Palace of Inquisition
The Palace of Inquisition known as the Inquisition Palace, is an eighteenth-century the seat of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Cartagena, now in modern Colombia. Finished around 1770, it serves as a museum showcasing historical artifacts; the museum once displayed torture equipment used on victims during the inquisition however these items have been removed from display in 2015 prior to visits to Colombia by Pope Francis. It has been described as "one of the finer buildings" in Cartagena. Cited as one of Cartagena's "best examples of late colonial, civil architecture", it faces the Parque de Bolívar; the establishment of the Palace was decreed by Philip III. Since Cartagena was a center of commerce, a transit point between the Caribbean and Spanish settlements in western South America, the city became the third in the Spanish empire to have a tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition; some merchants were suspected of being crypto-Jews. During the period 1580-1640, the crown of Portugal and that of Spain were ruled by the same monarch, the period saw many Portuguese merchants active in Spain's overseas colonies.
Established in 1610, the current building was completed much later. The Palace was used by Inquisition to try Jews and other non-Catholics and about 800 individuals believed guilty of crimes such as black magic were publicly executed there; the Palace is built with elements from the Baroque era. A crucifix occupies one of the walls facing a torture equipment; the white brick structure has gateways made of stone. The rooms of the Palace are made up of masonry; the framework of the Palace is built out of wood. The museum displays coins, weapons, church bells, depictions of notable generals, in addition to the torture equipment used previously; the Palace was restored to preserve Colombia's cultural heritage. Mexican Inquisition Peruvian Inquisition Architecture of Colombia
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, thus can be difficult to define with precision, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, is present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view; the concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have persisted throughout recorded history. They have been present or central at various times and in many diverse forms among cultures and religions worldwide, including both "primitive" and "highly advanced" cultures, continue to have an important role in many cultures today; the predominant concept of witchcraft in the Western world derives from Old Testament laws against witchcraft, entered the mainstream when belief in witchcraft gained Church approval in the Early Modern Period.
It posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was evil and associated with the Devil and Devil worship. This culminated in deaths and scapegoating, many years of large scale witch-trials and witch hunts in Protestant Europe, before ceasing during the European Age of Enlightenment. Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief, in some churches approval. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism, it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft. Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs and place in their societies.
During the Age of Colonialism, many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism accompanied and preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity. Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era, with killings both of victims for their magical body parts, of suspected witchcraft practitioners. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of often-lethal infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. Public healthcare requires considerable education work related to epidemology and modern health knowledge in many parts of the world where belief in witchcraft prevails, to encourage effective preventive health measures and treatments, to reduce victim blaming and stigmatization, to prevent the killing of people and endangering of animal species for body parts believed to convey magical abilities.
The word witch is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies. One popular belief is that it is "related to the English words wit, wisdom," so "craft of the wise." Another is from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of "wicce" and "cræft". In anthropological terminology, witches differ from sorcerers in that they don't use physical tools or actions to curse; this definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches could use physical techniques, as well as some who had attempted to cause harm by thought alone. European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune; the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators believe. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impo
José de la Serna, 1st Count of the Andes
José de la Serna e Hinojosa, 1st Count of the Andes, LCSF was a Spanish general and colonial official. He was the last Spanish viceroy of Peru to exercise effective power, he entered the army at a young age and saw his first service in the defense of Ceuta against the Moors in 1784. He saw service against the French in Catalonia, against the British under Admiral José de Mazarredo, in the second siege of Zaragoza. During the latter battle he was taken to France as a prisoner, he soon escaped. Thereafter he traveled in Switzerland and the Orient returning to Spain in 1811. In Spain he fought under Wellington in the Spanish War of Independence against the French, until the expulsion of the latter in 1813. In 1816, having risen to the rank of major general, he was appointed to take command of the Spanish forces in Peru battling the insurgents, he arrived in Callao on September 22, 1816 and proceeded directly to Alto Perú. He took charge of the army in Cotagaita on November 12, 1816. Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela ordered De la Serna to attack Argentine insurgents in the province of Tucumán, but De la Serna opposed this plan, citing insufficient forces.
De la Serna had advanced as far as Salta when the Spanish were surprised by the appearance in February 1817 of José de San Martín's Army of the Andes in Chile. San Martín had made an 21-day crossing of the mountains from Argentina, he conquered Chile, De la Serna's army in Alto Perú was reduced to defensive warfare against various rebel groups in different parts of the country. Serna's relations with Viceroy De la Pezuela further deteriorated. De la Serna asked to be relieved so that he could retire to Spain. Permission was received in May 1819, in September he resigned the command of the army to General José Canterac, he had partisans in Lima, upon his arrival there they demonstrated in favor of his remaining in Peru to face the threatened invasion of San Martín from Chile. De la Pezuela agreed to promote De la Serna to lieutenant general and name him president of a council of war. San Martin landed in Pisco, on September 7, 1819. De la Serna, through secret negotiations, was named commander-in-chief of the army gathered at Aznapuquio to protect the capital against San Martin's advance.
He was ordered by the viceroy to march to Chancay. On January 29, 1821, the principal officers of the camp, partisans of De la Serna, petitioned the viceroy to resign in favor of De la Serna. De la Pezuela refused, ordered De la Serna to subdue the mutiny, but De la Serna claimed to be unable to do so; the viceroy turned over executive authority on the evening of the same day. The results of this coup were recognized by Spain. A Spanish commissioner, Captain Manuel Abreu, arrived in Lima while San Martín was threatening the capital, he brought orders to the viceroy to negotiate for a peaceful settlement. De la Serna sent him on to meet with San Martín. Negotiations did begin on May 3, 1821 with representatives from both sides; the negotiations brought no agreement. The stumbling block was independence; the insurgents demanded it, Spain insisted on submission to the king. On June 25, hostilities began again. De la Serna was forced to abandon the capital on July 6, 1821. San Martín entered the capital four days and was received by the common people with jubilation.
On July 15, 1821 the Act of Independence of Peru was signed at the city hall in Lima. De la Serna retired to Jauja, to Cuzco, he brought with him the first printing press in Cuzco, on, published the famous newspaper El Depositario. On August 24 De la Serna sent General Canterac with a force of 4,000 men to relieve Callao. Callao was forced to surrender on September 19, 1821, due to lack of supplies. In Cuzco dissension broke out in the Royalist army. General Olañeta refused obedience and maintained an independent Royalist force in Alto Perú. Canterac was defeated on August 1824 by Simón Bolívar at Junín. De la Serna was now resolved to risk everything to crush the revolt, he left Cuzco in October with a well-disciplined army of 1,600 cavalry. He met the insurgent army in the mountain plain of Ayacucho on December 8, the following day was defeated by General Antonio José de Sucre. De la Serna was taken prisoner; the Royalist army had 2,000 dead and wounded and lost 3,000 prisoners, with the remainder of the army dispersed.
General Canterac, the second in command, signed an honorable capitulation the next day, December 9, 1824. De la Serna, who on the date of the battle had been created conde de los Andes by King Ferdinand VII, was released soon afterward and sailed for Europe. In all but name, the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru was at an end. In Spain, De la Serna was welcomed at court and his administration was approved, he was named captain general of Granada. He died childless in 1832 in Cádiz. Short biography at Encarta The Battle of Ayacucho, order of battle
Viceroyalty of Peru
The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal; the creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Río de la Plata reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish Empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century; these movements led to the formation of the modern-day countries of Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Argentina and Venezuela in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.
After the Spanish conquest of Peru, the first Audiencia was constituted by Lope García de Castro, a Spanish colonial administrator who served as a member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama and Lima. From September 2, 1564, to November 26, 1569, he was interim viceroy of Peru. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, which shortly afterward would be called the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1544, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V named Blasco Núñez Vela Peru's first viceroy, but the viceroyalty was not organized until the arrival of Viceroy Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, who made an extensive tour of inspection of the colony. Francisco de Toledo, "one of the great administrators of human times", established the Inquisition in the viceroyalty and promulgated laws that applied to Indians and Spanish alike, breaking the power of the encomenderos and reducing the old system of mita, he improved the defensibility of the viceroyalty with fortifications, la Armada del Mar del Sur against pirates.
He ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru, promoted economic development from the commercial monopoly and mineral extraction from silver mines in Potosí. The Amazon Basin and some large adjoining regions had been considered Spanish territory since the Treaty of Tordesillas and explorations such as that by Francisco de Orellana, but Portugal fell under Spanish control between 1580 and 1640. During this time, Portuguese territories in Brazil were controlled by the Spanish crown, which did object to the spread of Portuguese settlement into parts of the Amazon Basin that the treaty had awarded to Spain. Still, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón sent out a third expedition to explore the Amazon River, under Cristóbal de Acuña; some Pacific islands and archipelagoes were visited by Spanish ships in the sixteenth century, but they made no effort to trade with or colonize them. These included New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas Islands by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira.
The first Jesuit reduction to Christianize the indigenous population was founded in 1609, but some areas occupied by Brazilians as bandeirantes extended their activities through much of the basin and adjoining Mato Grosso in the 17th and 18th centuries. These groups had the advantage of remote geography and river access from the mouth of the Amazon, in Portuguese territory. Meanwhile, the Spanish were barred by their laws from enslaving indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the basin. A famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of 60,000 indigenous people. In fact, as time passed, they were used as a self-funding occupation force by the Portuguese authorities in what was a low-level war of territorial conquest. In 1617, viceroy Francisco de Borja y Aragón divided the government of Río de la Plata in two, Buenos Aires and Paraguay, both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru, he established the Tribunal del Consulado, a court and administrative body for commercial affairs in the viceroyalty.
Diego Fernández de Córdoba, Marquis of Guadalcázar, reformed the fiscal system and stopped the interfamily rivalry, bloodying the domain. Other viceroys, such as Fernando Torres, Fernández de Cabrera, Fernández Córdoba expanded the colonial navy and fortified the ports to resist pirate attacks, such as those led by the Englishman Thomas Cavendish. Fernández de Cabrera suppressed an insurrection of the Mapuche Indians. Viceroys had to protect the Pacific coast from English and Dutch pirates, they expanded the naval forces, fortified the ports of Valdivia, Valparaíso, Arica and Callao and constructed city walls in Lima and Trujillo. The famous English privateer Henry Morgan took Chagres and captured and sacked the city of Panama in the early part of 1670. Peruvian forces repelled the attacks by Edward David, Charles Wager and Thomas Colb; the Peace of Utrecht allowed the British to send ships and merchandise to the fair at Portobello. In this period, revolts were common. Around 1656, Pedro Bohórquez crowned himself Inca of the Calchaquí Indians, inciting the indigenous population to
Heresy is any belief or theory, at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, blasphemy, an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things; the term is used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used of views opposed to any accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity and Islam. In certain historical Christian and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty; the term heresy, from Greek αἵρεσις meant "choice" or "thing chosen", but it came to mean the "party or school of a man's choice" and referred to that process whereby a young person would examine various philosophies to determine how to live.
The word "heresy" is used within a Christian, Jewish, or Islamic context, implies different meanings in each. The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy or commit heresy are known as heretics. Heresiology is the study of heresy. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him; the Greek for the phrase "divisive person" became a technical term in the early Church for a type of "heretic" who promoted dissension. In contrast correct teaching is called sound not only because it builds up the faith, but because it protects it against the corrupting influence of false teachers; the Church Fathers identified Judaism with heresy. They saw deviations from orthodox Christianity as heresies that were Jewish in spirit. Tertullian implied that it was the Jews who most inspired heresy in Christianity: "From the Jew the heretic has accepted guidance in this discussion " The use of the word "heresy" was given wide currency by Irenaeus in his 2nd century tract Contra Haereses to describe and discredit his opponents during the early centuries of the Christian community.
He described the community's beliefs and doctrines as orthodox and the Gnostics' teachings as heretical. He pointed out the concept of apostolic succession to support his arguments. Constantine the Great, who along with Licinius had decreed toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire by what is called the "Edict of Milan", was the first Roman Emperor baptized, set precedents for policy. By Roman law the Emperor was Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of all recognized religions in ancient Rome. To put an end to the doctrinal debate initiated by Arius, Constantine called the first of what would afterwards be called the ecumenical councils and enforced orthodoxy by Imperial authority; the first known usage of the term in a legal context was in AD 380 by the Edict of Thessalonica of Theodosius I, which made Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as "heresy".
By this edict the state's authority and that of the Church became somewhat overlapping. One of the outcomes of this blurring of Church and state was the sharing of state powers of legal enforcement with church authorities; this reinforcement of the Church's authority gave church leaders the power to, in effect, pronounce the death sentence upon those whom the church considered heretical. Within six years of the official criminalization of heresy by the Emperor, the first Christian heretic to be executed, was condemned in 386 by Roman secular officials for sorcery, put to death with four or five followers. However, his accusers were excommunicated both by Ambrose of Milan and Pope Siricius, who opposed Priscillian's heresy, but "believed capital punishment to be inappropriate at best and unequivocally evil"; the edict of Theodosius II provided severe punishments for those who had or spread writings of Nestorius. Those who possessed writings of Arius were sentenced to death. For some years after the Reformation, Protestant churches were known to execute those they considered heretics, including Catholics.
The last known heretic executed by sentence of the Catholic Church was Spanish schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll in 1826. The number of people executed as heretics under the authority of the various "ecclesiastical authorities" is not known. In the Catholic Church and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church before excommunication is incurred; the Codex Justinianus defines "everyone, not devoted to the Catholic Church and to our Orthodox holy Faith" a heretic. The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Donatism and Montanism; the diffusion of the Manichaean sect of Paulicians westwards gave birth to the famous 11th and 12th century heresies of Western Europe. The first one was that of Bogomils in modern-day Bosnia, a sort of sanctuary between Eastern and Western Christianity. By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
In France the Cathars gr
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Battle of Jaquijahuana
The Battle of Jaquijahuana was fought between the forces of Gonzalo Pizarro and Pedro de la Gasca, on April 9, 1548, during the Conquest of the Inca Empire by the Spanish conquistadores. After the successful Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the assassination of Francisco Pizarro in 1541, the execution of his main antagonist, Diego de Almagro and his son, El Mozo, most of the competent commanders of the founded New Castile Governorate had been lost in the ensuing power struggle. In 1540, second in line of the Pizarro brothers, Hernando Pizarro, returned to Spain to defend the question of his and his brothers' reign in Peru against accusations of abuse of power, he was imprisoned on orders of King Charles. The Almagristas, followers of Diego de Almagro, met their downfall in the battle of Chupas on September 16, 1542. Two years King Charles sent his own envoy, Blasco Núñez Vela, as governor over the found Viceroyalty of Peru, as well to ensure the accomplishment of the New Laws enacted in 1542 to protect the native Peruvian population of Peru.
Gonzalo Pizarro, refused to relinquish power and the sovereignty over Peru once belonging to him and his brothers. With his namesake as an ensuring symbol of the former reign of the Pizarros, he gathered supporters opposed by formal governor of New Castile, Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, victor at Chupas over the Almagristas; the Viceroy arrived at Lima, new capital of Peru, was sworn into office on May 17, 1544. He shortly sent home to Spain. On September 18, Gonzalo Pizarro managed to depose Blasco Núñez Vela and sent him as prisoner to Panama. On October 28, the 1,200 men strong army of Gonzalo Pizarro entered Lima. Upon arrival to Panama, Vela was released, returned to Peru with royal claims as the rightful viceroy and governor of Peru, landing in Tumbes; the two gathered supporters and met on January 18, 1546 at Añaquito in present-day Ecuador, superiority in numbers and firepower ensured victory for Gonzalo Pizarro, who crushed the army of Blasco Núñez Vela, decapitated on the field of battle.
This, in its turn, ensured a struggle for the control of Peru between Gonzalo Pizarro and the royal forces. The king appointed Pedro de la Gasca as new governor of Peru. De la Gasca landed in Peru in 1547, winning supporters to his inferior forces by promising amnesty to those having committed treason to the crown, proclaimed he would not enforce the New Laws, whose dispositions demanding better conditions for native laborers had led many powerful encomenderos to join Pizarro's cause. After initial skirmishes, the two forces went close to a confrontation in late 1547 at Jaquijahuana plains near Cuzco, but de la Gasca succeeded in avoiding battle, gaining precious time which he employed to convince more of Pizarro's officers to switch sides, among them the notorious Alonso de Alvarado. Although Pizarro had arrived to Jaquijahuana with a vastly superior force, by the time the two sides met on the battlefield in April 1518, the situation had reversed, a steady string of defections having left Pizarro's forces in grave numerical inferiority and poor morale.
The battle itself proved to be a disaster for Gonzalo Pizarro, with all his men who hadn't defected being killed or captured on the field, while de la Gasca's men suffered a single casualty. Gonzalo himself, along with his most loyal commander, Francisco de Carvajal, dubbed the Deamon of the Andes, were captured on field of battle and executed by beheading. De la Gasca made efforts to consolidate his control over Peru, which remained a royal colony and viceroyalty until the revolutionary actions of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar during the early 19th century. Prescott, William Hickling, The Conquest of Peru, Digital Antiquaria, ISBN 1-58057-302-9