Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family. Bulgarian, along with the related Macedonian language, has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article, the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. Various evidential verb forms exist to express unwitnessed and doubtful action. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Bulgarian became one of the official languages of the European Union. One can divide the development of the Bulgarian language into several periods; the Prehistoric period covers the time between the Slavonic migration to the eastern Balkans and the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia in the 860s. Old Bulgarian – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Common Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved.
Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples used this norm when translating the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic. Middle Bulgarian – a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations occurred. A language of rich literary activity, it served as the official administration language of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Modern Bulgarian dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries. Present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian vernacular; the historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a synthetic language to a typical analytic language with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition. Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing; as Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts referred to this language was as языкъ словяньскъ, "the Slavic language".
In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was replaced by the name языкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". In some cases, this name was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but to the period of Old Bulgarian. A most notable example of anachronism is the Service of Saint Cyril from Skopje, a 13th-century Middle Bulgarian manuscript from northern Macedonia according to which St. Cyril preached with "Bulgarian" books among the Moravian Slavs; the first mention of the language as the "Bulgarian language" instead of the "Slavonic language" comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the Archbishopric of Ohrid in the 11th century, for example in the Greek hagiography of Clement of Ohrid by Theophylact of Ohrid. During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system and developing a definite article, it was influenced by its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan language area and also by Turkish, the official language of the Ottoman Empire, in the form of the Ottoman Turkish language lexically.
As a national revival occurred toward the end of the period of Ottoman rule, a modern Bulgarian literary language emerged that drew on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian and reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkan loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of Old Bulgarian words and word forms in the latter. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот, непонятен, ядро and others. Many other loans from French and the classical languages have subsequently entered the language as well. Modern Bulgarian was based on the Eastern dialects of the language, but its pronunciation is in many respects a compromise between East and West Bulgarian. Following the efforts of some figures of the National awakening of Bulgaria, there had been many attempts to codify a standard Bulgarian language. Between 1835 and 1878 more than 25 proposals were put forward and "linguistic chaos" ensued.
The eastern dialects prevailed, in 1899 the Bulgarian Ministry of Education codified a standard Bulgarian language based on the Drinov-Ivanchev orthography. The language is split into two broad dialect areas, based on the different reflexes of the Common Slavic yat vowel; this split, which occurred at some point during the Middle Ages, led to the development of Bulgaria's: Western dialects the former yat is pronounced "e" in all positions. E.g. млеко – milk, хлеб – bread. Eastern dialects the former yat alternates between "ya" and "e": it is pronounced "ya" if it is under stress and the next syllable does not contain a front vowel – e.g. мл
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Kardzhali, sometimes spelt Kardzali or Kurdzhali, is a town in the Eastern Rhodopes in Bulgaria, centre of Kardzhali Municipality and Kardzhali Province. The noted Kardzhali Dam is located nearby. Named after the 14th-century Ottoman conqueror Kırca Ali, from the Turkish name Kırca and the Islamic name Ali, derived from an Arabic root which means "high" or "Elevated". Kardzhali is located in the low eastern part of Rhodope Mountains, on both banks of the river Arda between the Kardzhali Reservoir to the west and the Studen Kladenets Reservoir to the east; the town is 260 km southeast of Sofia. It has a crossroad position from Thrace to the Aegean Sea — part of European transportation route 9, via the Makaza mountain pass. Kardzhali has a Humid subtropical climate according to the, it is dry all year round with the wettest month being December with just ten days of rainfall. The city has cold winters; the area where the town of Kardzhali is now located has been inhabited since the Neolithic. Many artifacts, comprising ceramics and primitive tools, have been found during the archaeological excavations.
Most of them are now exhibited in the local historical museum. Thracian tribes settled in the area and developed a advanced civilization, they built many sanctuaries dedicated to the gods of the earth. Near the village of Nenkovo, an artificial cave was found in 2001, it has the form of a woman's womb. At noon, when the sun is highest in the sky, a ray of light comes in through a stone slit forming a falitic shade in the cave. According to the Thracian beliefs, this is the conception of the new sun god; this cave is considered a complex astronomic facility as the ray of light enters the cave on a single day of the year. There are many stone castles and palaces that the Thracians built in the region — Perperek, Vishegrad; the most magnificent is Perperikon. The place has become popular since the recent archaeological works rendered wealth of artifacts. During the Byzantine period, Kardzhali was the center of a Christian eparchy — Achridos. During the reign of the Bulgarian Empire, Kardzhali was known as Zherkovo a name, used by the Bulgarians until the 17th century.
The Monastery of John the Precursor was built in the 6th-8th centuries and is now a monument of medieval architecture. A couple of other monasteries were built during this era, with some of them remaining until the early 19th century; the area was of strategic importance for the Bulgarian Empire during the Middle Ages and the remains of numerous Medieval fortress scattered on the surrounding hills can still be seen. The town developed due to its position on the trade routes during the period of Ottoman rule. However, it remained a small town. During the 18th century, Turkish brigands used this remote town as a hideaway and supply point, the town was named after their leader Kırca Ali; the best known of these units was led by Pazvantoğlu Osman Pasha, who ruled most of the northeastern Bulgarian lands and the Danube estuary until 1807. Kardzhali and its neighborhood became part of the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia under the stipulations of the Berlin Congress of 1878, after the reunification of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia in 1885, it was ceded back to the Ottoman Empire as a township of Gümülcine sanjak in Edirne vilayet.
Ottoman rule ended during the First Balkan War when the town and the surrounding area were liberated by the Bulgarian General Vasil Delov on 21 October 1912. The day has been celebrated with concerts and commemorative events as a municipal holiday since 1937. Kardzhali was declared the center of Kardzhali Province, when it was created from the most southern part of Stara Zagora Province in 1949. According to the 2011 census, Kardzhali has a population of 43,880, while the Kardzhali municipality has a population of 67,846. During Ottoman rule before 1912 most of the population of the city were Muslims - Turks and Muslim Roma. After the Second Balkan war and the First World War, Bulgarian Christian refugees from Eastern and Western Thrace settled in Kardzhali; some Turks moved to the remains of the Ottoman Empire in 1913 in response to the Bulgarian return to their lands. Further emigration to Turkey continued between 1913 and 1989; this included two emigration waves in the 1930s and 1950s as a result of treaties between Bulgaria and Turkey and most notably in 1989 in response to the state sponsored Revival Process which saw the forced Bulgarisation of ethnic Turks.
After 1990 the deteriorating economic conditions in Bulgaria during the post-communist transition led to significant emigration by both Bulgarians and Turks, with the Bulgarians moving to other parts of the country or abroad and with the Turks moving to Turkey. According to the last census in 2011 Kardzhali Province is the Bulgarian province with the highest relative proportion of ethnic Turks, though Kardzhali municipality and the city itself have a lower proportion of ethnic Turks than the rest of the province. According to the optional question on ethnic identification, the city itself has a Bulgarian majority) of 61%, while Turks are 34.9% and others and undeclared are 4.1%. The city itself has a muslim majority with an important christian population; the Kardzhali municipality has a Turkish majority of 55.5%, while Bulgarians are 40.5% and others and undecla
Bulgarian National Revival
The Bulgarian National Revival, sometimes called the Bulgarian Renaissance, was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people under Ottoman rule. It is accepted to have started with the historical book, Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya, written in 1762 by Paisius, a Bulgarian monk of the Hilandar monastery at Mount Athos, lasted until the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78; the period is remarkable for its characteristic architecture which can still be observed in old Bulgarian towns such as Tryavna and Veliko Tarnovo, the rich literary heritage of authors like Ivan Vazov and Hristo Botev that inspired the Bulgarian struggle for independence and an autonomous church, the April Uprising, a significant event of armed opposition to Ottoman rule, which led to the Russo-Turkish Liberation War of 1877-78. The significant changes in the Bulgarian society, the freedom of economic initiative and religious choice led to the formation of the Bulgarian nation in its ethnic borders and common territory embracing the lands of Moesia and Macedonia.
The Bulgarian National Revival is traditionally divided into three periods, the first from the 18th until the beginning of the 19th century, the second from the Ottoman reforms of the 1820s to the 1850s until the Crimean War, the third from the Crimean War until the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. The beginning of the Bulgarian National Revival has been a topic of intensified discussion in the past. According to contemporaries of the period, it began in the 1820s. Marin Drinov suggested the actual beginning was marked by the writing of Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya by Paisius of Hilendar. According to an later assumption by Hristo Gandev, the period began in the beginning of the 17th century; the prevailing opinion in contemporary historiography is that the Bulgarian National Revival's beginning is marked by the first clear processes of decomposition in the Ottoman Empire. The April Uprising led to the end of the Revival, it is universally accepted that the Bulgarian National Revival ended with the Liberation of Bulgaria.
This is meant only to include the Principality of Bulgaria, as revival processes continued until in Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia. Paisius of Hilendar Sophronius of Vratsa Petar Beron Nayden Gerov Miladinovi Brothers Vasil Aprilov Ivan Vazov Elias Riggs Neofit Rilski Lyuben Karavelov Vasil Levski Hristo Botev Georgi Benkovski Stefan Karadzha Vasil Drumev Georgi Sava Rakovski Stefan Stambolov Bacho Kiro National awakening of Bulgaria
Bulgarians are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions. Bulgarians derive their ethnonym from the Bulgars, their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak. Alternate etymologies include derivation from a compound of Proto-Turkic bel and gur, a proposed division within the Utigurs or Onogurs. According to the Art.25 of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable through naturalization. About 77% of Bulgaria's population identified themselves as Bulgarians in 2011 Bulgarian census; the population of Bulgaria descend from peoples with different numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the First Bulgarian Empire.
Two of the non-Slavic nations maintain a legacy among modern-day Bulgarians: the Thracians, from whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken. From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples, including Dacians, Goths, Ancient Greeks, Sarmatians and Illyrians settled into the Bulgarian land; the Thracian language has been described as a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the 6th century becoming extinct afterwards, but that in a period the Bulgarians replaced long-established Greek/Latin toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not been obliterated then; some pre-Slavic linguistic and cultural traces might have been preserved in modern Bulgarians. Scythia Minor and Moesia Inferior appear to have been Romanized, although the region became a focus of barbarian re-settlements during the 4th and early 5th centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the early 6th century.
According to archeological evidence from the late periods of Roman rule, the Romans did not decrease the number of Thracians in major cities. By the 4th century the major city of Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given names, but thereafter the names were replaced by Christian ones; the Early Slavs emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th century, spread to most of the eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches: the West Slavs in eastern Central Europe, the East Slavs in Eastern Europe, the South Slavs in Southeastern Europe. The latter inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians had not been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept that they began large-scale settling of the Balkans in the 580s based on the statement of the 6th century historian Menander speaking of 100,000 Slavs in Thrace and consecutive attacks of Greece in 582.
They continued coming to the Balkans in many waves, but leaving, most notably Justinian II settled as many as 30,000 Slavs from Thrace in Asia Minor. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic tribes into two groups: the Sklavenoi and Antes; some Bulgarian scholars suggest. The Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe. Scholars suggest that the ultimate origins of the Bulgar is Turkic and can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic confederations as part of loosely related Oghuric tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central Asia. However, any direct connection between the Bulgars and postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and "contorted etymologies"; some Bulgarian historians question the identification of the Bulgars as a Turkic tribe and suggest an Iranian origin. In the 670s, some Bulgar tribes, the Danube Bulgars led by Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by Kouber, crossed the Danube river and settled in the Balkans with a single migration wave, the former of which Michael the Syrian described as numbering 10,000.
The Bulgars are not thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas they controlled. However, according to Steven Runciman a tribe, able to defeat a Byzantine army, must have been of considerable dimensions. Asparukh's Bulgars made a tribal union with the Severians and the "Seven clans", who were re-settled to protect the flanks of the Bulgar settlements in Scythia Minor, as the capital Pliska was built on the site of a former Slavic settlement. During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor and Moesia Secunda were engaged in economic and social exchange with the'barbarians' north of the Danube; this might have facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of Constantinople or Asia Minor prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook; the large scale population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th century, additionally increased the number of the Slavs and Byzantine Christians within the state, making the Bulgars quite a