The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles. The two muscles are separate in the abdomen, but merge in the thigh; as such, they are given the common name iliopsoas. The iliopsoas muscle joins to the femur at the lesser trochanter, acts as the strongest flexor of the hip; the iliopsoas muscle is supplied by parts of the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas muscle is a composite muscle formed from the psoas major muscle, the iliacus muscle; the psoas major originates along the outer surfaces of the vertebral bodies of T12 and L1-L3 and their associated intervertebral discs. The iliacus originates in the iliac fossa of the pelvis; the psoas major unites with the iliacus at the level of the inguinal ligament and crosses the hip joint to insert on the lesser trochanter of the femur. The iliopsoas is classified as an "anterior hip muscle" or "inner hip muscle"; the psoas minor does contribute to the iliopsoas muscle. The inferior portion below the inguinal ligament forms part of the floor of the femoral triangle.
The psoas major is innervated by direct branches of the anterior rami off the lumbar plexus at the levels of L1-L3, while the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve. The iliopsoas is the prime mover of hip flexion, is the strongest of the hip flexors; the iliopsoas is important for standing and running. The iliacus and psoas major perform different actions; the iliopsoas muscle is covered by the iliac fascia, which begins as a strong tube-shaped psoas fascia, which surround the psoas major muscle as it passes under the medial arcuate ligament. Together with the iliac fascia, it continues down to the inguinal ligament where it forms the iliopectineal arch which separates the muscular and vascular lacunae, it is a typical posture muscle dominated by slow-twitch red type 1 fibers. Since it originates from the lumbar vertebrae and discs and inserts onto the femur, any structure from the lumbar spine to the femur can be affected directly. A short and tight iliopsoas presents as externally rotated legs and feet.
It can cause pain in the low or mid back, SI joint, groin, knee, or any combination. The iliopsoas gets innervation from the L2-4 nerve roots of the lumbar plexus which send branches to the superficial lumbar muscles; the femoral nerve passes through the muscle and innervates the quadriceps and sartorius muscles. It comprises the intermediate femoral cutaneous and medial femoral cutaneous nerves which are responsible for sensation over the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh, medial shin, arch of the foot nerves; the obturator nerve passes through the muscle, responsible for the sensory innervation of the skin of the medial aspect of the thigh and motor innervation of the adductor muscles of the lower extremity and sometimes the pectineus. Any of these innervated structures can be affected. Psoas abscess Iliopsoas tendonitis Muscles of the hip Muscles/Iliopsoas at exrx.net Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
In human anatomy, a hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee. The hamstrings are quite susceptible to injury. In quadrupeds, the hamstring is the single large tendon found behind comparable area; the common criteria of any hamstring muscles are: Muscles should originate from ischial tuberosity. Muscles should be inserted in the tibia or in the fibula. Muscles will be innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve. Muscle will participate in flexion of the knee extension of the hip joint; those muscle which fulfill all of the four criteria are called true hamstrings. The adductor magnus reaches only up to the adductor tubercle of the femur, but it is included amongst the hamstrings because the tibial collateral ligament of the knee joint morphologically is the degenerated tendon of this muscle; the ligament is attached to two millimeters from the adductor tubercle. The three muscles of the posterior thigh flex the knee, while all but the short head of biceps femoris extend the hip.
The three'true' hamstrings cross both the hip and the knee joint and are therefore involved in knee flexion and hip extension. The short head of the biceps femoris crosses only one joint and is therefore not involved in hip extension. With its divergent origin and innervation it is sometimes excluded from the'hamstring' characterization. A portion of the adductor magnus is sometimes considered a part of the hamstrings; the hamstrings cross and act upon two joints - the hip and the knee, as such are termed biarticular muscles. Semitendinosus and semimembranosus extend the hip; the long head of the biceps femoris extends the hip, as. The hamstrings play a crucial role in many daily activities such as walking, running and controlling some movement in the trunk. In walking, they are most important as an antagonist to the quadriceps in the deceleration of knee extension. Imaging the hamstring muscles is performed with an ultrasound and/or MRI; the biceps femoris is most injured, followed by semitendinosus.
Semimembranosus injury is rare. Imaging is useful in differentiating the grade of strain if the muscle is torn. In this setting, the level and degree of retraction can be determined, serving as a useful roadmap prior to any surgery; those with a hamstring strain of greater than 60mm in length have a greater risk of recurrence. The distal semitendinosus tendon is one of the tendons that can be used in the surgical procedure ACL reconstruction. In this procedure, a piece of it is used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament; the ACL is one of the four major ligaments in the knee. The word "ham" is derived from the Old English ham or hom meaning the hollow or bend of the knee, from a Germanic base where it meant "crooked", it gained the meaning of the leg of an animal around the 15th century. String refers to tendons, thus, the hamstrings are the string-like tendons felt on either side of the back of the knee. Hamstringing Hamstring curl Lombard's Paradox Popliteal fossa Pulled hamstring MRI Images demonstrating avulsion fracture of the hamstring muscle origin
Inferior gemellus muscle
The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus, received into a groove between them; the Gemellus inferior arises from the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium below the groove for the Obturator internus tendon. It blends with the lower part of the tendon of the Obturator internus, is inserted with it into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Absent. Like the obturator internus muscle, the gemellus superior and gemellus inferior help to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum. Both muscles help to laterally rotate the extended thigh and abduct the flexed thigh at the hip Superior gemellus muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Articularis genus muscle
The articularis genus is a small skeletal muscle located anteriorly on the thigh just above the knee. It arises from the anterior surface of the lower part of the body of the femur, deep to the vastus intermedius, close to the knee and from the deep fibers of the vastus intermedius, its insertion is on the synovial membrane of the knee-joint. It is supplied by the lateral femoral circumflex artery, it is innervated by branches of the femoral nerve. Flat and variable, sometimes consisting of several separate muscular bundles, this muscle is without a distinct investing fascia and ranges 1.5–3 cm in width. It is distinct from the vastus intermedius, but blended with it. Articularis genus pulls the suprapatellar bursa superiorly during extension of the knee, prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between the patella and the femur; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Farshchian's Orthopedic Regenerative Series: The Knee.
Internal obturator muscle
The internal obturator muscle or obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, the rim of the pubis. It exits the pelvic cavity through the lesser sciatic foramen; the internal obturator is situated within the lesser pelvis, at the back of the hip-joint. It functions to help laterally rotate femur with hip extension and abduct femur with hip flexion, as well as to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum, it arises from the inner surface of the antero-lateral wall of the pelvis, where it surrounds the greater part of the obturator foramen, being attached to the inferior pubic ramus and ischium, at the side to the inner surface of the hip bone below and behind the pelvic brim, reaching from the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen above and behind to the obturator foramen below and in front. It arises from the pelvic surface of the obturator membrane except in the posterior part, from the tendinous arch which completes the canal for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerve, to a slight extent from the obturator fascia, which covers the muscle.
The fibers converge toward the lesser sciatic foramen, end in four or five tendinous bands, which are found on the deep surface of the muscle. The tendon inserts on the greater trochanter of the proximal femur; the internal obturator muscle is innervated by the nerve to internal obturator. This bony surface is covered by smooth cartilage, separated from the tendon by a bursa, presents one or more ridges corresponding with the furrows between the tendinous bands; these bands leave the pelvis through the lesser sciatic foramen and unite into a single flattened tendon, which passes horizontally across the capsule of the hip-joint, after receiving the attachments of the superior and inferior gemellus muscles, is inserted into the forepart of the medial surface of the greater trochanter above the trochanteric fossa. A bursa and elongated in form, is found between the tendon and the capsule of the hip-joint; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Gluteal Region: Muscles" Anatomy photo:43:st-0603 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: Muscles" Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman perineum at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Int.
J. Morphol. 25:95-98, 2007
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb; the single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is thick and strong, forms a ball and socket joint at the hip, a modified hinge joint at the knee; the femur is the only bone in the thigh and serves for an attachment site for all muscles in the thigh. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body; the femur is the longest bone in the body. The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis, the shaft and two epiphysis or extremities that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided by fascia, each containing muscles; these compartments use the femur as an axis, are separated by tough connective tissue membranes.
Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, contains a different group of muscles. Medial fascial compartment of thigh, adductor Posterior fascial compartment of thigh, hamstring Anterior fascial compartment of thigh, extensionAnterior compartment muscles of the thigh include sartorius, the four muscles that comprise the quadriceps muscles- rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Posterior compartment muscles of the thigh are the hamstring muscles, which include semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Medial compartment muscles are pectineus, adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis, gracilis; because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles of the body, resistance exercises of them stimulate blood flow more than any other localized activity. The arterial supply is by the obturator artery; the lymphatic drainage follows the arterial supply and drains to the lumbar lymphatic trunks on the corresponding side, which in turn drains to the cisterna chyli.
The deep venous system of the thigh consists of the femoral vein, the proximal part of the popliteal vein, various smaller vessels. The venae perfortantes connect the deep and the superficial system, which consists of the saphenous veins. Thigh weakness can result in a positive Gowers' sign on physical examination; the thigh meat of some animals such as chicken and cow is consumed as a food in many parts of the world
External obturator muscle
The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis. It is sometimes considered part of the medial compartment of thigh, sometimes considered part of the gluteal region, it arises from the margin of bone around the medial side of the obturator membrane and surrounding bone, viz. from the inferior pubic ramus, the ramus of the ischium. The fibers springing from the pubic arch extend on to the inner surface of the bone, where they obtain a narrow origin between the margin of the foramen and the attachment of the obturator membrane; the fibers converge and pass posterolateral and upward, end in a tendon which runs across the back of the neck of the femur and lower part of the capsule of the hip joint and is inserted into the trochanteric fossa of the femur. The obturator vessels lie between the obturator membrane. In 33 % of people a supernumerary muscle is found between the adductor minimus. While this muscle, when present, is similar to its neighbouring adductors, it is formed by separation from the superficial layer of the external obturator, is thus not ontogenetically related to the adductor muscles of the hip.
This muscle originates from the upper part of the inferior pubic ramus from where it runs downwards and laterally. In half of cases, it inserts into the anterior surface of the insertion aponeurosis of the adductor minimus. In the remaining cases, it is either inserted into the upper part of the pectineal line or the posterior part of the lesser trochanter, it has been demonstrated by the course of the posterior branch of obturator nerve that the obturator externus is divided into a superior muscle fascicle and a main belly. The supernumerary muscle described above originates from the superior fascicle, while an anomalous fascicle — derived from the external obturator — originates from the main belly; the "original" external obturator, i.e. without these supernumerary muscular parts occurs in only 20% of cases, the external obturator undergoes ontogenetic variations. The external obturator muscle acts as the lateral rotator of the hip joint; as a short muscle around the hip joint, it stabilizes the hip joint as a postural muscle.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman PTCentral