Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church
Perućac Lake is an artificial lake on the Drina River, on the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. It was created in 1966 and occupies a natural bend of the river, which encircles the Tara mountain, between towns of Višegrad in Bosnia and Bajina Bašta in Serbia; the lake was created by damming the Drina River and harnessing its flow to power the Bajina Bašta hydroelectric power station. The lake was named after the village of Perućac, close to the dam; the medieval necropolis of Mramorje is located near the lake. As one of the most important stećci complex in Serbia, it has been protected by the state as the Cultural Monument of Exceptional Importance; the HPP Bajina Bašta, in Perućac village near Bajina Bašta, the second largest of its kind in Serbia, was built in 1966 as a result of a joint venture by Yugoslavian and Japanese companies. Between 1976-83 a reversible pumping station was built, the second phase of the project. Excess electrical power produced during the rain season was used to pump water from the lake to hilltop of the Tara mountain, some 600 metres above.
To hold this water and serve as the reversible reservoir for the PS HPP Bajina Bašta plant, an artificial Zaovine Lake was created up in the mountains by damming the Beli Rzav river. During the summer days, Lake Perućac is the place where many of the residents of the surrounding area and the town of Bajina Bašta come to sunbathe and fish. In August 2010, it became the site of a forensic operation to retrieve the bodies of Bosniak victims of the 1992 Višegrad massacres; the lake was a location where the transported remains of Kosovo Albanians killed during the 1999 conflict were concealed. The lake is situated at an altitude of 290 m and the majority of it, some 5/6 is within Bosnia and Herzegovina, while 1/6 in Serbia, as the border between the two countries takes the route of longitudinal axes of the Drina river at the section within the canyon where the Brusnička river enters the lake, some 20 km upstream from the dam and Peruća village; the lake occupies a natural bend of the river, between Višegrad and Bajina Bašta, which bypassing Tara mountain from left to right.
The dam of the hydro plant which created the lake is 93 m tall. The reservoir covers and area of 12.4 km2 with the volume of 340,000,000 m3. It is 45 to 1,000 m wide and up to 60 to 80 m deep; the annual boating event, the Drina Regatta, is held on the lake. Fish species living in the lake include wels catfish, common barbel, European chub, common nase and cactus roach. A mass grave containing 48 bodies and more than 60 was discovered near the lake in 2001; the bodies were believed to be those of Kosovo Albanians killed by Serbian forces during the 1999 conflict, brought to the lake in a refrigerated lorry dumped there during NATO air raids. The burial site was a gravel pit on the north bank of Derventa River, close to its confluence with Lake Perućac, 13 km from Bajina Baštać and 2 km from the village of Rastiste, it contained parts of a truck refrigerator container, used to bring the bodies. The bones and clothing retrieved showed evidence of burning. Of 48 bodies examined by the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of Belgrade Military Hospital, 38 were male, one was female, the sex of nine could not be established.
Dressed in civilian clothing, age of the victims ranged from mid-adolescence to elderly. There was considerable ballistic evidence including classic execution style gunshot wounds to the head in many cases, they had been buried for about two years and the condition of the remains indicated that they had spent some time in the water. Identity documents belonging to two persons from Djakovica were found with the exhumed bodies. Dragan Karleuša, head of the Serbian police organized crime unit responsible for investigating the grave, said that in April 1999 a freezer truck containing between 50 and 60 corpses was pushed into the lake. Seven corpses floated back to the surface and were removed. Two days a container holding between 50 and 60 bodies came to the surface; the bodies were placed in a mass grave. Karleuša said the event was covered up despite the fact that numerous residents had witnessed the removal of the bodies from the reservoir. An anonymous reservist told Danas, a Belgrade daily newspaper, that he saw a freezer truck being pushed into the lake, after the water level had been lowered.
A rocket had been fired into the truck to sink it but corpses started to emerge from the hole made by explosion. The bodies were buried near the village of Rastiste; the bodies that emerged two days were buried in a separate grave, next to the first. The reservist said that the operation was characterized as a "state secret"; the reservist was upset that local people were supposed to allow their children to swim in the lake while officials remained silent about the bodies concealed there. A senior police officer reported that witnesses to the incident had first been threatened and were paid 20 German marks to remain silent; the disposal of the bodies at Lake Perućac, done by Yugoslav Army soldiers under orders from their superiors, has been linked to the finding of two other submerged refrigerator trucks containing the bodies of Kosovo Albanians at Kladovo and Đerdap. It is assumed that at least ten and dozens of truckloads of bodies were taken from Kosovo to Serbia to be dumped underwater or buried in mass graves.
The investigation was set up under the authority of Sreten Lukić, the Serbian police director of public security, who served as the commander of police forces in Kosovo during the war. During the trial of police general
Bajina Bašta is a town and municipality located in the Zlatibor District of western Serbia. The town lies in the valley of the Drina river at the eastern edge of Tara National Park; the population of the town, according to 2011 census, is 9,148 inhabitants, while the municipality has 25,724 inhabitants. In 1834 Bajina Bašta was established on the remains of the old Turkish community of Pljeskovo, situated on the right bank of the Drina River between the Rača and Pilica Rivers, under the east foothills of Tara Mountain. By the end of the 19th century, in accordance with the Serbian-Turkish agreement, the local Muslims had to move from this region directly across the Drina River into Bosnia, where they built settlements in the villages of Skelani and Dobrak; the name Bajina Bašta comes from the vast orchards and vegetable gardens, that used to be located on the left bank of the Pilica River, which belonged to Turkish feudal owner, Baja Osman, who established the town's modern image in the mid-19th century.
In English, the name Bajina Bašta means "Baja’s Garden". In 1858 the town became the administrative center of the Rača District. On September 15, 1872, Prince Milan Obrenović IV issued a decree that gave Bajina Bašta its status as an recognized town. A decade Bajina Bašta received its urban plan, long before many places in Serbia. Under the Ottoman Empire, the Rača’s region became a part of Sokolska nahija or Zvornik Sandžak, on a part of Užice nahija where it remained until its liberation from the Turks in 1834. In the following tumultuous decades, Bajina Bašta belonged to the Užice District, Užice canton, region. Today, the town lies in the Zlatibor District. In 1875 a mixed craftsmen guild was founded with 88 different occupations, based on forestry and stock farming. In attempts to improve trade links between Serbia and Bosnia, the first customs station was opened in Skelani in 1880; the following year, the first post office with a telegraph was opened. The number of inhabitants increased from 374 in 1864 to 1,306 by 1910.
Residents in the nearby village of Rača made a major contribution in liberation efforts between 1876–1878 when Serbia became an independent principality, declared by the Congress of Berlin. In the following Balkan Wars and World War I over 300 people from this small village died; the areas around Bajina Bašta have significant historical heritage. In the village of Pilica, there are archeological remains of Roman architecture dating from the 2nd and 3rd century and ornamented tombstones. Other archeological sites lie in Mokra Gora, Perućac, Rastište and Dub; the oldest historical findings in this area date from the Neolithic period – remains of these communities and Jokin Breg, are found near Višesava. The remnants of these settlements show that people lived in about 2.5 m deep dugouts, on three underground levels. Judging by their characteristics, these remains are considered to have belonged to the Starčevo culture. Additionally, there is much evidence of the Iron Age material culture of the Illyrian tribe of Autariat.
During Roman and Medieval period, Bajina Bašta was an important trade center and the cross-border with Bosnia. Rača monastery is considered the most significant historical treasure of the area. Built by King Dragutin, the monastery was the center of transcription and illumination of medieval religious manuscripts of Serbia; these monks became known as the Račani. Abundant wall paintings and iconostasis cover the walls, dating after the church's reconstruction in 1835; the monastery houses a library containing over 1,200 books and manuscripts. In the village of Dub there is a wooden church from 1792, of a specific architecture, covered with shingle roof. A variety of ornaments and icons, a gate from 17th century, make this church one of the more memorable churches in Serbia. 1918–1945 During the unification of the Southern Slavs of Europe and creation of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, Bajina Bašta continued its urban expansion. In 1926, a metal bridge that linked to Skelani was built, replacing the ferry that crossed the Drina River.
The electrification of the town started in 1928 and two years the first town’s hospital was built. The utilization of forests, the famed bajinac tobacco and the construction of elementary schools in the region helped improve the standard of living and educational level of the inhabitants. In 1940, the downtown area built its first water sewage system and cobblestone streets. During World War II, Bajina Bašta was damaged. Events that marked world history in the period between 1939–1945, were reflected in this region as well in a form of civil war and liberation fights against the occupying Axis army. A Račan militia was formed in the first stages of the armed resistance against the occupants. From August 3–23, 1941, the militia solidified into a military formation consisting of 62 soldiers; the first free territory in the occupied Europe – "Republic of Užice", brought only temporary liberation to Bajina Bašta. In this region, the first People's Liberation Committee NOO was formed. During the war in 1943, Bulgarian forces caused many civilian casualties.
Bajina Bašta was liberated from Nazi forces on September 12, 1944. 1945–1999After the World War II ended, Bajina Bašta continued to develop into an economical and administrative center of the municipality which extended 672 km² around the town. The second half of the 20th century is marked by the expansion of trade, agricultural cooperativ
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Municipalities and cities of Serbia
The municipalities and cities are the second level administrative subdivisions of Serbia. The country is divided into 145 municipalities and 29 cities, forming the basic level of local government. Municipalities and cities are the administrative units of Serbia, they form 29 districts in groups, except the City of Belgrade, not part of any district. A city may not be divided into city municipalities depending on their size. There are six cities in Serbia with city municipalities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Požarevac, Užice and Vranje comprise several city municipalities each, divided into "urban" and "other". There are 30 city municipalities. MunicipalitiesLike in many other countries, municipalities are the basic entities of local government in Serbia; the head of the municipality is the President of the municipality, while the executive power is held by the Municipal council, legislative power by the Municipal assembly. Municipal assembly is elected on local elections, while the President and the Council are elected by the Assembly.
Municipalities have their own budget. Only the cities have mayors, although the municipal presidents are informally referred to as such; the territory of a municipality is composed of surrounding villages. The municipality bears the name of the seat town. Only one municipality does not share the name with the seat town, as the seat of that municipality is the town of Dragaš; this municipality is located in Kosovo, thus exists only on paper. The territory of the municipality was merged with part of the Municipality of Prizren in 2000 by UNMIK to form new Municipality of Dragaš; this move is not recognised by Serbian Government. Advocates of reform of Serbian local self-government system point out that Serbian municipalities are the largest in Europe, both by territory and number of residents, as such can be inefficient in handling citizens' needs and distributing the income from the country budget into most relevant projects. Cities and city municipalitiesCities are another type of local self-government.
The territory with the city status has more than 100,000 inhabitants, but is otherwise similar to municipality. There are each having an assembly and budget of its own. Only the cities have mayors, although the presidents of the municipalities are referred to as "mayors" in everyday usage; as with a municipality, the territory of a city is composed of a city proper and surrounding villages. Every city is part of a district; the exception is the capital Belgrade, not part of any district. The city may not be divided into city municipalities. Six cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Požarevac, Užice and Vranje comprise several city municipalities. Competences of cities and these municipalities are divided; the municipalities of these cities have their assemblies and other prerogatives. Two largest city municipalities by number of residents are the Novi New Belgrade. Of these six cities, only Novi Sad did not undergo the full transformation, as the newly formed municipality of Petrovaradin exists pretty much only formally.
The city of Kragujevac had its own city municipalities from 2002 until 2008. In 2013, the city municipality of Sevojno within the city of Užice was established. Serbian law still treats Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia, although Kosovo declared independence in 2008; the Law on Territorial Organization defines 1 city on the territory of Kosovo. Kosovo was under official United Nations' administration from 1999 to 2008; the UNMIK administration changed the territorial organisation on the territory of Kosovo. In 2000 the municipality of Gora was merged with Opolje into the new municipality of Dragaš and one new municipality was created: Mališevo. From 2005 to 2008, seven new municipalities were created: Gračanica, Elez Han, Parteš, Klokot and Mamuša. However, the Government of Serbia does not recognise the territorial re-organisation of Kosovo, although some of these new-formed municipalities have Serb majority, some Serbs participate in local elections. In three of those municipalities: Gračanica, Klokot-Vrbovac and Ranilug, Serbian parties won a majority in the 2009 elections.
In the Brussels Agreement, in 2013, Serbia agreed to disband its parallel municipal institutions in Kosovo, while the authorities of Kosovo agreed on creation of the Community of Serb Municipalities. However, both parties acted to put this agreement in power; this is a lis
The Drina is a 346 km long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. It is the longest tributary of the Sava River and the longest karst river in the Dinaric Alps which belongs to the Danube river watershed, its name is derived from the Latin name of the river. The Drina is formed by the confluence of the Tara and the Piva rivers, both of which flow from Montenegro and converge on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at Hum and Šćepan Polje villages; the total length of the Tara river is 144 km, of which 104 km are in Montenegro, while the final 40 km are in Bosnia and Herzegovina along which form the border between the two countries in several places. The Drina flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina northward for 346 km, of which 206 km is along the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, spills out into the Sava river near Bosanska Rača village in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measured from the source of the Tara, its longer headwater, the Drina is 487 kilometers long.
The river is not navigable today, but together with the Tara it represents the main kayaking and rafting attraction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. However, during history, the small boats' traffic on the Drina was quite developed. Earliest written sources of the Drina boats date from the early 17th century. Traversing through this area in the second half of the 17th century, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi noted that people in the Drina valley cut 40 m tall oak trees and use their trunks to make boats, by hollowing them with primitive tools and controlled fire; this type of boat is called dugout canoe. He writes that there were thousands of such boats at Zvornik, which navigated all the way to Belgrade, downstream the Drina and the Sava. Upstream from Zvornik, the boats didn't navigate. In September 2011, after local floods, an ancient boat was discovered, buried under the gravel in the Drina river, near Jelav, some 10 km north of Loznica, it is the first one in the Drina valley, discovered in one piece and in such a good shape.
The boat is 7.1 m long, 1.3 m wide and with the circumference of the back section of 4 m. When dug out, it weighted 2 tons, but after drying out for two years in natural conditions, it was reduced to 1.3 tons. After being dried, it went through the conservation process in 2013; as the local museum in Loznica had no space to exhibit such a big item, a special annex was built for the monoxyl. It is estimated that it was made between 1740 and 1760 from the trunk of an oak, 230 to 300 years old when cut. Based on the marks on it, this particular boat was most used for the transportation of the bulk cargo from one side of the river to another, as it seems to be too massive to be operated by the oars. Cuts and marks on it indicate that it was pulled over the river by the horses, it is possible that when it went out of service, it was used as the foundation of a watermill. The Drina originates between the slopes of the Maglić and Pivska planina mountains, between the villages of Šćepan Polje and Hum.
At its origin, it flows west makes a large curve to the northeast, around the Maluša mountains. Next, it flows through the villages of Kosman, Prijedjel, Dučeli, Čelikovo Polje, Trbušće, Brod and the town of Foča, it receives the Sutjeska and Bistrica rivers from the left and the Ćehotina at Foča from the right. Here the Drina carved the longest one of the several gorges on its course, the 45 km -long Suhi Dol-Biserovina gorge between the southernmost slopes of the Jahorina mountains from the north and the Kovač mountains from the south; the villages of Zlatari, Jošanica, Cvilin, Zebina Šuma, Kolovarice, Vranići, Biljin, Vitkovići and Zupčići are located in the gorge, as well as the town of Goražde. The river receives the Osanica as tributaries from the left; the Drina continues to the northeast, flowing close to the villages of Žuželo, Odžak, Kopači and Ustiprača, entering the 26 km long Međeđa gorge carved between the Vučevica mountains from the south and the southern slopes of the Devetak mountains from the north.
The narrowest part of the Međeđa gorge is Tijesno, the 8 km -long section of the gorge where the river is at its narrowest, but at its deepest. Here it receives the Prača river from the Janjina and Lim rivers from the right; the villages of Trbosilje, Međeđa and Orahovci are located in the gorge, for the most part flooded by the artificial Višegrad lake, created by the Višegrad hydroelectric power plant. At the town of Višegrad, the Drina receives the Rzav River from the right and turns northwest at the Suva Gora mountain into the Klotijevac gorge; the gorge is 38 km up to 1 km deep, carved between the mountains of Bokšanica and Zvijezda. The villages of Sase, Resnik, Đurevići and Gornje Štitarevo lie in the gorge and the Kukal river flows into the Drina from the right. At the Slap village, the Drina receives the Žepa river from the right and turns to the west, becoming a border river between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia near the village of Jagoštica; the Drina flows between the mountains of Zvijezda and Sušica and it is flooded by the artificial Lake Perućac on the northern slopes of the Tara mountain, created by the Bajina Bašta power plant.
The villages of Prohići and Osatica are located on the lake, as well