Jason Scott Sadofsky, more commonly known as Jason Scott, is an American archivist, historian of technology, and filmmaker. Scott has been known by the online pseudonyms Sketch, SketchCow and he is the creator and maintainer of textfiles. com, a web site which archives files from historic bulletin board systems. He is the creator of a 2005 documentary film about BBSes, BBS, The Documentary, Scott lives in Hopewell Junction, New York with his cat Sockington. He works for Internet Archive and has numerous presentations at technology related conferences on the topics of digital history, software. Jason Scott graduated from Horace Greeley High School in Chappaqua, New York, while in high school he produced the humor magazine Esnesnon. He graduated from Emerson College in 1992 with a film degree, while at Emerson, he worked for the school humor magazine, school newspaper, WERS88.9 FM radio, and served as art director on several dramatic plays. After graduating from Emerson, Scott lived in Harvard Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1990, along with John Anthony Rescigno, Scott started TinyTIM, a popular MUSH.
In 1995, Jason joined the game company Psygnosis as a technical support worker, before being hired by a video game startup, Focus Studios. After Focus Studios closure, Jason moved into UNIX administration, where he remained until 2009 and he has been a speaker at DEF CON, an annual hacker conference, the first time at the 7th conference in 1999, and has spoken there almost every year since then. Scott spoke at PhreakNIC6 and 9, Rubi Cons 4 and 5, conference in 2004, Notacons 1,2,3 and 4, Toorcon 7, and beta premiered his documentary at the 7th annual Vintage Computer Festival. Most of his talks focus on the capturing of digital history or consist of narratives of stories relevant to his experiences online, in 2006 he announced starting a documentary on Arcades, titled ARCADE. In 2007, he co-founded Blockparty, a North American demoparty, for their inaugural year, they paired up with Notacon which takes place annually in Cleveland, Ohio. This collaborative effort allowed the party to utilize the existing support structure of an established conference.
In January 2009, he formed Archive Team, a dedicated to preserving the historical record of websites that close down. Responding to the announcement by AOL of the closure of AOL Hometown, in October 2009, he started raising funds for a year-long sabbatical from his job as a computer systems administrator, to pursue technology history and archival projects full-time. By November 2009, he had reached his funding goals, with the support of over 300 patrons, in early 2011, he was involved in Yahoo. Video and Google Video archive projects, as of 2013 Jason Scott was listed as the curator of the Software collections held by Internet Archive. Sockington is a cat who lives in Waltham, Massachusetts
In data storage, disk mirroring is the replication of logical disk volumes onto separate physical hard disks in real time to ensure continuous availability. It is most commonly used in RAID1, a mirrored volume is a complete logical representation of separate volume copies. In a disaster recovery context, mirroring data over distance is referred to as storage replication. Depending on the used, replication can be performed synchronously, semi-synchronously. Replication is enabled via microcode on the disk controller or via server software. It is typically a proprietary solution, not compatible between various storage vendors, synchronous writing typically achieves a recovery point objective of zero lost data. Asynchronous replication can achieve an RPO of just a few seconds while the remaining methodologies provide an RPO of a few minutes to several hours. Disk mirroring differs from file shadowing that operates on the file level and it is recognized that disks are an inherently unreliable component of computer systems.
Mirroring is a technique to allow a system to maintain multiple copies of data so that in the event of a disk hardware failure a system can continue to process or quickly recover data. Normally data is mirrored onto physically identical drives, though the process can be applied to logical drives where the physical format is hidden from the mirroring process. Typically, mirroring is provided in either hardware solutions such as disk arrays, file systems like Btrfs or ZFS provide integrated data mirroring. There are several scenarios for what happens when a disk fails, in a hot swap system, in the event of a disk failure, the system itself typically diagnoses a disk failure and signals a failure. Sophisticated systems may automatically activate a hot standby disk and use the remaining active disk to copy live data onto this disk, alternatively, a new disk is installed and the data is copied to it. In less sophisticated systems, the system is operated on the disk until a spare disk can be installed.
The copying of data from one side of a pair to another is called rebuilding or, less commonly. Longer distances or slower links maintain mirrors using an asynchronous copying system, for remote disaster recovery systems, this mirroring may not be done by integrated systems but simply by additional applications on master and slave machines. In addition to providing a copy of the data for the purpose of redundancy in case of hardware failure. Under certain circumstances, this can improve performance as the system can choose for each read which disk can seek most quickly to the required data
Live Music Archive
The Live Music Archive, part of the Internet Archive, is a collection of over 60,000 concert recordings in lossless audio formats. The website is known for its collection of Grateful Dead recordings. The collection increased in size due to contribution of concert recordings by etree, the majority of artists are jam bands however others include The Smashing Pumpkins, Tenacious D, Little Feat, and smaller independent bands. List of sound archives Lists of Internet Archives collections The Live Music Archive collection at the Internet Archive
Brewster Kahle is an American computer engineer, Internet entrepreneur, internet activist, advocate of universal access to all knowledge, and digital librarian. He is the founder of the Internet Archive, the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union and Thinking Machines, Kahle grew up in Scarsdale, New York, and went to Scarsdale High School. His father was a mechanical engineer and he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1982 with a Bachelor of Science in computer science and engineering, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. The emphasis of his studies was artificial intelligence, he studied under Marvin Minsky, after graduation, he joined Thinking Machines team, where he was the lead engineer on the companys main product, the Connection Machine, for six years. There, he and others developed the WAIS system, the Internets first publishing and distributed search system, in 1992, he co-founded, with Bruce Gilliat, WAIS, Inc. and, in 1996, Alexa Internet. At the same time as he started Alexa, he founded the Internet Archive, in 2001, he implemented the Wayback Machine, which allows public access to the World Wide Web archive that the Internet Archive has been gathering since 1996.
Kahle states, I was standing there, looking at this machine that was the size of five or six Coke machines, in 2010 he was given an honorary doctorate in computer science from Simmons College, where he studied library science in the 1980s. Kahle and his wife, Mary Austin, run the Kahle/Austin Foundation, the Foundation supports the Free Software Foundation for its GNU project, among other projects, with a total giving of about 4.5 million dollars in 2011. The credit union voluntarily liquidated in 2015, Kahle has been critical of Googles book digitization, especially of Googles exclusivity in restricting other search engines digital access to the books they archive. Kahle describes Googles snippet feature as a means of tip-toeing around copyright issues and he states the digital transition, thus far, has gone from local control to central control, non-profit to for-profit, diverse to homogeneous, and from ruled by law to ruled by contract. Kahle states, Its not that expensive, for the cost of 60 miles of highway, we can have a 10 million-book digital library available to a generation that is growing up reading on-screen.
Our job is to put the best works of humankind within reach of that generation, through a simple Web search, a student researching the life of John F. Knowledge lives in lots of different forms over time, Kahle has said, first it was in peoples memories, it was in manuscripts, printed books, microfilm, CD-ROMS, now on the digital internet. Each one of these generations is very important, voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. Were not going to get there, but thats our goal and we want to see books live forever. He began by having conventional shipping containers modified as climate-controlled storage units, each container can hold about 40,000 volumes, the size of a branch library. So far, Kahle has gathered about 500,000 books and he thinks the warehouse itself is large enough to hold about a million titles, with each one given a barcode that identifies the cardboard box and shipping container in which it resides.
A given book may be retrieved in about an hour, and are not to be loaned out, Book preservation experts say hell have to contend with vermin and about a centurys worth of books printed on wood pulp paper that decays over time because of its own acidity
A 19-inch rack is a standardized frame or enclosure for mounting multiple electronic equipment modules. Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches wide, the 19-inch dimension includes the edges, or ears, that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws. Common uses include server and scientific lab equipment, the height of the electronic modules is standardized as multiples of 1.752 inches or one rack unit or U. The industry standard rack cabinet is 42U tall, the term relay rack appeared first in the world of telephony. By 1911, the term was being used in railroad signaling, there is little evidence that the dimensions of these early racks were standardized. The 19-inch rack format with rack-units of 1.75 inches was established as a standard by AT&T around 1922 in order to reduce the space required for repeater, the earliest repeaters from 1914 were installed in ad-hoc fashion on shelves, in wooden boxes and cabinets. Once serial production started, they were built into bespoke racks, the height of the different panels will vary, but in all cases to be a whole multiple of 1¾ inches.
The 19-inch rack format has remained constant while the technology that is mounted within it has changed considerably, nineteen-inch racks in two-post or four-post form hold most equipment in modern data centers, ISP facilities, and professionally designed corporate server rooms. They allow for dense hardware configurations without occupying excessive floorspace or requiring shelving, nineteen-inch racks are often used to house professional audio and video equipment, including amplifiers, effects units, headphone amplifiers, and even small scale audio mixers. A third common use for rack-mounted equipment is industrial power, typically, a piece of equipment being installed has a front panel height 1⁄32 inch less than the allotted number of Us. Thus, a 1U rackmount computer is not 1.75 inches tall but is 1.719 inches tall, 2U would be 3.469 inches instead of 3.5 inches. This gap allows a bit of room above and below a piece of equipment so it may be removed without binding on the adjacent equipment.
State-of-the-art rackmount cases are now constructed of thermo stamped composite, carbon fiber. Originally, the holes were tapped with a particular screw thread. Tapping large numbers of holes that may never be used is expensive, nonetheless tapped-hole racks are still in use, examples include telephone exchanges, network cabling panels, broadcast studios and some government and military applications. The tapped-hole rack was first replaced by clearance-hole racks, the holes are large enough to permit a bolt to be freely inserted through without binding, and bolts are fastened in place using cage nuts. In the event of a nut being stripped out or a bolt breaking, production of clearance-hole racks is less expensive because tapping the holes is eliminated and replaced with fewer, less expensive, cage nuts. The next innovation in design has been the square-hole rack
A shipping container is a container with strength suitable to withstand shipment and handling. Shipping containers range from large steel boxes used for intermodal shipments to the ubiquitous corrugated boxes. In the context of international shipping trade, container or shipping container is virtually synonymous with intermodal freight container, freight containers are a reusable transport and storage unit for moving products and raw materials between locations or countries. In addition, its estimated that several million of these containers have now been discarded due to the shipping cost of sending back to their port of origin. Corrugated boxes are used as shipping containers. They are made of corrugated fiberboard which is lightweight, wooden boxes are often used for shipping heavy and dense products. They are sometimes specified for shipments of government or military shipments, a crate is a large container, often made of wood, used to transport large, heavy or awkward items. A crate has a structure, with or without sheathing.
An Intermediate bulk container is a used for transport and storage of fluids. The construction may be plastic, steel, stainless steel and it is often made of a woven synthetic material. A bulk box, bulk bin, skid box, or tote box is a pallet size box used for storage, drums are cylindrical shipping containers made of steel, plastic or fiber. They are often used for liquids and granular materials, insulated shipping containers are a type of packaging used to ship temperature sensitive products such as foods and chemicals. They are used as part of a chain to help maintain product freshness. Some pails are used as shipping containers, a Unit Load Device, or ULD, is a container used to transport cargo on commercial aircraft. A ULD can be a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight and it allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews time and effort, customized cushioning and bracing, carrying handles, lift rings, etc. are common to facilitate handling and to protect the contents.
Often, these containers are reusable. Specialized shipping containers include, High Cube Containers, pallet wides, open tops, side loaders, double door or tunnel-tainers, another specialized container known as Transtainer is a portable fuel and oil freight container
A colocation centre or carrier hotel, is a type of data centre where equipment and bandwidth are available for rental to retail customers. Many colocation providers sell to a range of customers, ranging from large enterprises to small companies. Typically, the customer owns the IT equipment and the facility provides power, customers retain control over the design and usage of their equipment, but daily management of the data center and facility are overseen by the multi-tenant colocation provider. Cabinets – A cabinet is a unit that holds a server rack. In a multi-tenant data center, servers within cabinets share raised-floor space with other tenants, in addition to sharing power, cages – A cage is dedicated server space within a traditional raised-floor data center, it is surrounded by mesh walls and entered through a locking door. Cages share power and cooling infrastructure with other data center tenants, suites – A suite is a dedicated, private server space within a traditional raised-floor data center, it is fully enclosed by solid partitions and entered through a locking door.
Suites may share power and cooling infrastructure with other data center tenants, modules – data center modules are purpose-engineered modules and components to offer scalable data center capacity. They typically use standardized components, which make them easily added, integrated or retrofitted into existing data centers, and cheaper and easier to build. In a colocation environment, the center module is a data center within a data center, with its own steel walls and security protocol. Colocation facilities have many special characteristics, Fire protection systems, including passive and active elements. Smoke detectors are installed to provide early warning of a developing fire by detecting particles generated by smouldering components prior to the development of flame. This allows investigation, interruption of power, and manual fire suppression using hand held fire extinguishers before the fire grows to a large size, a fire sprinkler system is often provided to control a full scale fire if it develops.
Clean agent fire suppression systems are sometimes installed to suppress a fire earlier than the fire sprinkler system. 19-inch racks for data equipment and servers, 23-inch racks for telecommunications equipment and cages for physical access control over tenants equipment. Overhead or underfloor cable rack and fibreguide, power cables usually on separate rack from data, air conditioning is used to control the temperature and humidity in the space. ASHRAE recommends a range and humidity range for optimal electronic equipment conditions versus environmental issues. The electrical power used by the equipment is converted to heat. Unless the heat is removed, the ambient temperature will rise, by controlling the space air temperature, the server components at the board level are kept within the manufacturers specified temperature/humidity range
On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. Most releases are in the English language, but many works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, LibriVox is closely affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, and the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, the word was coined because of other connotations as liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says it, We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as child of the voice, the other link we like is library so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice. There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox and it is accepted that any audible pronunciation is accurate.
LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project and it has no budget or legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, in early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5, 000/year and improve front- and backend usability. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, and proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, and MP3, recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are frequently distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material that is in the domain in the United States. Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a number of contemporary books.
These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report and it contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kants Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi. The collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds, in January 2009, the catalogue contained approximately 55 percent fiction and drama,25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2016, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman, around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Archive and Project Gutenberg, intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17,1991 by Linus Torvalds, the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to describe the operating system, which has led to some controversy. Linux was originally developed for computers based on the Intel x86 architecture. Because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all operating systems. Linux is the operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers. It is used by around 2. 3% of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs on Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20% of the sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems – devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system.
This includes TiVo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free, the underlying source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License. Typically, Linux is packaged in a known as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use. Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&Ts Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, first released in 1971, Unix was written entirely in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie, the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier.
Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, as a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs, freed of the legal obligation requiring free licensing, the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, has the goal of creating a complete Unix-compatible software system composed entirely of free software. Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation, by the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, although not released until 1992 due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000
Open Library is an online project intended to create one web page for every book ever published. It provides access to public domain and out-of-print books, which can be read online. Its book information is collected from the Library of Congress, other libraries, if books are available in digital form, a button labelled Read appears next to its catalog listing. Links to where books can be purchased or borrowed are provided, tens of thousands of modern books were made available from four and 150 libraries and publishers for ebook digital lending. Open Library began in 2006 with Aaron Swartz as the engineer and leader of Open Librarys technical team. The project was led by George Oates from April 2009 to December 2011, Oates was responsible for a complete site redesign during her tenure. In 2015, the project was continued by Giovanni Damiola and Brenton Cheng, the site was redesigned and relaunched in May 2010. The site uses Infobase, its own database framework based on PostgreSQL, the source code to the site is published under the GNU Affero General Public License.
The website was relaunched adding ADA compliance and offering over 1 million modern, under certain provisions of United States copyright law, libraries are sometimes able to reproduce copyrighted works in formats accessible to users with disabilities
Democracy Now. is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González. The show, which airs each weekday at 08,00 ET, is broadcast on the internet and by over 1,400 radio. While described as progressive by fans as well as critics, the executive producer rejects that label. Democracy Now. was founded on February 19,1996 at WBAI-FM in New York City by journalists Amy Goodman, Juan Gonzalez, Larry Bensky, Salim Muwakkil and it originally aired on five Pacifica Radio stations. Goodman is the principal host, with Juan Gonzalez and Nermeen Shaikh as frequent co-hosts. Jeremy Scahill, a reporter and co-founding editor for The Intercept, has been a frequent contributor since 1997. Separated from Pacifica Radio and became an independent nonprofit organization, on February 19,2016, Democracy Now. Marked 20 years on the air with a retrospective look back at two decades of independent, unembedded news, with highlights chosen from over 5,000 episodes.
Amy Goodman published a book entitled Democracy Now, Democracy Now. began as a radio program broadcast from the studios of WBAI, a local Pacifica Radio station in New York City. In early September 2001, amid a months-long debate over the mission and management of Pacifica, Goodman brought the program to the Downtown Community Television Center located in a converted firehouse building in New York Citys Chinatown, where the program began to be televised. Only a few days on September 11,2001 Democracy Now. was the closest national broadcast to Ground Zero, on that day Goodman and colleagues continued reporting beyond their scheduled hourlong time slot in what became an eight-hour marathon broadcast. Following 9/11, in addition to radio and television, Democracy Now, expanded their multimedia reach to include cable, satellite radio and podcasts. Left their broadcast studio in the converted DCTV firehouse, where they had broadcast for eight years, the studio subsequently moved to a repurposed graphic arts building in the Chelsea District of Manhattan.
In 2010, the new 8500-square-foot Democracy Now, studio became the first radio or television studio in the nation to receive LEED Platinum certification, the highest rating awarded by the U. S. Green Building Council. Democracy Now. is the program of the Pacifica Radio network. It airs on several NPR member stations, the television simulcast airs on public-access television stations, by satellite on Free Speech TV and Link TV, and free-to-air on C Band. Democracy Now. is available on the Internet as downloadable and streaming audio, in total, nearly 1,400 television and radio stations broadcast Democracy Now. Her co-host Juan Gonzalez was inducted into the New York chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists Hall of Fame on November 19,2015, Salazar was filming as officers in full riot gear charged her area