Richard I of England
Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death. He ruled as Duke of Normandy and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou and Nantes, was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period, he was the third of five sons of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior, he was known in Occitan as: Oc e No, because of his reputation for terseness. By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, although he did not retake Jerusalem from Saladin. Richard spoke both Occitan, he was born in England. Following his accession, he spent little time as little as six months, in England. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France.
Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he has been perceived as preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects, he remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. Richard was born on 8 September 1157 at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was a younger brother of Count William IX of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Duchess Matilda of Saxony. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II, he was not expected to ascend to the throne, he was an elder brother of Duke Geoffrey II of Brittany. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Countess Marie of Champagne and Countess Alix of Blois; the eldest son of Henry II and Eleanor, died in 1156, before Richard's birth. Richard is depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, his father was great-grandson of William the Conqueror.
Contemporary historian Ralph of Diceto traced his family's lineage through Matilda of Scotland to the Anglo-Saxon kings of England and Alfred the Great, from there legend linked them to Noah and Woden. According to Angevin family tradition, there was even'infernal blood' in their ancestry, with a claimed descent from the fairy, or female demon, Melusine. While his father visited his lands from Scotland to France, Richard spent his childhood in England, his first recorded visit to the European continent was in May 1165, when his mother took him to Normandy. His wet nurse was Hodierna of St Albans. Little is known about Richard's education. Although he was born in Oxford and brought up in England up to his eighth year, it is not known to what extent he used or understood English. During his captivity, English prejudice against foreigners was used in a calculated way by his brother John to help destroy the authority of Richard's chancellor, William Longchamp, a Norman. One of the specific charges laid against Longchamp, by John's supporter Hugh, Bishop of Coventry, was that he could not speak English.
This indicates that by the late 12th century a knowledge of English was expected of those in positions of authority in England. Richard was said to be attractive. According to Clifford Brewer, he was 6 feet 5 inches, though, unverifiable since his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution. John, his youngest brother, was known to be 5 feet 5 inches; the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi, a Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusade, states that: "He was tall, of elegant build. He had long arms suited to wielding a sword, his long legs matched the rest of his body". From an early age, Richard showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime. Marriage alliances were common among medieval royalty: they led to political alliances and peace treaties and allowed families to stake claims of succession on each other's lands.
In March 1159 it was arranged that Richard would marry one of the daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. Henry the Young King was married to Margaret, daughter of Louis VII of France, on 2 November 1160. Despite this alliance between the Plantagenets and the Capetians, the dynasty on the French throne, the two houses were sometimes in conflict. In 1168, the intercession of Pope Alexander III was necessary to secure a truce between them. Henry II had conquered Brittany and taken control of Gisors and the Vexin, part of Margaret's dowry. Early in the 1160s there had been suggestions Richard should marry Alys, Countess of the Vexin, fourth daughter of Louis VII
The French Riviera is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is considered to extend from Cassis or Toulon on the west to the France–Italy border in the east, where the Italian Riviera joins; the coast is within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. The principality of Monaco is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean; this coastline was one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. With the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century, it became the playground and vacation spot of British and other aristocrats, such as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, when he was Prince of Wales. In the summer, it played home to many members of the Rothschild family. In the first half of the 20th century, it was frequented by artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Francis Bacon, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham, Aldous Huxley, as well as wealthy Americans and Europeans.
After World War II, it became a popular tourist convention site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region; the French Riviera is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents, although estimates of the number of non-French nationals living in the area are much higher. Its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060; the city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte d'Azur – bringing together 24 communes and more than 500,000 inhabitants and 933,080 in the urban area. Nice is home to Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, France's third-busiest airport, on an area of reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the region's commercial airport, but is now used by private and business aircraft; the A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road known as the Route nationale 7. High-speed trains serve the coastal region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud-Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five and a half hours from Paris.
The French Riviera has a total population of more than two million. It contains the seaside resorts of Cap-d'Ail, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Juan-les-Pins, Saint-Raphaël, Fréjus, Sainte-Maxime and Saint-Tropez, it is home to a high-tech and science park at Sophia-Antipolis, a research and technology center at the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis. The region has 35,000 students; the French Riviera is a major cruising area with several marinas along its coast. According to the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency, each year the Riviera hosts 50 percent of the world's superyacht fleet, with 90 percent of all superyachts visiting the region's coast at least once in their lifetime; as a tourist centre, French Riviera benefits from 310 to 330 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants. The term French Riviera is typical of English use, it was built by analogy with the term Italian Riviera.
As early as the 19th century, the British referred to the region as the Riviera or the French Riviera referring to the eastern part of the coast, between Monaco and the Italian border. Riviera is an Italian noun which means "coastline"; the name Côte d'Azur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d’azur, published in December 1887. Liégeard was born in Dijon, in the French department of Côte-d'Or, adapted that name by substituting the azure blue colour of the Mediterranean for the gold of Côte-d'Or. In Occitan and French, the only usual names are Côte d'Azur in French. A term like "French Riviera" would only be used in adaptations of it. For instance, in French, "Riviera Française" is found in the online Larousse encyclopedia to refer to the holidays of a group of English workers; the Côte d'Azur and the French Riviera have no official boundaries. Some sources put the western boundary at Saint-Tropez in the Var département. Others include Saint Tropez, Hyères or Toulon in the Var, or as far as Cassis in the Bouches-du-Rhône département.
In her 1955 novel, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Patricia Highsmith describes the Riviera as including all of the coast between Toulon and the Italian border; the region of the French Riviera has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Primitive tools dating to between 1,000,000 and 1,050,000 years ago were discovered in the Grotte du Vallonnet, near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, with stones and bones of animals, including bovines and bison. At Terra Amata, near the Nice Port, a fireplace was discovered, one of the oldest found in Europe. Stone dolmens, monuments from the Bronze Age, can be found near Draguignan, while the Valley of Marvels near Mount Bégo
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Saintes is a commune and historic town in southwestern France, in the Charente-Maritime department of which it is a sub-prefecture, in Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Its inhabitants are called Saintais. Saintes is the second-largest city in Charente-Maritime, with 26,470 inhabitants in 2008, its immediate surrounds form the second-most populous metropolitan area in the department, with 56,598 inhabitants, the majority of, fertile, productive fields. In Roman times, Saintes was known as Mediolanum Santonum, during much of its history, the name of the city was spelled Xaintes and Xainctes. Built on the left bank of the Charente, Saintes became the first Roman capital of Aquitaine, the capital of the province of Saintonge under the Ancien Régime. Following the French Revolution it became the prefecture of the department during the territorial reorganization of 1790, until La Rochelle took its place in 1810. Though it was but a subprefecture, Saintes was allowed to remain the judicial center of the department.
In the late 19th century, Saintes was chosen as the seat of the VIIIth arrondissement of the Chemins de Fer de l'État, which enabled an era of economic and demographic growth. Today, Saintes remains the economic heart of the center of the department and it is an important transportation hub. A few major industrial business operate; the city's commerce and service sector is large with the headquarters of Coop Atlantique, administrative functions of state, legal services, schools and a hospital. Beyond this, property maintenance and tourism sectors provide large numbers of jobs; because of its noteworthy Gallo-Roman and classical heritage, Saintes is a tourist destination and a member of the French Towns and Lands of Art and History since 1990. It has several museums, a theater and organizes numerous festivals. A European center of musical research and practice is in its Abbaye aux Dames. Saintes is in the center-eastern part of the department; the city is centred 60 km southeast of La Rochelle, 33 kilometers northeast of Royan and about 100 km north of Bordeaux.
A chronostratigraphic stage of sedimentary rock has been named after the former name for inhabitants, the Santones, the Santonian. Saintes is built on its eponymous subset of limestone that consists of particular flint nodules of quartz geodes and nodules of iron. Ancient stone quarries in its'Colline de la Capitole' and Bellevue filled or converted to permit fungiculture, are evidence for Santonian stone's use in the construction of various buildings, where unimproved quite vulnerable to frost. Nearer to the river, the Cretaceous plateau gives way to more or less recent alluvial grasslands composed of bri, a type of clay; the uplifting of Alps and Pyrenees began during the Maastrichtian, 65 Ma ago, continued for a part of the Paleogene. The town is divided into 14 administrative areas: Les Boiffiers, Les Tourneurs, L'Ormeau de Pied, Recouvrance, La Fenêtre, Saint-Rémy, Saint-Vivien, Saint-Eutrope, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Pallais, Saint-Sébastien de Bouard, La Récluse, Le Maine-Saint-Sorlin and Bellevue.
The neighborhood of Saint-Pierre lies between the hill of the river Charente. It possesses a significant number of historic monuments justifying its forming of the core of a conservation area that spans over 65 hectares. Built around the cathedral Saint-Pierre, the place du marché and the place du Synode, it is crossed by pedestrian alleys around which can be found numerous medieval and classic buildings. West lies the neighbourhood of Saint-Eutrope, that has developed over the centuries around a rocky elevation bounded by two small valleys at right angles to the river. Dominated by the Saint-Eutrope basilica, it contains the remains of a Clunian priory and several hillside houses. Little valleys lead to the vallon des Arènes below, where a Roman amphiteatre survives, in a park named "Parc des Arènes"; the cours Reverseaux and cours des Apôtres de la liberté separate Saint-Eutrope in the west from the faubourg Berthonnière. These separate the hill of the Capitole to the north. Once outside-of-the-walls, the faubourg included some inns for pilgrims.
The streets of the faubourg converge toward the place Saint-Louis, the place de l'Aubarrée and the place Blair, dominated by a column of Liberty erected during the Revolution. The square Goulebenéze stands between the river; the neighbourhoods of les Boiffiers and Bellevue are separated from the rest of the city by the avenue de Saintonge. Bellevue has 1,560 spans 17 hectares. La Recouvrance, in a triangle formed by the cours du maréchal Leclerc, the cours Genet and the rocade ouest, contains a lycée, the former seminary, the Yvon Chevalier stadium and a shopping mall; the water tower of Recouvrance is decorated with frescoes by contemporary artist Michel Genty. The north of the urban area, the Saint-Vivien neighborhood has an old faubourg inhabited since antiquity where the thermes de Saint-Saloine, ancient Roman baths are found; the neighborhood of Saint-Pallais was u
Fouras known as Fouras-les-Bains, is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It lies 34 km south of La Rochelle. Fouras is on a peninsula, it is bordered by a forest named "Bois Vert" which covers 20 % of its area. It extends into a roadway to discover tide to the low Fort Enet in the direction of the Île-d'Aix; the pier for the island of Aix is located in the territory of the commune. The south coast of the peninsula of Fouras forms the northern side of the mouth of the Charente river. A little further south is the Île d'Oléron. Off the island between Aix and the island of Oleron is Fort Boyard, made famous by the French TV game show of the same name and whose character "Père Fouras" increased the celebrity of the town; the "Vauban fortress" was a strategic fortification established by Philippe le Bel, circa 1300. The donjon was rebuilt in 1480-1490 by Jehan II de Brosse. In 1689, Ferry reinforced the walls of the Donjon to set up a battery of 9 canons and a signaling point.
In 1693 a lower circular battery was set up to control access to the Charente River. The donjon received a signal station from 1889 to World War II. Charles-Amable Lenoir Communes of the Charente-Maritime department, Agia Paraskevi, Geroskipou, Cyprus Media related to Fouras at Wikimedia Commons INSEE
Île d'Oléron is an island off the Atlantic coast of France, on the southern side of the Pertuis d'Antioche strait. It is the second largest island of Metropolitan France, after Corsica, with a length of 30 km and a width of 8 km, it has an area of 174 km2 and more than 21 000 permanent inhabitants. In the 7th and 8th century, the island, along with Ré, formed the Vacetae Insulae or Vacetian Islands, according to the Cosmographia. Vaceti being another name for the Vascones, the reference is evidence to Basque settlement or control of the islands by that date, it was at Oléron in about 1152 to 1160 that Eleanor of Aquitaine introduced the first'maritime' or'admiralty' laws in that part of the world: the Rolls of Oleron. In 1306, Edward I of England granted the island to his son, Edward II, as part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. On 20 March 1586, the island was taken by Agrippa d'Aubigné. During the Second World War, the island fortified, it was liberated by Free French Forces in an amphibious assault code named Operation Jupiter on 29 April 1945.
The French cruiser Duquesne fired 550 heavy shells at the German artillery batteries. The garrison surrendered on the following day; the island has an area of about 174 km2. It is a fertile and well cultivated island on the Atlantic coast of France, on the Bay of Biscay; the climate is mild with sufficient but not excessive rainfall, but with from 3 to 15 days of intense heat in the summer months of July and August grouped. Administratively, the island belongs to the Charente-Maritime département, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine région; the island is divided into 8 communes: La Brée-les-Bains Le Château-d'Oléron Dolus-d'Oléron Le Grand-Village-Plage Saint-Denis-d'Oléron Saint-Georges-d'Oléron Saint-Pierre d'Oléron Saint-Trojan-les-BainsThe island has about 22,000 inhabitants. Since 1966, the island has been connected to the mainland by a road bridge. With a length of 2,862 m between abutments, it was the longest bridge in France at the time of construction, it is now the third one, after the Île de Ré bridge.
It has been toll-free since 1991. To get to the island, it is possible to arrive at the stations of Surgères, Saintes or Rochefort take the bus. On the island itself, the easiest way to get around is by bicycle. During the last ten years, a network of 110 kilometers of bicycle paths have been built; these bicycle lanes are car-free. As a large Atlantic island only 3 kilometres off the Aquitanian coast of France, Oléron is a popular tourist destination. Several companies operate boat trips from the towns of Boyardville and Saint-Denis to the nearby Ile d'Aix, La Rochelle, past the Fort Boyard; the port towns are visited by tourists the village of La Cotiniere. This village is the base for a hundred trawlers who sell their fish every day at 16:00 h. La Cotiniere was the first fishing port in the department of Charente-Maritime, the 8th of France. Collins, Roger. "The Vaccaei, the Vaceti, the rise of Vasconia." Studia Historica VI. Salamanca, 1988. Reprinted in Roger Collins, Law and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain.
Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0-86078-308-1; the official tourist office website for Oléron Island
Île-d'Aix is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department off the west coast of France. It occupies the territory of small island of Île d'Aix in the Atlantic, it is a popular place for tourist day-trips during the summer months. Île-d'Aix is located at the mouth of the Charente River, between l'Ile d'Oléron and the coast of mainland France. The island is close to Fort Boyard. During the Roman period, it seems, it took its current shape around 1500. In 1067, Isembert de Châtelaillon gave the island to the order of Cluny. A small convent was established, which depended on St Martin in Île de Ré. At the end of the 12th century and England fought for the possession of the island; until 1286, the island was located at the boundary between the French and the English Saintonge, formed by the estuary of the Charente River. During the Hundred years war, Aix became English for about 15 years. In the 16th century, during the French Wars of Religion, the island became Catholic and Protestant. In 1665, nearby Rochefort was established as a strategic harbour for the Kingdom, leading to the construction of many fortifications in the area.
Vauban built numerous fortifications on the island, which Ferry completed in 1704. During the Seven Years' War the British captured the island in 1757 and destroyed its ramparts as part of the attempted Raid on Rochefort, before withdrawing several weeks later; the island of Île-d'Aix was again captured by British forces in 1759 following the Battle of Quiberon Bay and occupied until the end of the war in 1763. The fortifications were rebuilt by several French officers, including Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, the author of Les Liaisons dangereuses. During the French revolution, in 1794, the island was used as a prison for the suppression of religious opponents, in which hundreds of priests were left to die in moored prison-boats. Napoleon famously gave directions to reinforce the fortifications, he ordered the construction of a house for the commander of the stronghold, the construction of Fort Liedot, named after a colonel killed in the Russian campaign. In 1809, the Battle of the Basque Roads was a naval battle off the island of Aix between the British Navy and the Atlantic Fleet of the French Navy.
On the night of 11 April 1809 Captain Thomas Cochrane led a British fireship attack against a powerful squadron of French ships anchored in the Basque Roads. In the attack all but two of the French ships were driven ashore; the subsequent engagement failed to destroy the French fleet. In 1815, from 12 to 15 July, Napoleon spent his last days in France at Île d'Aix, after the defeat at Waterloo, in an attempt to slip past a Royal Navy blockade and escape to the United States. Realizing the impossibility of accomplishing this plan, he wrote a letter to the British regent and surrendered to HMS Bellerophon, which took him to Torbay and Plymouth before he was transferred to Saint Helena, it has a population of 223 as of 2008. Located on the island is the large Fort Liédot which functioned as a military prison from the early 19th century to the 1960s; the Algerian independentist and future president Ben Bella was imprisoned there from 1956 to 1962, together with other FLN militants such as Khider and Aït Ahmed.
Access to the island is provided by a ferry that leaves several times a day year round from Fouras just east of the island, or from La Rochelle, Oléron, during the summer months. Cars are prohibited on the island. People move around by bicycle. Horse carriages are available to circle the island. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department INSEE Tony Jaques Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-First Century Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 ISBN 0-313-33537-0 Official Website Aerial view 1757 The attack of Island of Aix by the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War