The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A kennel is a structure or shelter for dogs or cats. Used in the plural, the kennels, the term means any building, collection of buildings or a property in which dogs or cats are housed and bred. A kennel can be made out of the most popular being wood and canvas; this is a formal establishment for the propagation of animals, whether or not they are housed in a separate shed, the garage, a state-of-the-art facility, or the family dwelling. Licensed breeding kennels are regulated and must follow relevant government legislation. Breed club members are expected to comply with general Code of Ethics and guidelines applicable to the breed concerned. Kennel clubs may stipulate criteria to be met before issuing registration papers for puppies bred. A kennel name or kennel prefix is a name associated with each breeding kennel: it is the first part of the registered name of a pedigreed dog, bred there. A cat registry is an organization that registers cats for exhibition and breeding purposes. A cat registry is not the same as a cat breed society.
This is a place where dogs or cats are housed temporarily for a fee, an alternative to using a pet sitter. Although many people worry about the stress placed on the animal by being put in an unfamiliar and most crowded environment, the majority of boarding kennels work to reduce stress. Many kennels offer one-on-one "play times". Familiar objects, such as blankets and toys from home, are permitted at many kennels. Many kennels offer grooming and training services in addition to boarding, with the idea being that the kennel can be the owner's "one-stop shop" for all three services. In the United States the term boarding kennel is used to refer to boarding catteries and licensing agencies do not always differentiate between commercial boarding kennels for dogs and other animal or cat boarding kennels, it is estimated that in 2008 people in the US will spend $3.29 billion on boarding and grooming services. In 2007 actual market surveys showed. Annual kennel boarding expenses for dog owners was $225, for cat owners was $149 according to a 2007-2008 survey.
Animal shelter Dog camp Doghouse
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, is adapted structurally to this way of life. The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one". Parasites include protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery. There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism and micropredation. Like predation, parasitism is a type of consumer-resource interaction, but unlike predators, with the exception of parasitoids, are much smaller than their hosts, do not kill them, live in or on their hosts for an extended period. Parasites of animals are specialised, reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms, the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, fleas.
Parasites reduce host fitness by general or specialised pathology, from parasitic castration to modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their own fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, in particular by feeding on them and by using intermediate hosts to assist in their transmission from one definitive host to another. Although parasitism is unambiguous, it is part of a spectrum of interactions between species, grading via parasitoidism into predation, through evolution into mutualism, in some fungi, shading into being saprophytic. People have known about parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms since ancient Egypt and Rome. In Early Modern times, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed Giardia lamblia in his microscope in 1681, while Francesco Redi described internal and external parasites including sheep liver fluke and ticks. Modern parasitology developed in the 19th century. In human culture, parasitism has negative connotations; these were exploited to satirical effect in Jonathan Swift's 1733 poem "On Poetry: A Rhapsody", comparing poets to hyperparasitical "vermin".
In fiction, Bram Stoker's 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula and its many adaptations featured a blood-drinking parasite. Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien was one of many works of science fiction to feature a terrifying parasitic alien species. First used in English in 1539, the word parasite comes from the Medieval French parasite, from the Latin parasitus, the latinisation of the Greek παράσιτος, "one who eats at the table of another" and that from παρά, "beside, by" + σῖτος, "wheat", hence "food"; the related term parasitism appears in English from 1611. Parasitism is a kind of symbiosis, a close and persistent long-term biological interaction between a parasite and its host. Unlike commensalism and mutualism, the parasitic relationship harms the host, either feeding on it or, as in the case of intestinal parasites, consuming some of its food; because parasites interact with other species, they can act as vectors of pathogens, causing disease. Predation is by definition not a symbiosis, as the interaction is brief, but the entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".
Within that scope are many possible strategies. Taxonomists classify parasites in a variety of overlapping schemes, based on their interactions with their hosts and on their life-cycles, which are sometimes complex. An obligate parasite depends on the host to complete its life cycle, while a facultative parasite does not. Parasite life-cycles involving only one host are called "direct". An endoparasite lives inside the host's body. Mesoparasites - like some copepods, for example - enter an opening in the host's body and remain embedded there; some parasites can be generalists, feeding on a wide range of hosts, but many parasites, the majority of protozoans and helminths that parasitise animals, are specialists and host-specific. An early basic, functional division of parasites distinguished macroparasites; these each had a mathematical model assigned in order to analyse the population movements of the host–parasite groupings. The microorganisms and viruses that can reproduce and complete their life cycle within the host are known as microparasites.
Macroparasites are the multicellular organisms that reproduce and complete their life cycle outside of the host or on the host's body. Much of the thinking on types of parasitism has focussed on terrestrial animal parasites of animals, such as helminths; those in other environments and with other hosts have analogous strategies. For example, the snubnosed eel is a facultative endoparasite that opportunistically burrows into and eats sick and dying fish. Plant-eating insects such as scale insects and caterpillars resemble ectoparasites, attacking much larger plants; as female scale-insects cannot move, they are obligate parasites, permanently attached to their hosts. There are six major parasitic strategies, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoid
Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease; when a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Smallpox was most the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculation and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced; the smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and, although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier, he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production. Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology.
The immunization was called vaccination. Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the deaths of 20–60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children; when smallpox was eradicated in 1979, it had killed an estimated 300–500 million people in the 20th century. Vaccination and immunization have a similar meaning in everyday language; this is distinct from inoculation. Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, political, medical safety, religious grounds. In the United States, people may receive compensation for those injuries under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Early success brought widespread acceptance, mass vaccination campaigns have reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. Vaccines are a way of artificially activating the immune system to protect against infectious disease; the activation occurs through priming the immune system with an immunogen. Stimulating immune responses with an infectious agent is known as immunization.
Vaccination includes various ways of administering immunogens. Most vaccines are administered before a patient has contracted a disease to help increase future protection. However, some vaccines are administered after the patient has contracted a disease. Vaccines given after exposure to smallpox are reported to offer some protection from disease or may reduce the severity of disease; the first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog. Since its discovery, the rabies vaccine have been proven effective in preventing rabies in humans when administered several times over 14 days along with rabies immune globulin and wound care. Other examples include cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines; such immunizations aim to trigger an immune response more and with less harm than natural infection. Most vaccines are given by injection. Live attenuated polio, some typhoid, some cholera vaccines are given orally to produce immunity in the bowel. While vaccination provides a lasting effect, it takes several weeks to develop.
This differs from passive immunity has immediate effect. A vaccine failure is. Primary vaccine failure occurs when an organism's immune system does not produce antibodies when first vaccinated. Vaccines can fail to produce an immune response; the term "vaccine failure" does not imply that the vaccine is defective. Most vaccine failures are from individual variations in immune response; the term inoculation is used interchangeably with vaccination. However, some argue. Dr Byron Plant explains: "Vaccination is the more used term, which consists of a'safe' injection of a sample taken from a cow suffering from cowpox... Inoculation, a practice as old as the disease itself, is the injection of the variola virus taken from a pustule or scab of a smallpox sufferer into the superficial layers of the skin on the upper arm of the subject. Inoculation was done'arm to arm' or less effectively'scab to arm'..." Inoculation oftentimes caused the patient to become infected with smallpox, in some cases the infection turned into a severe case.
Vaccinations began in the 18th century with the work of the smallpox vaccine. Just like any medication or procedure, no vaccine can be 100% safe or effective for everyone because each person's body can react differently. While minor side effects, such as soreness or low grade fever, are common, serious side effects are rare and occur in about 1 out of every 100,000 vaccinations and involve allergic reactions that can cause hives or difficulty breathing. However, vaccines are the safest they have been in history and each vaccine undergoes rigorous clinical trials to ensure their safety and efficacy before FDA approval. Prior to human testing, vaccines are run through computer algorithms to model how they will interact with the immune system and are tested on cells in a culture. During the next round of testing, researchers study vaccines in animal, including mice, guinea pigs, monkeys. Vaccines that pass each of these stages of testing are approved by the FDA to start a three-phase series of hu
Transportation of animals
The transportation of animals is the intentional movement of animals by transport. Common categories of animals which are transported include livestock destined for slaughter. Methods of transporting animals vary from species to species. Humans have been transporting animals for a variety of purposes for thousands of years, with numerous accounts of animal transportation from the ancient world. Animals were transported for use as military animals. Two well-known historical examples of animals transported to foreign countries are Hanno the elephant and Dürer's Rhinoceros. Animals were transported from the New World to Europe for study and introduction. During the 20th century, the transportation of animals has focussed on the movement of animals for food, research and conservation and the transport of animals is regulated in many countries; such transport is regulated by a guideline by the European Council enacted in 2007, with relevant legislation passed in member countries, including England, through the Welfare of Animals, Order 2006.
The Animal Transportation Association was formed in 1976 by interested parties to develop best practices and provide information to those involved in the shipment of animals. Livestock destined for sale or slaughter, race horses, pets are transported, it is important to avoid death of the animal during transportation. The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the United States National Research Council has produced guidelines for the transportation of research animals. Wild animals are transported for display in zoos; some wild animals offer specific challenges. Elephants are transported for circuses and as working animals but are less transported between zoos. War elephants were transported from their native countries to battlefields throughout the ancient world. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, in the 3rd century BCE, had ships custom-built for the purpose. Elephants employed by circuses were transported in Circus trains. In modern times, the transportation of elephants has been contentious. In 2013, the CEO of Toronto Zoo stated that "whatever the mode of transport is, air, there are associated risks with moving elephants".
The zoo had been unable to finalise a determination about the mode of transport for three elephants to a sanctuary in California. Another Toronto Zoo board member noted that if an elephant panics during air transport, "it may have to be euthanized". Giraffes are transported in custom-built containers or crates to account for their height. In 2013, Nakuru, a 15-month-old female giraffe, was transported from New Zealand to Melbourne in Australia, her specialised. As is required by Australian law, Nakaru was quarantined for 30 days at the Werribee Open Range Zoo before being moved again by truck to Melbourne Zoo 30 kilometres away. Earlier in 2013, Tonda, a 4.3-metre, three-year-old adult male, was moved from Paignton Zoo to Chessington Zoo, both in England. The 322-kilometre move was completed by a Dutch company that specialises in animal transportation using a specially built trailer with an adjustable roof. Lions present particular transportation challenges because of their size and the danger they pose to humans.
To transport two lions from Morocco to Germany, one specialist animal transportation company elected to move the animals by land, travelling via Gibraltar and France, rather than by air. The vehicle they used was extensively modified with new shock absorbers. In 2013, a South African zoologist received media attention for having transported 27 lions adult, in his Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van to relocate them from one wildlife park to another. Though they are related to the horse and rhinoceros, tapirs are regulated as pachyderms by the United States Department of Agriculture for the purpose of transportation and import. One issue with the transporting of tapirs is that young tapirs must not be separated from their mother for the first year of their lives – and as tapirs must be separated from other tapirs in order to transport them, it can be difficult to transport a young or baby tapir. In 2008, a three-year-old tapir, was transported from Costa Rica to Nashville, Tennessee. Romeo was the first animal to leave the country and the first tapir to be transported to the United States in more than 20 years.
A specially-constructed cage was used to transport the tapir on a cargo plane and the move itself was supervised by staff from the Nashville Zoo. In 2013, Timmy, a 400-pound Baird's tapir who had suffered from ear infections, was sent by FedEx from Florida to Los Angeles as part of a breeding programme, he was kept in quarantine for 30 days after his trip. There are two techniques for moving large marine mammals – wet transit, in which the animal is kept in a large tank of water, dry transit, in which the animal is placed in a padded sling and kept calm and cool by human assistance; the decision whether to use wet or dry transit will depend on the size of the animal being transported and the distance to be traveled. The transportation of killer whales was a key feature of the popular film Free Willy. Keiko, who played the role of Willy in the film, was moved using a trailer - although when he was transported to the Oregon Coast Aquarium, he was airlifted by the United Parcel Service; when he was transported to the Westman Islands in Iceland in 1998, he was loaded onto a U.
S. Air Force C-17 transport; the largest anima
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss. An entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, insurance carrier or underwriter. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as a policyholder; the insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise to compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss. The loss may or may not be financial, but it must be reducible to financial terms, involves something in which the insured has an insurable interest established by ownership, possession, or pre-existing relationship; the insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insurer will compensate the insured. The amount of money charged by the insurer to the Policyholder for the coverage set forth in the insurance policy is called the premium.
If the insured experiences a loss, covered by the insurance policy, the insured submits a claim to the insurer for processing by a claims adjuster. The insurer may hedge its own risk by taking out reinsurance, whereby another insurance company agrees to carry some of the risk if the primary insurer deems the risk too large for it to carry. Methods for transferring or distributing risk were practiced by Chinese and Babylonian traders as long ago as the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, respectively. Chinese merchants travelling treacherous river rapids would redistribute their wares across many vessels to limit the loss due to any single vessel's capsizing; the Babylonians developed a system, recorded in the famous Code of Hammurabi, c. 1750 BC, practiced by early Mediterranean sailing merchants. If a merchant received a loan to fund his shipment, he would pay the lender an additional sum in exchange for the lender's guarantee to cancel the loan should the shipment be stolen, or lost at sea. Circa 800 BC, the inhabitants of Rhodes created the'general average'.
This allowed groups of merchants to pay to insure their goods being shipped together. The collected premiums would be used to reimburse any merchant whose goods were jettisoned during transport, whether due to storm or sinkage. Separate insurance contracts were invented in Genoa in the 14th century, as were insurance pools backed by pledges of landed estates; the first known insurance contract dates from Genoa in 1347, in the next century maritime insurance developed and premiums were intuitively varied with risks. These new insurance contracts allowed insurance to be separated from investment, a separation of roles that first proved useful in marine insurance. Insurance became far more sophisticated in Enlightenment era Europe, specialized varieties developed. Property insurance as we know it today can be traced to the Great Fire of London, which in 1666 devoured more than 13,000 houses; the devastating effects of the fire converted the development of insurance "from a matter of convenience into one of urgency, a change of opinion reflected in Sir Christopher Wren's inclusion of a site for'the Insurance Office' in his new plan for London in 1667."
A number of attempted fire insurance schemes came to nothing, but in 1681, economist Nicholas Barbon and eleven associates established the first fire insurance company, the "Insurance Office for Houses," at the back of the Royal Exchange to insure brick and frame homes. 5,000 homes were insured by his Insurance Office. At the same time, the first insurance schemes for the underwriting of business ventures became available. By the end of the seventeenth century, London's growing importance as a center for trade was increasing demand for marine insurance. In the late 1680s, Edward Lloyd opened a coffee house, which became the meeting place for parties in the shipping industry wishing to insure cargoes and ships, those willing to underwrite such ventures; these informal beginnings led to the establishment of the insurance market Lloyd's of London and several related shipping and insurance businesses. The first life insurance policies were taken out in the early 18th century; the first company to offer life insurance was the Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, founded in London in 1706 by William Talbot and Sir Thomas Allen.
Edward Rowe Mores established the Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorship in 1762. It was the world's first mutual insurer and it pioneered age based premiums based on mortality rate laying "the framework for scientific insurance practice and development" and "the basis of modern life assurance upon which all life assurance schemes were subsequently based."In the late 19th century "accident insurance" began to become available. The first company to offer accident insurance was the Railway Passengers Assurance Company, formed in 1848 in England to insure against the rising number of fatalities on the nascent railway system. By the late 19th century governments began to initiate national insurance programs against sickness and old age. Germany built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the 1840s. In the 1880s Chancellor Otto von Bismarck introduced old age pensions, accident insurance and medical care that formed the basis for Germany's welfare state.
In Britain more extensive legislation was introduced by the Liberal government in the 1911 National Insurance Act. This gave the British working classes the first contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment; this system was expanded after the Second World War under the inf