Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Finnish euro coins
Finnish euro coins feature three designs. Heikki Häiväoja provided the design for the 1 cent – 50 cent coins, Pertti Mäkinen provided the design for the 1 euro coin, Raimo Heino provided the design for the 2 euro coin, which shows cloudberry, the golden berry of northern Finland. All designs feature the year of imprint. For images of the common side and a detailed description of the coins, see euro coins. In Finland, the euro was introduced in 2002. However, the first sets of coins were minted, as preparation, in 1999. Hence the first euro coins of Finland have minted the year 1999 instead of 2002. Finnish euro coins dated 1999–2006 carry the mint mark M, the initial of the mint master at the Mint of Finland, Raimo Makkonen. In December 2006, the Bank of Finland announced the following: "The national sides of euro coins will be amended so that each issuing Member State will add its name or abbreviation on the coins. On Finnish coins the first letter of the Mint of Finland’s President and CEO will be replaced with the Mint’s logo.
Amendments to the national sides affect all denominations of euro coins. "Each euro area Member State will decide on the schedule for the introduction of their new coins. In Finland the new coins will be put into circulation in January 2007; the current coins will remain valid, coins in stock will be put into circulation as necessary. This way coins with the new designs will mix with the current coins in circulation."Finland was the first state in the EMU to implement these changes. The following table shows the mintage quantity for all Finnish euro coins, per denomination, per year. * No coins were minted that year for that denomination ** Data not available yet €2 CC €2 commemorative coins Finland has a collection of euro commemorative coins in silver and gold, although other materials are used. Their face values range from 5 euro to 100 euro; this is done as a legacy of old national practice of minting gold and silver coins. These coins are not intended to be used as means of payment, so they do not circulate.
In June 2009, Finland and the Netherlands coordinated a unique trade at European level. Excess Finnish 5 cent coins were traded for Dutch two-euro coins. In total five truckloads containing 30 million five cent coins were traded for 3 million Dutch two-euro coins; this trade saved both countries a lot of money in material costs. An estimated 120,000 kg of metal has been saved with this trade alone. In 2010 this exact trade has been repeated, helping Finland rid some of its 5-cent excesses, pumping in a new supply of two-euro coins, saving both countries a lot of money. Finnish businesses and banks have employed a method known as "Swedish rounding". Due in large part to the inefficiency of producing and accepting the 1 cent and 2 cent coins, Finland has opted to remove these coins from general circulation in order to offset the cost involved in accepting them. While individual prices are still shown and summed up with €0.01 precision, the total sum is rounded to the nearest five cents when paying with cash.
Sums ending in 1, 2, 6 and 7 cents are rounded down. The 1 cent and 2 cent coins are legal tender and are minted for collector sets as required by the EMU agreement; when paying in cash in Finland, while by law a shopkeeper should accept the coins they will decline, ask for higher denominations to match the Swedish rounding when presented with exact change. The 1 euro coin is designed by the sculptor Pertti Mäkinen and the two-euro coin by the designer Raimo Heino. EuroHOBBY Finland The Euro information website – Finland series 1 Series 2
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Oulu is a city and municipality of 203,750 inhabitants in the region of North Ostrobothnia, Finland. It is the fifth most populous city in the country. There are no larger cities in the world, apart from Murmansk Russia, that are more northerly than Oulu, it is considered one of Europe's "living labs", where residents experiment with new technology at a community-wide scale. The city is named after the river Oulujoki. There have been a number of other theories for the origin of the name Oulu. One possible source for the name Oulu is a word in the Sami language meaning'flood water', but there are other suggestions. At minimum, the structure of the word requires that, if given by speakers of a Uralic language, the name must be a derivative. In all likelihood, it predates Finnish settlement and is thus a loanword from one of the now-extinct Saami languages once spoken in the area; the most probable theory is that the name derives from the Finnish dialectal word oulu, meaning "floodwater", related to e.g. Southern Sami åulo, meaning "melted snow", åulot meaning "thaw".
Two other word families have been speculated to be related. The first is seen in the Northern Savo dialectal word uula and its Sami counterpart oalli, both meaning "river channel"; the second is the Uralic root reconstructed as *uwa, meaning "river bed". To either of these roots, some Sami variety would have to be assumed having added further derivational suffixes. Oulu was founded on 8 April 1605 by King Charles IX of Sweden, opposite the fort built on the island of Linnansaari; this took place after favourable peace settlements with Russia, which removed the threat of attack via the main east-west waterway, the river Oulu. The surrounding areas were populated much earlier. Oulu is situated by the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of river Oulujoki, an ancient trading site. Oulu was the capital of the Province of Oulu from 1776 to 2009. In 1822, a major fire destroyed much of the city; the architect Carl Ludvig Engel, chiefly known for the neoclassical buildings around Helsinki Senate Square, was enlisted to provide the plan for the rebuilding of the city.
With minor changes, this plan remains the basis for the layout of Oulu's town center. The Oulu Cathedral was built in 1832 to his designs, with the spire being finished in 1844. During the Crimean War, Oulu's harbour was raided by the British fleet, destroying ships and burning tar houses, leading to international criticism. Once known for wood tar and salmon, Oulu has evolved into a major high-tech centre in IT and wellness technology. Other prominent industries include wood refining, pharmaceuticals and steel; the municipality of Ylikiiminki was merged with the city of Oulu on 1 January 2009. Oulu and the municipalities of Haukipudas, Kiiminki and Yli-Ii were merged on 1 January 2013. Oulu was the site of the 2018 Oulu child sexual exploitation scandal. Prime Minister Juha Sipilä declared that “Sex crimes against children are inhumane acts of incomprehensible evil.” Oulu is located in a considerable distance from the other cities in the country. Mainland Finland's northernmost and southernmost points are equidistant from Oulu.
Oulu's coast sits at the Bothnian Bay and the Swedish mainland is about 180 km directly west across the Bothnian Bay. The nearby island Hailuoto is just off the coast. Oulu is divided into 106 city districts; the largest of these are Haukipudas, Kaakkuri, Ritaharju and Kello. Oulu has a subarctic continental climate, being the largest Finnish city in this climatic zone as well as and one of the largest in the world; the features are snowy winters with short and warm summers. Average annual temperature is 2.7 °C. The average annual precipitation is 477 mm falling 105 days per year in late summer and fall. In 2008, there were 316 Swedish speaking inhabitants, 0.2% of the total population, making the city unilingual. In 2007, there were 2,417 foreign citizens living in the city, of whom 618 were from elsewhere in the EU. 51.1% of the population is female. The best known cultural exports of the city of Oulu are Air Guitar World Championships, Mieskuoro Huutajat, the now defunct metal band Sentenced.
Many artists and musicians live in the city. A variety of concerts — rock and jazz — as well as other cultural events take place each year. Examples include the Oulu Music Video Festival, the Air Guitar World Championships, the Musixine Music Film Competition, all in August. In July, the annual rock festival Qstock takes place; the Oulu Music Festival is held in the Oulunsalo Music Festival in summer. The Irish Festival of Oulu takes place each October and the International Children's Film Festival each November. Museums in Oulu include the Northern Ostrobothnia museum, the Oulu Museum of Art, the Tietomaa science center, the Turkansaari open-air museum. Notable statues and sculptures in Oulu include a sculpture of Frans Michael Franzén and The Bobby at the Market Place statue. Kalmah is a melodic death metal-band from Oulu that formed in 1998. Tietomaa, a science center with over 150 exhibits The Rapids Center, the area in the estuary of the Oulu river consisting of small islands connected with bridges and fountains in the middle of the river, including a housing area of building blocks planned by Alvar
Kankaanpää is a town and municipality of Finland. Kankaanpää was founded in 1865, became a township in 1967 and a town in 1972, it is located in the crossroads of Hämeenkangas and Pohjankangas ridges. It belongs to the region of Satakunta. Kankaanpää has a population of about 11,500 inhabitants. First signs of humanity in the area are from the stone age and during the 16th century people started to settle in Kankaanpää area. Oldest houses that area found from the documents of Sweden-Finland are from the 1560 decade; the oldest passage in the province was from Hämeenkyrö through the ridges to Kauhajoki. In the 17th century it was the most important road between southern Finland and Ostrobothnia; the king of Sweden visited Kankaanpää twice. Gustavus Adolphus travelled from Ilmajoki to Hämeenlinna through Kankaanpää in 1614 and Adolf Fredrik had a rest in Kuninkaanlähde spring to water his horses and to eat in 1752; the spring was named after this event. The church of Kankaanpää has been built in 1839.
Architect of the church was C. L. Engel. Based on the village of Niinsalo about 5.7 km northeast of the site the climate is a continental subtarctic frontier considering that the warmest fourth month is around 9 °C, which puts Kankaanpää in a humid continental climate being closer to Helsinki than Oulu, it means that summer is more consistent and warm but winters are still cold. The municipality is considered one of the rainiest of Finland with 571 mm only during a growing season in 1995. Being the growing season from early May to October 10. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Kankaanpää: True Finns 37.2% Centre Party 25.5% National Coalition Party 11.8% Social Democratic Party 10.6% Left Alliance 7.7% Christian Democrats 4.4% Green League 2.4% Kankaanpää offers basic education with 12 elementary schools and a secondary school. There is a trade school and a polytechnic school which will be abolished in near future; the Artillery School in the Artillery Brigade provides university-level education for all future career artillery officers.
Kankaanpää town museum is presenting the life in Kankaanpää during the last 100 years. It is located near the Pohjankangas Training Area, capable of housing main battle tanks used by the United States Marine Corps. Kankaanpää is twinned with: Bollnäs, Sweden Flekkefjord, Norway Gagra, Georgia Misburg-Hannover, Germany Morsø Municipality, Denmark Elwood, demoscene musician Cristal Snow, musician Toni Vilander, racing driver Official website
Tampere is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries. Tampere has a population of 235,615 with the urban area holding 334,112 people and the metropolitan area known as the Tampere sub-region, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of 4,970 km2. Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of Helsinki and Espoo. It's the most populous Finnish city outside the Greater Helsinki area and a major urban and cultural hub for central Finland. Tampere is wedged between Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres, the rapids linking them, have been an important power source throughout history, most for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of Finland" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock". Helsinki is 160 kilometres south of Tampere, can be reached in 1h 31m by Pendolino high-speed rail service and 2 hours by car.
The distance to Turku is the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017. Although the name Tampere is derived from the Tammerkoski rapids, the origin of the Tammer- part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic *Tëmpël, *tëmpël meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and *kōškë "rapids". Other theories include. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, meaning the Ember days of the Western Christian liturgical calendar; the Finnish word for oak, tammi features in the speculation, although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the European oak and the town was founded by Swedes, which makes this explanation less plausible. Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years 1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights.
At this time, it was a rather small town, consisting of only a few square kilometres of land around the rapids. Tampere grew as industrial centre in the 19th century. Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on Keskustori. In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites during the Civil War in Finland. Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White forces captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918. Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis. After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and Teisko in 1972. Tampere was known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s.
The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields. Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Orivesi, Ruovesi, Ylöjärvi. Tampere has an isolated humid continental climate in the downtown area due to heat island but the most remote neighborhoods or neighboring cities have a continental subarctic climate border as in the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport with only 3 months above 10 °C. Winters are cold and the average temperature from November to March is below 0 °C. Summers are cool to warm. On average, the snow season lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being at the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are on average quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature; the Tampere region, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents, 244,000 employed people, a turnover of 28 billion euros as of 2014. According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation and communication technologies, health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education.
Unemployment rate was 14.8% in June 2017. There are four institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: two universities and two polytechnic institutions; the universities are University of Tampere, which has more than 16,000 students and is located right next to the city center, Tampere University of Technology, which has more than 12,000 students and is located in Hervanta. The regional polytechnic institution is the Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which has about 10,000 students; the Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is located in Tampere. Three of these institutions, TUT, UTA, TAMK are merging into a new Tam
1983 World Championships in Athletics
The inaugural 1983 World Championships in Athletics were run under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations and were held at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki, Finland between 7 and 14 August 1983. The overall medal table was a contested affair. East Germany took the most gold medals over the first championships and finished with a total of 22 medals; the United States had the next largest number of golds, with eight, had the greatest overall medal haul, having won 24 medals altogether. The Soviet Union won one more medal than the East Germans and had six golds, although half of their podium finishers were bronze medalists. Twenty-five nations reached the medal tally at the inaugural competition, with all six continents being represented. During the early 1980s this was the top venue in which Soviet Bloc athletes competed against American athletes due to the American-led boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and the retaliatory Soviet Bloc boycott of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.
Carl Lewis won both the 100 metres and the long jump, finished the competition by anchoring the 4×100 metres relay team to a world record time, along with the 200 metres champion Calvin Smith, bronze medallists Emmit King and Willie Gault. Jarmila Kratochvílová dominated the 400 metres and 800 metres events, setting a world record of 47.99 seconds. Mary Decker enjoyed her best competition performance, taking the golds in the women's 1500 metres and 3000 metres. Other prominent athletes included Marita Koch, who won the 200 m and both relay golds, as well as the 100 m silver medal. Sergey Bubka won the first of his six consecutive World Championship gold medals in the pole vault. 1983 | 1987 | 1991 | 1993 | 1995 Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 1983 | 1987 | 1991 | 1993 | 1995 1983 | 1987 | 1991 | 1993 | 1995 Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 1983 | 1987 | 1991 | 1993 | 1995 1983 in athletics IAAF Media related to 1983 World Championships in Athletics at Wikimedia Commons Summary at SVT's open archive