A clergy house is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion. Such residences are known by various names, including "rectory" and "parsonage". Clergy houses are owned and maintained by a church, as a benefit to its clergy; the practice exists in many denominations because of the tendency of clergy to be transferred from one church to another at frequent intervals. Catholic clergy houses in particular may be lived in by several priests from a parish. Clergy houses serve as the administrative office of the local parish as well as a residence; because of the general conservationism of churches, many clergy houses are of historic interest or importance. In the United Kingdom the 14th-century Alfriston Clergy House was the first property to be acquired by the National Trust, it was purchased in a state of near ruin in 1896 for £10, the vicarage having moved elsewhere long before. In some countries where the clergy houses were rather grand they have now been sold off by the churches, exchanged for more modest properties.
In England the "Old Vicarage" or "Old Rectory" is common in villages, as a comfortable home for the upper middle-classes, in Scotland the "Old Manse". Others used for various functions. There are a number of more specific terms whose use depends on the rank of the occupant, the denomination and the locality. Above the parish level, traditionally a bishop's house was called a Bishop's Palace, a dean lives in a deanery, a canon in a canonry or "canon's house". Other titles may have different names for their houses. A rectory is the residence, or former residence, of an ecclesiastical rector, although in some cases an academic rector or other person with that title. In North American Anglicanism a far greater proportion of parish clergy were and are titled rectors than in Britain, so the rectory is more common there; the names used for homes of the ordinary parish clergy vary and generalization is difficult: In the Anglican Communion vicarage or parsonage, rectory if appropriate. Roman Catholics use priory, clergy house, parochial house, chapel house and rectory if appropriate.
In the Philippines, the term convent is used, a direct calque of the Spanish convento. Manse is a Scottish term, used in Scottish Presbyterianism, general in other parts of the British Isles by Non-conformist Churches such as the Methodists and the United Reformed Church; this word is commonly used by Baptists in the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries. Pastorium is the usual term in the Southern United States among Baptists. Lutheran churches use parsonage. Parish house is used by many denominations Clergy housing allowance Alun-Jones, Deborah The Wry Romance of the Literary Rectory. London: Thames & Hudson ISBN 978-0-500-51677-5 Media related to Clergy residences at Wikimedia Commons
Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma
Pier Luigi Farnese was the first Duke of Castro from 1537 to 1545 and the first Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1547. Born in Rome, Pier Luigi was the illegitimate son of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, he became a soldier and participated in the sack of Rome in 1527. Pier Luigi Alexander Farnese was born in 1503 from the union between Cardinal Alexander Farnese and Silvia Ruffini - a Roman noblewoman who gave birth with Alexander to three other children: Constanza and Ranuccio, his illegitimacy tormented Pier Luigi all his life, doubtless contributed to the formation of his character. The nobility of Piacenza was known to insult him as "the bastard son of the Pope." As the eldest and beloved son he was legitimised along with his brother Paul at the age of two in 1505 by Pope Julius II. He was given a famous humanist tutor, Baldassarre Malosso di Casalmaggiore, nicknamed "Tranquillus," and developed a love of war and fortifications. Alexander was, keen to make Pier Luigi the true head of the Farnese family and so arranged a favourable marriage alliance with Gerolama Orsini, daughter of Lodovico, Count of Pitigliano.
In 1513 the engagement contract was drawn up, in 1519 the wedding celebrated. Despite a loveless marriage, Gerolama remained a faithful devoted wife, tolerating Pier Luigi's excesses and extravagances with dignity. Delays in the construction at the palace in Gradoli, meant the young couple had to lodge in the Castle at Valentano; the following year their first son Alexander was born. Pier Luigi Farnese became the stereotype of a mercenary soldier: wild and amoral, he had courage and daring and while strong and audacious was sufficiently brutal to offend many observers. Nor did he always fight on the traditional side of the papacy. In 1520, at the age of seventeen, he and his brother Ranuccio were employed as mercenaries in the pay of the Republic of Venice; as a result, he served under the standard of Charles V - remaining with the emperor until 1527, he was present at the Sack of Rome of that year, in which he took part. While his brother Ranuccio withdrew to Castel Sant'Angelo to defend the Pope.
Critics accused the Farnese of backing both sides. When the plague hit the city, the imperial troops decided to withdraw. Pier Luigi withdrew from Rome into the Roman countryside, taxing it without mercy and permitting a climate of theft and murder. Pope Clement, tired of this behaviour threatened him with excommunication, until Cardinal Alexander tried diplomatically to reconcile his son with the pope. In 1528 Pier Luigi, still under imperial pay, fought in Apulia against the French army and distinguished himself in the defence of Manfredonia; when his father was elevated to the papacy as Paul III in 1534, great festivities were celebrated at Valentano, after which Pier Luigi left for Rome. Paul's first action was to make Alessandro Farnese, a cardinal, but Charles V only reluctantly allowed the granting of titles to Pier Luigi over the city of Novara, agreeing an annual pension on the condition that the news was not made public. In the hope of speeding things up, Pier Luigi took direct part in the negotiations while leading troops into the lands occupied by his Farnese relatives.
Novara and its surrounding territory was established as a marquessate in favour of Pier Luigi, but had to wait until February 1538 until formal investiture could be made. In the meantime the office of Captain General of the Church had become vacant, Paul nominated his son on 31 January 1537. Pier Luigi travelled through the Papal States defeating pockets of resistance before arriving in triumph at Piacenza. Meanwhile, Paul III recovered the family lands around Castro, split after the death of Ranuccio the Elder. To this he added the territory of Ronciglione. Pier Luigi was invested with the titles of "Montalto" which gave the right to export grain without paying taxes, he exchanged the city of Frascati for the fortress at Castro, at bought Bisenzio from the diocese of Montefiascone. As a final act, Paul bestowed it upon his son and heirs; the duchy was, however. The Duchy of Castro operated as a functioning State within the Patrimony of Saint Peter, it possessed rich forests full of game, fertile vineyards and fields, a great number of fortresses.
In the consistory of 14 March 1537, the Pope awarded his son the cities of Nepi and Ronciglione. Pier Luigi was tasked with repairing all the fortresses over; the new Duke commissioned Antonio da Sangallo the Younger to create a new capital, which saw the construction of a citadel, ducal palace and mint. During his life Pier Luigi gained a certainy reputation for cruelty and decadence. A particular scandal erupted in 1537, when he was accused of what became known as the'rape of Fano', where he raped the young bishop of the city, Cosimo Gheri, while marching with his troops. In 1538 his son Ottavio married Margaret of Parma, an illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V. In 1543 another son, was sent to France and married Diane de France - an illegitimate daughter of Henry II of France. In 154
A cardinal-nephew was a cardinal elevated by a pope, that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries; the last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism referred to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem, a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule; every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son. The institution of the cardinal-nephew evolved over seven centuries, tracking developments in the history of the papacy and the styles of individual Popes. From 1566 until 1692, a cardinal-nephew held the curial office of the Superintendent of the Ecclesiastical State, known as the Cardinal Nephew, thus the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
The curial office of the Cardinal Nephew as well as the institution of the cardinal-nephew declined as the power of the Cardinal Secretary of State increased and the temporal power of popes decreased in the 17th and 18th centuries. The list of cardinal-nephews includes at least fifteen, as many as nineteen popes; the creation of cardinal-nephews predates the hierarchical preeminence of cardinals within the Roman Catholic Church, which grew out of the 1059 decree of Pope Nicholas II, In nomine Domini, which established cardinal bishops as the sole electors of the Pope, with the consent of cardinal deacons and cardinal priests. The first known cardinal-nephew is Lottario, cousin of Pope Benedict VIII, elected circa 1015. Benedict VIII elevated his brother Giovanni and his cousin Teofilatto as cardinal-deacons; the first known cardinal-nephew after 1059 is Anselm of Lucca, the nephew or brother of Pope Alexander II, although until the end of 12th the majority of the alleged cases of such appointments are dubious, either because the relationship between the Pope and cardinal is not proven, or because the cardinalate of the papal kinsman is uncertain.
However, it is beyond doubt that the promotions of papal relatives to the College of Cardinals were common in 13th century. According to historian John Bargrave, "by the Council of Bazill, Session 21, the number of cardinals was not to be above 24, not any nephew of the Pope or of any cardinal was to be of that number." Pope Clement VI created more cardinal-nephews than any other pontiff, including six on September 20, 1342, the greatest number of cardinal-nephews elevated at one time. The capitulation of the 1464 papal conclave limited the Pope it elected to appointing one cardinal-nephew, along with other conditions designed to increase the power of the College of Cardinals and reduce the Pope's ability to dilute that power; the Fifth Council of the Lateran declared in 1514 that the care of relatives was to be commended, the creation of cardinal-nephews was recommended or justified based on the need to care for indigent family members. A cardinal-nephew could expect profitable appointments.
Pope Paul IV, in his old age, was said to have "fallen completely under the cardinal-nephew's influence". Saint Charles Borromeo, cardinal-nephew of Pope Pius IV, had ensured the subordination of the secretarius intimus to the Cardinal Nephew, which came to be sometimes known as the secretarius maior. Pius IV was notorious for nepotism: between 1561 and 1565 he transferred more than 350,000 scudi to his relatives. Following the Council of Trent, Pope Pius V drew up the terms for the office of the Superintendent of the Ecclesiastical State, to handle the temporal affairs of the Papal States and the foreign relations of the Holy See. After abortively attempting to divide the duties of the Superintendent between four non-familial cardinals, Pius V acceded to the urgings of the College of Cardinals and his Spanish ambassador, appointed his grandnephew, Michele Bonelli, as Superintendent, demarcating his duties with a papal bull of March 14, 1566. However, Pius V relentlessly avoided delegating any real autonomous power to Bonelli.
The Cardinal Nephew was an official legate of the Roman Curia equivalent to the Cardinal Secretary of State, which abso
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Todi is a town and comune of the province of Perugia in central Italy. It is perched on a tall two-crested hill overlooking the east bank of the river Tiber, commanding distant views in every direction. In the 1990s, Richard S. Levine, a professor of Architecture at the University of Kentucky, described Todi as the model sustainable city, because of its scale and its ability to reinvent itself over time. After that, the Italian press reported on Todi as the world's most livable city. According to the legend, said to have been recorded around 1330 BC by a mythological Quirinus Colonus, Todi was built by Hercules, who here killed Cacus, gave the city the name of Eclis. Historical Todi was founded by the ancient Italic people of the Umbri, in the 8th-7th century BC, with the name of Tutere; the name means the city being located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was still under the latters' influence when it was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his victory at Lake Trasimeno.
In most Latin texts, the name of the town took the form Tuder. A notable find dating back to this age is an ancient bronze statue of Mars, excavated in 1835 in the nearby Montesanto. Christianity spread to Todi early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. Bishop St. Fortunatus became the patron saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the Gothic siege. In Lombard times, Todi was part of the Duchy of Spoleto. After the 12th century the city started to expand again: the government was held first by consuls, by podestà and a people's captain, some of whom achieved wide fame. In 1244 the new quarters, housing the new artisan classes, were enclosed in a new circle of walls. Benedetto Caetani, the latter Pope Boniface VIII, started his career as a Canon in the Cathedral of Todi in 1260, he never forgot his roots in Todi describing the city as "the dwelling place of my early youth," the city which "nourished me while still of tender years," and as a place where he "held lasting memories."
In 1290 the city had 40,000 inhabitants. Communal autonomy was lost in 1367 when the city was annexed to the Papal States: the local overlordship shifted among various families. Although reduced to half of its former population, Todi lived a brief period of splendour under bishop Angelo Cesi, who rebuilt several edifices or added new ones, like the Cesia Fountain that still bears his name. In July 1849 Todi received Giuseppe Garibaldi, fleeing after the failed democratic attempt of the Republic of Rome. Todi is the birthplace of the Franciscan poet Jacopone da Todi, buried in a special crypt in the church of S. Fortunato. All Todi's main medieval monuments — the co-cathedral church, the Palazzo del Capitano, the Palazzo del Priore and the Palazzo del Popolo — front on the main square on the lower breast of the hill: the piazza is used as a movie set; the whole landscape is sited over some huge ancient Roman cisterns, with more than 500 pits, which remained in use until 1925. Todi Cathedral is a Gothic edifice on the Lombard plan, said to be erected over an ancient Roman building a temple dedicated to Apollo.
The current church was totally rebuilt after a fire in 1190. The main feature of the squarish façade is the central great rose window, added in 1513. Of the same period is the wooden door of the portal, by Antonio Bencivenni from Mercatello, of which only the four upper panels remain today; the church follows the plan of the Latin cross, with two aisles. Bonifacio VIII had a second aisle on one side known as "La navatina"; the counter-façade is occupied by a giant fresco depicting the Universal Judgment by Ferraù Faenzone, called "Il Faenzone", a work commissioned by Cardinal Angelo Cesi, in which the influence, if nowhere near the genius, of Michelangelo is discerned. The choir includes a magnificent wooden choir-enclosure with two floors. One important work of art is the 13th-century Crucifixion of the Umbrian school; the "People's Palace" is a Lombard-Gothic construction existing in 1213, is one of the most ancient communal palaces in Italy. It comprises two great halls: the "Sala Grande Inferiore", or "Sala delle Pietre", the "Sala Grande Superiore", housing the city's Art Gallery.
The "Captain's Palace", in Italian Gothic style, was built around 1293 and named "New Communal Palace" to differentiate it from the former one. It is on two distinct levels: the first floor housed the Justice Hall, with the Judges's offices in the lower; the latter is now occupied with findings and remains of Todi's history. It includes a saddle used by the wife of Giuseppe Garibaldi; some rooms are frescoed with portraits of its most illustrious men. The Priors' Palace is located in the southern side of the Piazza, it was begun in 1293 and enlarged as seat of the podestà, priors and the Papal governors. The trapezoidal tower was lower, had Guelph merlons; the façade includes a big bronze eagle by Giovanni di Giliaccio. Located at the left of the Cathedral, the Bishop's Palace was built in 1593 by Cardinal Angelo Cesi at his own expense, his crest is visible over the great portal, attributed to Vignola. The upper floors include a room frescoed by Ferraù Fenzoni and a gallery frescoed by Andrea Polinori in 1629.
Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of 148 km southeast of Florence, it covers a high part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany and Marche; the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. The city is known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, other institutes. Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy; the city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g. the Eurochocolate Festival, the Umbria Jazz Festival, the International Journalism Festival, is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.
The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia and one fresco. Another famous painter, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia; the city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon. In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, its senators sent to their death.
A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose, it must have been rebuilt at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr Perusia restituta. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, it is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be beheaded. St. Herculanus became the city's patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes.
In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city. On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those that elected Honorius III, Clement IV, Celestine V, Clement V, but Perugia had no mind to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines; however this dominant tendency was rather an Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei P
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got, was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314. He is remembered for suppressing the order of the Knights Templar and allowing the execution of many of its members, as the Pope who moved the Papacy from Rome to Avignon, ushering in the period known as the Avignon Papacy. Born in Villandraut, Aquitaine, as the son of Bérard, Lord of Villandraut, Bertrand became canon and sacristan of the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux vicar-general to his brother Bérard de Got, the Archbishop of Lyon, who in 1294 was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, he was made Bishop of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, the cathedral church of which he was responsible for enlarging and embellishing, chaplain to Pope Boniface VIII, who made him Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1297. Following the death of Benedict XI in 1304, there was a year's interregnum occasioned by disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly balanced in the conclave, which had to be held at Perugia.
Bertrand was consecrated on 14 November. Bertrand was neither Italian nor a cardinal, his election might have been considered a gesture towards neutrality; the contemporary chronicler Giovanni Villani reports gossip that he had bound himself to King Philip IV of France by a formal agreement before his elevation, made at St. Jean d'Angély in Saintonge. Whether this was true or not, it is that the future pope had conditions laid down for him by the conclave of cardinals. At Bordeaux, Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy, but he selected Lyon for his coronation on 14 November 1305, celebrated with magnificence and attended by Philip IV. Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals. At Clement's coronation the Duke of Brittany, John II, was leading the Pope's horse through the crowd during the celebrations. So many spectators had piled atop the walls that one of the walls crumbled and collapsed on top of the Duke, who died four days later. Early in 1306, Clement V explained away those features of the Papal bull Clericis Laicos that might seem to apply to the king of France and withdrew Unam Sanctam, the bull of Boniface VIII that asserted papal supremacy over secular rulers and threatened Philip's political plans, a radical change in papal policy.
On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of the Knights Templar were arrested in France, an action motivated financially and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this move, but it has embellished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the day of Clement V's coronation, the king charged the Templars with usury, credit inflation, heresy, sodomy and abuses, the scruples of the Pope were heightened by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently. Meanwhile, Philip IV's lawyers pressed to reopen Guillaume de Nogaret's charges of heresy against the late Boniface VIII that had circulated in the pamphlet war around the bull Unam sanctam. Clement V had to yield to pressures for this extraordinary trial, begun on 2 February 1309 at Avignon, which dragged on for two years. In the document that called for witnesses, Clement V expressed both his personal conviction of the innocence of Boniface VIII and his resolution to satisfy the king.
In February 1311, Philip IV wrote to Clement V abandoning the process to the future Council of Vienne. For his part, Clement V absolved all the participants in the abduction of Boniface at Anagni. In pursuance of the king's wishes, Clement V in 1311 summoned the Council of Vienne, which refused to convict the Templars of heresy; the Pope abolished the order anyway, as the Templars seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived their usefulness as papal bankers and protectors of pilgrims in the East. Their French estates were granted to the Knights Hospitallers, but Philip IV held them until his death and expropriated the Templars' bank outright. False charges of heresy and sodomy set aside, the guilt or innocence of the Templars is one of the more difficult historical problems because of the atmosphere of hysteria that had built up in the preceding generation because the subject has been embraced by conspiracy theorists and quasi-historians. Clement sent John of Montecorvino to Beijing to preach in China.
Clement engaged intermittently in communications with the Mongol Empire towards the possibility of creating a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. In April 1305, the Mongol Ilkhan ruler Oljeitu sent an embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to Clement, Philip IV of France, Edward I of England. In 1307, another Mongol embassy led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena reached European monarchs. However, no coordinated military action was forthcoming and hopes of alliance petered out within a few years. In 1308, Clement ordered the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the Holy Land in the spring of 1309; this resulted in the unwanted Crusade of the Poor appearing before Avignon in July 1309. Clement granted the poor crusaders an indulgence, but refused to let them participate in the professional expedition led by the Hospitallers; that expedition set off in early 1310, but instead of sailing for the Holy Land, the Hospitallers conquered the city of Rhodes from the Byzantines. On 4 April 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne.
Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II of England i