A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie, born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Born in Paris, France, he was a graduate of the École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris. In 1925 he became an assistant at the Radium Institute, he fell in love with her daughter Irène Curie, soon after their marriage in 1926 they both changed their surnames to Joliot-Curie. At the insistence of Marie, Joliot-Curie obtained a second baccalauréat, a bachelor's degree, a doctorate in science, doing his thesis on the electrochemistry of radio-elements. While a lecturer at the Paris Faculty of Science, he collaborated with his wife on research on the structure of the atom, in particular on the projection, or recoil, of nuclei, struck by other particles, an essential step in the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932. In 1935 they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of "artificial radioactivity," resulting from the creation of short-lived radioisotopes by nuclear transmutation from the bombardment of stable nuclides such as boron and aluminium with alpha particles.
In 1937 he left the Radium Institute to become a professor at the Collège de France working on chain reactions and the requirements for the successful construction of a nuclear reactor that uses controlled nuclear fission to generate energy through the use of uranium and heavy water. Joliot-Curie was one of the scientists mentioned in Albert Einstein's letter to President Roosevelt as one of the leading scientists on the course to chain reactions; the Second World War, however stalled Joliot's research, as did his subsequent post-war administrative duties. At the time of the Nazi invasion in 1940, Joliot-Curie managed to smuggle his working documents and materials to England with Hans von Halban, Moshe Feldenkrais and Lew Kowarski. During the French occupation he took an active part in the French Resistance as a member of the National Front. Collins and LaPierre in their book Is Paris Burning? Note that during the Paris uprising in August 1944 he served in the Prefecture of Police manufacturing for his fellow insurgents Molotov cocktails, the Resistance's principal weapon against German tanks.
The Prefecture was the scene of some of the most intense fighting during the uprising. After the Liberation of France, he served as director of the French National Center for Scientific Research, appointed by Charles De Gaulle in 1945, he became France's first High Commissioner for Atomic Energy. In 1944 French physicists, Pierre Auger and Jules Gueron were working on the British nuclear weapons research program at Chalk River in Canada; as France was being liberated by the Normandy invasion, they returned to France to inform Frederic Joliot-Curie of the progress of the American/British nuclear weapon program. Frederic passed on that information to his Soviet friends. In 1948 he oversaw the construction of the first French atomic reactor. A devoted communist, he was purged in 1950 and relieved of most of his duties, but retained his professorship at the Collège de France. Joliot-Curie was one of the eleven signatories to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955. On the death of his wife in 1956, he took over her position as Chair of Nuclear Physics at the Sorbonne.
Joliot-Curie was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and of the Academy of Medicine and named a Commander of the Legion of Honour. He was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1951 for his work as president of the World Council of Peace; the crater Joliot on the Moon is named after him. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1946, he was the recipient of the first Stalin Peace Prize, given in 1951. A street in Sofia and the nearby Joliot-Curie Metro Station are named after Frédéric Joliot-Curie. Other streets bearing his name can be found in the Rivière-des-Prairies borough of north Montreal, Canada. Joliot-Curie appeared as himself in Kampen om tungtvannet, a French–Norwegian semi-documentary film about sabotage of the Vemork heavy water plant in Norway during World War II, his assistants Hans Halban and Lev Kovarski appear. Joliot-Curie is shown lecturing about nuclear chain reaction at the Collège de France. Frédéric and Irène hyphenated their surnames to Joliot-Curie after they married on October 4, 1926 in Paris, although their daughter has said, "Many people used to name my parents Joliot-Curie, but they signed their scientific papers Irène Curie and Frédéric Joliot."Joliot-Curie's daughter, Hélène Langevin-Joliot, was born in 1927.
She is a nuclear professor at the University of Paris. Her brother, Pierre Joliot, was born in 1932, he is a biochemist at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Frédéric Joliot-Curie devoted the last years of his life to the creation of a centre for nuclear physics at Orsay, where his children were educated. Biquard, Pierre. Joliot-Curie: The Man and His Theories. New York: Paul S. Erickson. Nobel Foundation Biography Atomic Archive Biography Conference for the Nobel prize of F. & I. Joliot-Curie and analyzed on BibNum. Pinault, Michel. Frédéric Joliot-Curie. Paris: Odile Jacob. ISBN 2-7381-0812-1. Biquard, Pierre. Frédéric Joliot-Curie et l'énergie atomique. Paris: Seghers. ISBN 2747543110. Newspaper clippings about Frédéric Joliot-Curie in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Landes forest or the Landes of Gascony, in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest man-made woodland in Western Europe. The French word and Gascon lanas, mean'moors' or'heaths'; the forest covers two of the departments of France. The sources of several rivers can be found in this region, including the sources of the Leyre, the Boudigau, the Ciron, the Gat Mort; the largest towns within the forest are Arcachon and Mont-de-Marsan. The forest is composed of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. Unlike many other European forests, the Landes forest is entirely created and managed by man for industrial purposes; this massive pine plantation was started in the 18th century in the Pays de Buch area of Gironde, to halt erosion and cleanse the soil. Most of the region now occupied by the Landes forest was swampy land, sparsely inhabited until the 19th century, when the 19 June 1857 law ended traditional pastoralism and led to wide scale reforestation, in order to rehabilitate the landscape and provide for regional economic development.
Prior to this period, the people of the Landes used stilt-walking to move from place to place in the wet terrain. Since the 1970s, parts of the forest have given way to intensive agriculture The area of the forest is estimated to be around 10,000 square kilometres, of which nine-tenths is devoted to a monoculture of maritime pines, but, in the centre of this pinhadar, there is a natural forest that survives from the post-glacial timbering of this part of southwestern France. There, pines co-exist with other species, chiefly oak, birch and holly; this mixed temperate forest is most found along watercourses, where the drainage is good. The old-growth forest was more extensive prior to the Middle Ages, when a colder, more humid, climate took hold and changed the species composition; because of the need for wood for fuel and construction, because of a steady expansion in the grazing of sheep, the aboriginal forest was further depleted between the 15th and 18th centuries. A major storm in January 2009 damaged 300,000 hectares of forest, 90% of, located in the Landes Forest.
Before the mid-19th century, only the breeding of sheep on the moors allowed the cultivation of rye. Because of wet winters, it was necessary to top-dress the land with thatch to preserve it for the next growing season; the disappearance of the moors, because of the expansion of the pine plantations, brought about the end of this herding and wetland grain-growing culture, the iconic image of shepherds on stilts disappeared as well. The shepherd image was replaced by the image of the resin-collector with his tools. In the first part of the 20th century, extensive commercial exploitation of wood and pine resin began, these industries became an important part of the regional economy. Many local people are still employed in forest-related pursuits, including forestry, paper mills, woodcrafts like parquetry and joinery and furniture making, as well the fabrication of paper-based products like cardboard and fiberboard for construction. However, resin-collecting, which required hard labor, has completely disappeared because modern chemical processes for producing solvents and other useful chemicals do not rely on pine resin or pine tar as a precursor.
DRT is the largest company in this region. Voies Ferrées des Landes, grouping of railway companies operating in the forest. Parc naturel régional des Landes de Gascogne This article is based on a translation from the original French Wikipedia article as it appeared on November 11, 2006 which cite the following sources: Francis Dupuy, Le pin de la discorde: Les rapports de métayage dans la Grande Lande, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1996 François Sargos, "Forêt des landes de Gascogne, une nature secrète" Editions Sud Ouest, Bordeaux, 2008 Christian Maizeret, Les Landes de Gascogne, Delachaux et Niestlé, Paris, 2005 Jacques Sargos, Histoire de la Forêt landaise - Du désert à l'âge d'or, Bordeaux, L'horizon chimérique, 1997, rééd. En 2004. Massif des Landes de Gascogne - Inventaire forestier 1998 1999 2000, IFN L'Ours Pécheur, de Philippe Cougrand. Bordeaux: Pleine Page Editeur, 2008, 312 p.. ISBN 978-2-913406-58-2 Dérivés Résiniques et Terpéniques
Primary education called an elementary education is the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education. Primary education takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, takes place between primary school and high school. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education consists of grades 1-6; the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling. Due to the fact that the United Nations focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015.
According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009; this would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries will have needed to ensure that there are a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand of pupils; as of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the current teaching force in the region. However, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions, the percentage had increased.
According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade. Major advances had been made in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Tanzania experienced a similar outcome; the country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education."
1st grade: 6 to 7 years old 2nd grade: 7 to 8 years old 3rd grade: 8 to 9 years old 4th grade: 9 to 10 years old 5th grade: 10 to 11 years old 6th grade: 11 to 12 years old 7th grade: 12 to 13 years old 8th grade: 13 to 14 years old 9th grade: 14 to 15 years old crèche École maternelle toute petite section Cycle I petite section moyenne section grande section Cycle II grande section École primaire CP CE1 Cycle III CE2 CM1 CM2 SecondaryCollège Brevet diploma Lycée Baccalauréat diploma In Somalia, pupils start primary school when they are 7 and finish it at the age of 11 starting from form 1 to form 4. Pupils must firstly have attended casual school known as dugsi and learnt the Muslim holy book Qur'an, the meaning of the Arabic language. Pupils who had not done this are not permitted to start primary school as they will be examined before starting. Pupils' age may sometimes vary seeing that some pupils achieve higher than their predicted grade and may skip the year while some require to repeat the year if they had not achieved the grade required from them.
After finishing primary, students move to intermediate school. In Tunisia pre-school education is optional and provided in three settings: Kindergartens:socio-educational institutions that come under the supervision of Ministry of culture. Kouttabs:religious institutions cater for children between 3 and 5 years of age, their task is to initiate them into learning the Quran as well as reading and arithmetic. They are under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs Preparatory year: It is an integral part of basic education but it is not compulsory, it is supervised by the Ministry of Education and is provided in public and quasi-public primary schools 9 years of basic education are compulsory. Kindergarten: 5–6 years 1st grade: 6–7 years 2nd grade: 7–8 years 3rd grade: 8–9 years 4th grade: 9–10 years 5th grade: 10–11 years 6th grade: 11–12 years 7th grade: 12–13 years 8th grade: 13–14 years 9th grade: 14–15 years In Hong Kong, students attend primary schools for the first six years of compuls
Canéjan is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Canéjan is located 11.4 km southwest of Bordeaux. It is on the A63 autoroute, as well as the Route nationale 10; the commune borders Cestas, Pessac, Léognan. Gallo-Romans' relics has been discovered which attest human presence around the end of the 1st century and the beginning of the 2nd century. On August 20, 1949, 29 people from Canéjan died at Le Puch, while fighting a fire which killed 82 and burned 28,000 hectares. In September 1949, General Charles de Gaulle came in Canéjan to visit firefighters' graves. There used to be two different ways of spelling the name of the city, Canéjean or Canéjan, in July 1987 it has been decided to keep only one: Canéjan. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France. It is named after a major waterway; the Bordeaux wine region is in the Gironde. Gironde is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Gascony. From 1793 to 1795, the department's name was changed to Bec-d'Ambès to avoid the association with the revolutionary party, the Girondists. Gironde is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Charente-Maritime and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. With an area of 10,000 km², Gironde is the largest department in metropolitan France. If overseas departments are included, Gironde's land area is dwarfed by the 83,846 km² of French Guiana. Gironde is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach, Europe's longest, attracting many surfers to Lacanau each year, it is the birthplace of Jacques-Yves Cousteau who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
The Great Dune of Pyla in Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux is the tallest sand dune in Europe. The President of the General Council is Jean-Luc Gleyze of the Socialist Party. Cantons of the Gironde department Communes of the Gironde department Arrondissements of the Gironde department Bordeaux wine regions General Council website Prefecture website Gironde at Curlie Tourism Office website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona