Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Soccer in Western Australia
Soccer in Western Australia is governed by Football West. In 1896, the first governing body was formed. Football West runs the National Premier Leagues Western Australia, State Leagues, Sunday League and Metropolitan League. Perth Glory FC is the state's only professional club in national competition for both women. There are numerous casual and school competitions, as well as futsal and indoor soccer in competitive and social games. Football was established in May 1896 by Sir Septimus Burt, Western Australia's first Attorney General; the Western Australia state soccer team first played in 1902 against the touring English cricket team. In subsequent years, the State team has played various matches against other nations, other states, professional clubs in exhibition and practice matches. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the game's foundation in Western Australia, a Hall of Fame for distinguished players was established. In 1994, a group of businessmen led by Joe Claudio formed the Perth Kangaroos IFC.
The club competed in the 1994 Singapore Professional Soccer League. The Kangaroos finished the league season undefeated and won the Singapore league title. However, with dwindling support and resources, the experiment proved to be a financial disaster and Perth Kangaroos IFC soon folded. Perth Glory FC are the only West Australian team to compete in the current national A-League and participated in the now defunct National Soccer League since 1996. Perth Glory men's side were one of the most successful teams of the NSL era, as premiers of 1999/2000, 2001/02 and 2003/04, champions in 2003 and 2004; the club has had less success since the beginning of the A-League, as of 2018, have been A-League runner up once in 2012, FFA Cup runner up twice in 2014 and 2015. Perth Glory have a women's side, established in 2008 and competes in Australia's national W-League. Perth Glory's women's team has had notable success since its inception, achieving a premiership in 2014, finishing as playoff runner up in 2014 and 2017.
The NPL WA is the highest league in WA, one step below the national A-League, is a division within the National Premier Leagues structure. The League Champion at the end of the season enters a national play-off series against the NPL champions of other states to determine the overall NPL Champion. Below the NPL, the Football West competition includes the State leagues, Amateur leagues, Metropolitan leagues; the premier male knockout cup competition is the Football West State Cup, run by Football West. Since 2014 the two State Cup finalists qualify for the national FFA Cup competition. Other Cup competitions include the Amateur Cup for the Men's Amateur Divisions, the Metropolitan Cup for the Men's Metropolitan Divisions, the Women's State Cup, the Women's Metropolitan Cup for the Women's Metropolitan Divisions. Australia's international men's and women's teams, the Socceroos and Matildas play matches in Perth. Men's games have included a friendly against Indonesia in March 2005, an Asian confederation World Cup qualifying match against Bangladesh in September 2015.
The Matildas played their first match in Perth in March 2018, a friendly against Thailand as a warm up for the 2018 AFC Women's Asian Cup. Futsal and indoor soccer have become popular sports in Western Australia since the 1990s, with games occurring between men, mixed teams and juniors. In Perth and weekend competitions run at a number of sports centres such as Lords Subiaco and Shenton Park. Top level competition is run by the WA State Futsal League
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Swan United FC
Swan United Football Club is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in the Swan Valley region, in Perth. The club competes in the Football West State League Division 2; the Swan IC United Soccer Club was formed in 1984 by members of the Italian community in the Swan Valley. The club was founded after the Swan Italian Club, headed by John Steffanelli, decided to start a semi-professional team in the Swan Valley. In 1985 the club played its first season in amateur ranks in 1985. After finishing third in their inaugural season they were accepted in the state fourth division for the 1986 season. After playing the first two seasons at Jack Mann Oval in 1987 the club moved to new facilities at the Swan Italian Club; the club first made the Premier League in 1994 and have been in the top tier since nearly every year up until 2010. They won their first major trophy in 2003 when they won the Association Cup, defended the title in 2004, with a Gary Marocchi-led team beating Fremantle City. In 2008 the club merged with Swan Districts Junior Soccer Association and re-branded itself as Swan United Football Club to represent the unity of the Swan Valley's two largest football clubs, extended the clubs capability to offer football to participants of all ages groups and ability levels.
The club was in the 1st Division from 2011–2015, relegated to the 2nd Division for the 2016 season. 2011 – 1st Division night Series Cup Winners 2006 – Association Cup Runners-up 2003 & 2004 – Association Cup Winners 1995 & 2005 – Night Series Runners-up 1999 – First Division winners 1992 – 1993 – First Division runners-up 1991 – Second Division Runners-up 1989 – Third Division runners-up As of 30 September 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Swan United Official Website
Bayswater City SC
Bayswater City Soccer Club is a soccer club based in Bayswater, Western Australia. They compete in the National Premier Leagues Western Australia; the club in its current form was formed as a result of a merger in 1980 between Lathlain Meazza and Rosemount Juventus becoming Rosemount Meazza. In 1981 Rosemount Meazza merged with Bayswater United. In 1995 Baywater Inter changed their name to Bayswater City. In 1995 Bayswater City merged with Stirling Panthers to become Bayswater City Panthers; this merger lasted until 2003. The club plays; as of 16 December 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
The A-League is a professional men's soccer league run by Football Federation Australia. At the top of the Australian league system, it is the country's primary competition for the sport; the A-League was established in 2004 as a successor to the National Soccer League and competition commenced in August 2005. The league is contested by ten teams, it is known as the Hyundai A-League through a sponsorship arrangement with the Hyundai Motor Company. Seasons run from October to May and include a 27-round regular season followed by a Finals Series playoff involving the highest-placed teams, culminating in a grand final match; the winner of the regular season tournament is dubbed the'premier' while the winner of the grand final is the season's'champion'. This differs from the other major football codes in Australia, where'premier' refers to the winner of the grand final and the winner of the regular season is the'minor premier'. Successful A-League clubs gain qualification into the continental competition, the Asian Football Confederation Champions League known as "AFC Champions League".
Similar to the United States and Canada's Major League Soccer, as well as other professional sports leagues in Australia, Australia's A-League does not practice promotion and relegation. Since the league's inaugural season, a total of six clubs have been crowned A-League Premiers and five clubs have been crowned A-League Champions; the current premier is Perth Glory. The current champions are Melbourne Victory, who won the 2018 A-League Grand Final, equaling the record of four domestic titles held by Marconi Stallions, South Melbourne, Sydney City; the A-League does not recognize the history of its predecessor, the National Soccer League, the nations premier football competition from 1977 to 2004. A national round-robin tournament existed in various forms prior to the formation of the A-League, with the most notable being the National Soccer League; the formation of the NSL came after Australia's qualification for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, which led to discussion of a national league, with 14 teams chosen to participate in the inaugural season of the NSL in 1977.
Under the guidance of the then-governing body, the Australian Soccer Federation, the NSL flourished through the 1980s and early 1990s but fell into decline with the increasing departure of Australian players to overseas leagues, a disastrous television deal with the Seven Network and the resulting lack of sponsorship. Few clubs continued to grow with Sydney Olympic, Perth Glory, the newly established Adelaide United the exception in a dying league. In April 2003, the Australian Federal Government initiated the Independent Soccer Review Committee to investigate the governance and management of the sport in Australia, including that of the NSL. In December 2003, the Crawford Report found that the NSL was financially unviable, in response the chairman of the sports new governing body, Frank Lowy of Football Federation Australia, announced that a task force would be formed to create a new national competition as a successor to the NSL which dissolved at the conclusion of the 2003–04 season after 27 years of operation.
The A-League was announced in April 2004, as a successor to the NSL. Eight teams would be part of the new national competition, with one team from each city of Sydney, Brisbane, Perth, plus a New Zealand team and one from a remaining expressions of interest from either Melbourne or Sydney; the competition start date was set for August 2005. By June 2004, 20 submissions had been received and a month 12 consortiums sent in their final bids for the eight spots. Three bids were received from Melbourne, two each from Sydney and Brisbane, one from each of the remaining preferred cities and a bid from the New South Wales Central Coast city of Gosford. Over the next three months, each bid was reviewed and on 1 November 2004, the eight successful bidders and the major sponsor were revealed, for what would be known as the Hyundai A-League, with the Hyundai Motor Company unveiled as the official naming rights sponsor for the league; the eight founding teams for the league were Adelaide United, Central Coast Mariners, Melbourne Victory, Newcastle Jets, New Zealand Knights, Perth Glory, Queensland Roar and Sydney FC, with three former NSL clubs taking part, those being Adelaide United, Newcastle Jets and Perth Glory, as well as Queensland Roar and New Zealand Knights who were formed from NSL clubs Brisbane Lions and New Zealand Football Kingz.
Each club was given a five-year exclusivity deal in its own market as part of the league's "one-city, one-team" policy. This was intended to allow clubs to grow and develop an identity in their respective region without local competition. On 26 August 2005, 16 months after the demise of the NSL, the inaugural season of the A-League began; the first season would see Adelaide United win the premier's plate by seven points over Sydney FC with Central Coast and Newcastle filling the final two spots in the final series. In the final series, it was Sydney that took out the title after they defeated Central Coast by a Steve Corica goal to claim the first title on 5 March 2006. On 20 March 2007, it was announced that Wellington Phoenix would replace New Zealand Knights from the start of the 2007–08 season. Both Gold Coast United and North Queensland Fury joined the league in the 2009–10 season. On 12 June 2009, Melbourne Heart was awarded a licence to join the 2010–11 season. On 1 March 2011 North Queensland Fury's A-League licence was revoked for financial reasons.
On 29 February 2012, Gold Coast United had its licence revoked. On 4 April 2012 it was announced that a new We
Floreat Athena FC
Floreat Athena Football Club is an association football club based in Perth, Western Australia. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Western Australia; the club's founders were of Greek heritage. Floreat Athena has been crowned the Western Australian State Champions four times, League Premiers seven times, State Cup Winners six times, Night Series Champions six times. In 1997, the club won all three trophies to claim its first treble; the club was formed in 1951 as the Florina Athena Club by Greek-Australians as place for the local Greek community to unite around football. The club entered the third division of WA's state league football in 1953. In 1960 the club withdrew from the Western Australian Soccer Football Association to form WA's first official semi-professional league under the Western Australia Soccer Federation, it was in 1960 that Athena played their first season in the state league's top tier, ending the season sixth and maintained its status in the top flight. The 1960s were turbulent times for Athena on the pitch.
The club finished third in 1961 and 1963, but declined to just avoid relegation in subsequent years before being relegated in 1966 after finishing 9th in the State Premier League. Athena finished second in the 1967 Second Division season, gaining promotion to the State League for the 1968 season. In 1968 they were relegated for the second time in three years. Athena remained in the First Division for five successive seasons. In 1973 Athena clinched the Second Division title and entered the top flight in 1974, finishing sixth. In the 1975 and 1976 seasons, Athena finished third; the club has finished no higher than third on four separate occasions since 1960. In 1977, internal disputes at the committee level resulted in the sacking of coach Bill Dumbbell despite Athena claiming its first state league title. Athena maintained its status in the top flight until 1980 when the club was relegated for finishing tenth under coach Ulysses Kokkinos. After being relegated in 1980, the club secured its second First Division title in 1981 and returned to the top flight of Western Australia football.
Since 1982, Floreat Athena has not been relegated, remaining in the State Premier League for three decades. From 1984 until 1991 Floreat Athena entered into a "golden era" of Western Australian Premier League football. After winning the Top Four Cup in 1984 Athena proceeded to win the Night Series trophy in 1985. From 1986, Athena were placed no lower than third for six straight seasons. Having finished third in 1986 and 1987, Athena claimed only its second State Premier League title in 1988 under coach Ken Worden. Besides its great league achievements Athena won the State D'orsogna Cup three years in a row during these halcyon years. Following the 1988 triumph, the Soccer Federation strangely decided that from the 1989 season onwards, the championship would be decided by a top four finals playoff, discarding the'first past the post' format after nearly a century of Association Football; this was to imitate the Australian Rules code. In the subsequent three years, 1989, 1990 and 1991, under coach Worden and Alan Vest, Athena continually topped the State Premier League.
The phenomenal 1990 team finished the season first with 17 wins, 1 draw and no losses with a goal difference of +55. A feat only three other teams have matched in going unbeaten, but never surpassed. However, Athena having achieved the top positions in all three seasons, lost in the top four play-off finals against rivals Perth SC and Stirling Macedonia; the Soccer Federation intelligently decided to revert to the more accepted and traditional'first past the post' league championship format continually used around the world from 1992 onwards. If this rule had not changed, Floreat Athena would have seven league championships rather than the recorded four. In 1997, under coach Jim Pyraglios, the club won a record treble of titles winning the Night Series, League Championship and Association Cup. In 1999, they finished runners up to Inglewood in the Association Cup Final. In 2000, Athena won their fourth Night Series trophy. In 2001, Athena finished runners up in both the Association Cup Final and the Night Series Final to arch rival Perth Italia.
In 2002, Athena again finished runners up to Perth Italia, this time in the State Premier League Championship. In the newly formed Football West, Floreat Athena was competing for their fourth State Premier League title. In 2004, a young squad was assembled under former Floreat Athena players Michael Roki and Taki Nicolaidis. Both players had been part of that 1990 side. After finishing the 2004 season in ninth position, Athena finished fifth in 2005 and fourth in 2006, climbing the ladder. Athena signed former Perth Glory defender Ante Kovacevic, to prove instrumental in the 2007 season. Jerry Karpeh scored Josip Magdic played the wing. Captain Bajo Savic played his last game for Athena against Cockburn in a match that helped seal the title for Athena. Savic suffered a serious knee injury and subsequently never played again. In the 2007 Football West Premier League season, Athena clinched the title undefeated with a 15-point gap over second place. There were several notable events during the season: James Isaia's 94th minute long range goal to draw the match against Fremantle Spirit, the 4–1 victory over rivals Perth SC at Dorrien Gardens, the 4–0 win over the Stirling Lions at Litis Stadium, the bicycle kick goal by Garin Collins on debut, the last round against Armadale at Alfred Skeet Oval, where Athena found itself down 2–0 in the first 10 minutes, but rallied to win the match 5–3.
Being the fourth side in Western Australian State Premier League history to go through an e