has been a vereniging since 2003 with the goal to let young people participate in creating a socialist society in the Netherlands and to support the SP. Between 1999 and 2003, ROOD was a group within the party subtitled "young initiative within the SP", it was the successor of the "J-team". Locally, ROOD is organised in groups within political and financial responsibility of the local SP-section. There exist criteria such as a minimum number of members; the number of groups is continuously fluctuating, but was 20 on average in 2005. Stable groups exist in Amsterdam, Den Bosch and Utrecht. ROOD-members can be anyone between 14 and 28, they have to be a member of the SP, except for members below 16 years of age. Nationally, ROOD has a board consisting of five people with a varying number of supporting advisors.
The board, elected nationally, coordinates the groups and organises nationwide action campaign and activities such as education and excursions. In May 2012 Lieke Smits was elected chairperson, she is the successor of Leon Botter, chairman between 2009 and 2012. He was elected, she was the successor of Gijsbert Houtbeckers, chairperson since June 2007, succeeding Renske Leijten who held the position since June 2005. The first formal chairperson since ROOD was founded was Driek van Vugt between 2003 and 2005. Before that, he had been part of the board of the group ROOD since 1999, whose chairpeople were Sjoerd de Jong and Gerrie Elfrink. Although formally independent, ROOD does not take any stances that are different from that of the party; the main activities of ROOD are political activism and educating its members. In 2003, ROOD was active protesting against the obligation for all citizens to be always able to identify themselves, against cuts in education. There were buildings occupied to attract attention to the lack of housing for young people and at various universities, actions were held for fair trade coffee at universities.
ROOD sent a representative to the European Social Forum in Paris. Since 2003, ROOD organises a yearly Huisjesmelker van het Jaar vote, where students vote for the worst private landlord in the country. Since 2005, this poll is organised in cooperation with the Landelijke Studenten Vakbond and local councils of that organisation. In 2004, ROOD started a campaign against animal testing in the cosmetics industry, in 2005 L'Oréal were targeted to stop animal testing when ROOD visited delivered a signed petition to the company. ROOD campaigns on international themes such as globalisation. In 2005, ROOD facilitated an exposition by young Palestinians about their culture, in different Dutch cities. After a visit of ROOD members to the occupied areas in Palestine, a declaration of friendship was signed with the football club Hapoel Bnei Sakhnin, by ROOD referred to as "FC Bnei Sakhnin". In the Netherlands, ROOD started a supporters club for this Arab Israeli club. ROOD participated in the successful campaign against the European Constitution with the slogan "Zeg je ja of denk je na".
In 2006 ROOD organised two electoral campaigns of its own, supporting the SP in the municipal elections and in the national elections. In 2006, ROOD started the website www.watvooreikelszijnjullie.nl, a parody of the government website www.watvooreikelbenjij.nl, meant to teach values to young people. ROOD's stated reasons for the satirical site are that the government site represents a waste of public money and that the language used by the government site lacks respect. ROOD criticised the fact that this site was linked to MSN, which means free publicity for Microsoft. Since 2007, ROOD has been organising actions for the improvement of the education system; the main focus of these actions was against the'1040 hour norm'. This 1040 norm caused a spontaneous all-out strike among secondary school students. ROOD publishes two student newspapers: The Blikopener, for HBO and university students; the Code ROOD appears four times a year and contains political comments and news about activities by ROOD.
The Blikopener appears twice a year. They are distributed free of charge at schools, in some places are distributed at homes in areas with many students; until 2006, ROOD had a monthly page in the Tribune. Since 2006, ROOD is distributing the ROOD-magazine for its members, it will contain in-depth political analysis for ROOD-members. Unlike other political youth organisations, ROOD is linked to the party. For the municipal elections in 2006, 10% of the elected candidates are from ROOD, for the legislative elections in 2006, former chairperson Renske Leijten is at number 9 on the candidate list, was one of the youngest candidates for parliament. By 2008, three members of parliament have a history within ROOD, being Farshad Bashir, Manja Smits and Renske Leijten. Within the national SP, ROOD is represented within the party management, locally it is tried to represent ROOD in many local sections to coordinate activities; as of 2008, ROOD had 28 local