District courts of Sweden
The district courts of Sweden are the court of first instance for the general courts in Sweden. The next instance are the courts of appeal; the district court handle criminal cases, some civil law disputes and a number of non-contentious matters. There are 48 district courts across Sweden, the catchment area is based on the geographic boundaries of several municipalities; the number of employees vary, from ten to several hundreds. The general courts in Sweden deal with civil cases. Criminal cases are the cases in which someone stands trial under the suspicion of having committed an act defined in the Swedish Penal Code or in another law, for which a sanction is prescribed, like theft or tax offences. Civil cases are cases where two parties are in disagreement, for example, over the contents of a business agreement or cases relating to family law; the district court handles a number of other non-contentious matters. Sweden is divided into 48 judicial districts; the district courts are general lower courts and courts of first instance.
In the district courts, a judge other than the president of a court or a division of a court is titled Judge. A judge who presides over a division is titled Senior Judge, the head official of the district court is titled Chief Judge; each district court has a Chief Judge, one or more permanent salaried judges. In order to be accepted for training as a judge one must be a Swedish citizen, hold a degree of bachelor of law at minimum and earned qualifications as a court clerk. There are more than 5,000 lay judges linked to the district courts. Lay judges are laymen, not qualified representatives of the people, appointed by the municipal assembly, serving four years at a time; the district court make use of lay judges in criminal cases only. The main rule in civil cases is that the district court should consist of three qualified judges, but there are several exceptions to this rule. In simple cases, if the parties agree to it, the court can consist of one qualified judge. Another exception is if the value of the claim is low the quorum is one qualified judge.
If a judge is excused after the commencement of the main hearing, the remaining two judges constitute a quorum. At main hearings in criminal cases the district courts are prescribed to consist of one qualified judge and three lay judges. In criminal cases where the penalty is imprisonment, the presence of lay judges is required. However, if a lay judge is unable to attend after a main hearing has commenced, the bench constitutes a quorum with one qualified judge and two lay judges. In simpler criminal cases, where the penalty is a fine or where the legislation calls for imprisonment not exceeding six months, a qualified judge, without lay judges, constitutes the quorum; the person, convicted, the prosecutor and the victim of the crime can appeal against a district court in the appellate court. This must be made within three weeks of the date of the judgement. In some circumstances a leave to appeal is required, meaning a trained person at the court of appeal will examine the case and present a report to three qualified judges, before the case can proceed.
If there is reason to believe that the next instance would arrive at a conclusion different to that of the district court, a leave to appeal will be granted. A judgement in a civil case can similarly be appealed; the map shows geographic boundaries of the general courts, i.e. the district courts and its appellate court. Judiciary of Sweden Crime in Sweden 1.^ List of district courts on the official website of the Swedish National Courts Administration and SFS 1982:996
Swedish royal family
The Swedish royal family since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte related to the King of Sweden. Today those who are recognized by the government are entitled to royal titles and style, perform official engagements and ceremonial duties of state; the extended family of the King consists of other close relatives who are not royal and thus do not represent the country officially. A Swedish royal family, as related to a head of state, has been able to be identified as existent from as early as the 10th century A. D. with more precise detail added during the three centuries that followed. An exceptional case is that of Saint Bridget who outside of Sweden became known as the Princess of Nericia, a title which appears to have been a noble, rather than a royal one, since she was not the daughter of a king. Confirmed monarchs are listed by the Swedish Royal Court; until the 1620s Swedish provinces were granted as territorial appanages to royal princes which, as dukes thereof, they governed semi-autonomously.
Beginning during the reign of Gustav III, as codified in § 34 of the 1772 Instrument of Government, provincial dukedoms have existed in the royal family as nominal non-hereditary titles only, without any inherent property ownership or trust attached to them. The son of a Swedish king has held the princely title as a royal dynast, but on a rare occasion as a rank of nobility, or as a courtesy title for an ex-dynast; the Swedish Royal Court lists the following persons as members of the Royal House: King Carl XVI Gustaf Queen Silvia Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne, Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland,married to Christopher O'Neill Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland Princess Adrienne, Duchess of Blekinge Princess Birgitta, widow of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern The Royal Court lists the following persons additionally as members of the Royal Family: Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, widow of John Ambler Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, widow of Baron Niclas Silfverschiöld Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, married to Consul General Tord Magnuson Marianne Bernadotte, widow of Sigvard Bernadotte Red-framed persons are deceased.
Notes* Member of the Royal House ** Member of the Royal Family Monarchy of Sweden Dukes of Swedish Provinces Swedish Royal Court Complete list of Sweden's royal family, alphabetically, on Swedish Wikipedia
Elections in Sweden
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20 county councils and 290 municipal assemblies – all using the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September. Sweden holds elections to the European Parliament, which unlike Swedish domestic elections are held in June every five years, although they are held on a Sunday and use an identical electoral system; the last Swedish general election was held on 9 September 2018. The last Swedish election to the European Parliament was held on 25 May 2014. Elections to Sweden's county councils occur with the general elections on the second Sunday of September. Elections to the municipal assemblies occur on the second Sunday of September.
Elections to the European Parliament occur every five years in June throughout the entire European Union. To vote in a Swedish general election, one must be:a Swedish citizen, at least 18 years of age on election day, have at some point been a registered resident of Sweden To vote in Swedish local elections, one must: be a registered resident of the county or municipality in question and be at least 18 years of age on election day fall into one of the following groups:Swedish citizens Citizens of Iceland, Norway, or any country in the European Union Citizens of any other country who have permanent residency in Sweden and have lived in Sweden for three consecutive yearsIn order to vote in elections to the European Parliament, one must be 18 years old, fall into one of the following groups: Swedish citizens who are or have been residents of Sweden Citizens of any other country in the European Union who are residents of Sweden. Unlike in many countries where voters chose from a list of candidates or parties, each party in Sweden has separate ballot papers.
The ballot papers must be identical in size and material, have different colors depending on the type of election: yellow for Riksdag elections, blue for county council elections and white for municipal elections and elections to the European Parliament. Sweden uses open lists and utilizes apparentment between lists of the same party and constituency to form a cartel, a group of lists that are allied for purposes of seat allocation. A single preference vote may be indicated as well. Swedish voters can choose between three different types of ballot papers; the party ballot paper has the name of a political party printed on the front and is blank on the back. This ballot is used when a voter wishes to vote for a particular party, but does not wish to give preference to a particular candidate; the name ballot paper has a party name followed by a list of candidates. A voter using this ballot can choose to cast a personal vote by entering a mark next to a particular candidate, in addition to voting for their political party.
Alternatively, a voter can write a party name on it. If a party hasn't registered its candidates with the election authority, it is possible for a voter to manually write the name of an arbitrary candidate. In reality, this option is exclusively available when voting for unestablished parties. However, it has caused individuals to be elected into the city council to represent parties they don't support as a result of a single voter's vote; the municipalities and the national election authority have the responsibility to organise the elections. On the election day, voting takes place in a municipal building such as a school, it is possible to do early voting in a municipal building, available in day time, such as a library. Early voting can be performed anywhere in Sweden, not just in the home municipality. Swedish election policy of always displaying the ballot papers for voters to select in public, making it impossible for many voters to vote secretly, has been criticised as undemocratic. Many use subterfuge and select bunches of additional ballots which they do not intend to use.
For the general elections, the State pays for the printing and distribution of ballot papers for any party which has received at least one percent of the vote nationally in either of the previous two elections. For local elections, any party, represented in the legislative body in question is entitled to free printing of ballot papers. In Riksdag elections, constituencies are coterminous with one of the Swedish counties, though the Counties of Stockholm, Skåne, Västra Götaland are divided into smaller electoral constituencies due to their larger populations; the number of available seats in each constituency is based on its number of voters, parties are apportioned seats in each constituency based on their votes in that constituency. In County Council elections, individual muni
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland is the heir apparent to the Swedish throne, as the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Sweden's fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. Victoria was born on 14 July 1977 at 21:45 CET at the Karolinska Hospital in Solna, Stockholm County, is the oldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, she is a member of the House of Bernadotte. Born as a princess of Sweden, she was designated crown princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother, her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture. Her given names honour various relatives, her first name comes from her great-great-grandmother Victoria of Baden, queen consort of Sweden. Her other names honour her great-aunt Ingrid of Sweden, she was baptised at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977.
Her godparents were Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her maternal uncle, Ralf Sommerlath, Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, her aunt Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld. The Crown Princess was confirmed in the summer of 1992 at Räpplinge church on the island of Öland. Victoria studied for a year at the Catholic University of the West at Angers in France, in the fall term of 1997 participated in a special program following the work of the Riksdag. From 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, D. C. Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2003, Victoria's education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, a study and intern program in agriculture and forestry, as well as completion of the basic soldier training at SWEDINT. In 2006, Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007.
The program is a training program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministry's work, Swedish foreign and security policies and Sweden's relations with the rest of the world. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University, she speaks Swedish, English and German. She was made Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980 by the 1979 change to the Act of Succession of 1810; this constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarch's eldest child without regard to gender. King Carl XVI Gustaf objected to the reform after it occurred—not because he objected to women entering the line of succession, but because he was upset about his son being stripped of the Crown Prince status he had held since birth; when she became heir, she was made titular Duchess of Västergötland, one of the historical provinces of Sweden. Prior to this constitutional change, the heir apparent to the throne was her younger brother, the then-Crown Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland.
He is now fourth behind the Crown Princess's daughter and son. She is one of only three female heirs apparent in the world, the other two being her goddaughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Victoria's declaration of majority took place in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995; as of the day she turned 18, she became eligible to act as Head of State when the King is not in country. Victoria made her first public speech on this occasion. Located on the dais in the background was the same silver throne on which her father was seated at his enthronement, in actual use from 1650 and up until this ceremony; as heir apparent to the throne, Victoria is a working member of the Swedish Royal Family with her own agenda of official engagements. Victoria attends the regular Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs and the information councils with Government ministers headed by the King, steps in as a temporary regent when needed. Victoria has made many official trips abroad as a representative of Sweden.
Her first major official visit on her own was to Japan in 2001, where she promoted Swedish tourism, music and environmental sustainability during the "Swedish Style" event. That same year, Victoria travelled to the West Coast of the United States, where she participated in the celebrations of the Nobel centenary. In 2002, she paid official visits to United States, Uganda and Kosovo where she visited Camp Victoria. In 2003, she made official visits to the United States. In early 2004, she paid an official visit to Saudi Arabia, as a part of a large official business delegation from Sweden, in October 2004, she travelled to Hungary. Crown Princess Victoria was given her own household in October 2004, it is headed by the Marshal of the Court, serves to coordinate the official engagements of The Crown Princess. In January 2005, Victoria made a long official visit to Australia, promoting Swedish style and businesses, in April she visited Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to follow aid work and become informed about the work in the aftermath of the tsunami.
In April 2005, Victoria made an official visit to Japan where she visited the Expo 2005 in Aichi, laid the foundatio
Politics of Sweden
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system; the Judiciary is independent, employed until retirement. Sweden is a monarchy. Sweden has a typical Western European history of democracy, beginning with the old Viking age Ting electing kings, ending with a regular royal power in the 14th century, that in periods became more or less democratic depending on the general European trends; the current democratic regime is a product of a stable development of successively added democratic institutions introduced during the 19th century up to 1921, when women's suffrage was introduced. The Government of Sweden has adhered to parliamentarism — de jure since 1975, de facto since 1917. Since the Great Depression, Swedish national politics has been dominated by the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which has held a plurality in parliament since 1917.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Sweden as "full democracy" in 2016. The Constitution of Sweden consists of four fundamental laws; the most important is the Instrument of Government of 1974 which sets out the basic principles of political life in Sweden, defining rights and freedoms. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old Riksdag of the Estates and House of Bernadotte regulating their rights to accede to the Swedish throne; the four fundamental laws are: Instrument of Government Act of Succession Freedom of the Press Act Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression King Carl XVI Gustaf of the House of Bernadotte became king in 1973. His authority is formal and representational. Heiress apparent to the throne is Crown Princess Victoria since 1980. Following the general elections held on 26 September 2014, Stefan Löfven of the Swedish Social Democratic Party was elected Prime Minister of Sweden by the new parliament on 2 October. Together with the Green Party, Löfven presides over a minority government.
The Deputy Prime Minister is Isabella Lövin of the Green Party. The highest executive authority of the State is vested in the Government, which consists of a Prime Minister and 22 Ministers who head the ministries; the Ministers are appointed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed following a vote in the Riksdag itself; the Monarch plays no part in this process. The only way to get rid of a government is through a motion of no confidence in the Riksdag; this motion must get a majority of the total number of votes in the Riksdag. Another example of the power the legislature has given the Government is the adoption of the budget in the Riksdag; the Government's proposition to budget is adopted, unless a majority of the members of the Riksdag vote against it. This is to make it possible to govern in minority; the unicameral Riksdag has 349 members, popularly elected every 4 years. It is in session from September through mid-June. Legislation may be initiated by members of the Riksdag.
Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Riksdag can alter the Constitution of Sweden, but only with approval by a supermajority and confirmation after the following general elections; the Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the Cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government; this is considered one reason for the Swedish post-war welfare state, with a government expenditure of more than 50% of the gross domestic product. Swedish law, drawing on Germanic and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the United States. Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction Supreme Court or Högsta domstolen Courts of appeal or Hovrätter District courts or Tingsrätter Administrative Courts: Litigation between the Public and the Government.
The Supreme Administrative Court or Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen Administrative courts of appeal or Kammarrätter Administrative courts or Förvaltningsrätt Ombudsman: The Parliamentary Ombudsman or Justitieombudsmannen The Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements", the most notable being trade unions, the women's movement, the temperance movement, — more — sports movement. Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, is around 87%; some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Joe Hill, Carl Skoglund, Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme, Carl Bildt, Hans Blix, Anna Lindh. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
Sweden is divided
Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden, the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases, it hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent; the bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion; as of 2009, there were eighteen Justices in the court.
One of the Justices serves as president and head of the court, is appointed by the government to this function. Since 3 January 2011, Justice Mats Melin serves as the court's president. In total the court has 100 employees; the court was founded in 1909. Before that, the Supreme Court of Sweden handed administrative court matters as well. From 1972 until 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court resided in the Stenbock Palace on the Riddarholmen islet in central Stockholm. Since 2011 the court sits in the Sparre Palace on Riddarholmen. Courts of Sweden: The Supreme Administrative Court
2002 Swedish general election
General elections were held in Sweden on 15 September 2002, alongside municipal and county council elections. The Swedish Social Democratic Party remained the largest party in the Riksdag, winning 144 of the 349 seats. ¹ New Democracy was dissolved by the time of the election and did not run, but some voters wrote the party name on an empty ballot anyway. Madeley, John T. S.. "'The Swedish model is dead! Long live the Swedish model!' The 2002 Riksdag election". West European Politics. 26: 165–173. Doi:10.1080/01402380512331341161