World of Warcraft
World of Warcraft is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment. It is the released game set in the fantasy Warcraft universe. Blizzard Entertainment announced World of Warcraft on September 2,2001, the game was released on November 23,2004, on the 10th anniversary of the Warcraft franchise. The first expansion set of the game, The Burning Crusade, was released on January 16,2007, the second expansion set, Wrath of the Lich King, was released on November 13,2008. The third expansion set, was released on December 7,2010, the fourth expansion set, Mists of Pandaria, was released on September 25,2012. The fifth expansion set, Warlords of Draenor, was released on November 13,2014, the sixth expansion set, was released on August 30,2016. In January 2014, Blizzard announced that more than 100 million accounts had been created over the games lifetime, players may instead use a trial account that lets the player character reach level 20 for free but has many features locked.
To enter the game, the player must select a server, each realm acts as an individual copy of the game world and falls into one of four categories. RP – a variant of PvE, where players roleplay in-character, rP-PvP – roleplay-PvP – a variant of PvP, where players are in-character and cross-faction combat is assumed. Realms are categorized by language, with support in the language available. Players can make new characters on all realms within the region, to create a new character, in keeping with the storyline of previous Warcraft games, players must choose between the opposing factions of the Alliance or the Horde. Characters from the factions can perform rudimentary communication, but only members of the same faction can speak, group. The player selects the new race, such as orcs or trolls for the Horde. Players must select the class for the character, with such as mages, warriors. Most classes are limited to particular races, as characters become more developed, they gain various talents and skills, requiring the player to further define the abilities of that character.
Characters can choose two primary professions that can focus on producing items, such as tailoring, blacksmithing or jewelcrafting or on gathering from resource nodes, characters can learn all four secondary skills, cooking and first aid. Much of World of Warcraft play involves the completion of quests and these quests are usually available from NPCs. Quests usually reward the player with some combination of points, items
BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming catchup television and radio service in the United Kingdom. The service is available on a range of devices, including mobile phones and tablets, personal computers. Neither the iPlayer services nor the individual TV programmes display any commercial advertising, the terms BBC iPlayer, iPlayer, and BBC Media Player all refer to the same services. BBC Redux was developed as a proof of concept for a cross-platform, BBC iPlayer left beta and went live on 25 December 2007. On 25 June 2008, a new-look iPlayer was launched, originally as a beta-test version alongside the earlier version, the site tagline was Catch up on the last 7 days of BBC TV & Radio, reflecting that programmes were unavailable on iPlayer after this time. The BBC state on their website that this is due to copyright reasons, the marketing slogan was changed to Making the unmissable, unmissable. In May 2010 the site was updated again, to include a recommendations feature, the feature was added to the search function and the channels function.
When users click on a programme by another broadcaster, they are redirected to the relevant broadcasters catch up service, in April 2014, BBC iPlayer was once again relaunched with a new look and a different user interface. From October 2014, the BBC extended the availability for programmes on iPlayer from 7 days to 30 days. However, due to legal reasons, most news bulletins are available for 24 hours after initial broadcast. Some archive programming is availabily for the term, such as Timewatch. Specific applications for mobile platforms were launched in February 2011 and these were initially for iOS and Android devices, where the launch would have the biggest impact. In 2015, the BBC reported that it was moving towards playing audio, the original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five-month trial by five thousand broadband users until 28 February 2006. The iPlayer was heavily criticised for delay in its launch, rebranding, a new, improved iPlayer service had another very limited user trial which began on 15 November 2006.
At various times during its development, iPlayer was known as the Integrated Media Player, Interactive Media Player and this was done reportedly to allow British ISPs and the BBC to gauge the effect of the iPlayer traffic on the Internet within the UK. However, it was only to users of Windows XP. This was a decision by the BBC, which led to a petition against the decision being posted on 10 Downing Streets e-petition website. The petition reached 16,082 signatures on 20 August 2007, the response from the Government was
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units.
Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres.
2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used
Weta Digital is a digital visual effects company based in Wellington, New Zealand. It was founded by Peter Jackson, Richard Taylor, and Jamie Selkirk in 1993 to produce the special effects for Heavenly Creatures. In 2007, Weta Digital’s Senior Visual Effects Supervisor, Joe Letteri, was appointed as a Director of the company. Weta Digital has won several Academy Awards and BAFTAs, Weta Digital is part of a number of Peter Jackson co-owned companies in Wellington which includes Weta Workshop, Weta Productions, Weta Collectibles and Park Road Post Production. The company is named after the New Zealand weta, one of the worlds largest insects, Weta Digital has developed several proprietary software packages to achieve groundbreaking visual effects. To recreate 1933 New York for King Kong, Weta created CityBot, kong’s fur required the development of new simulation and modeling software. A set of tools that combined procedural and interactive techniques added wind to the 460 billion individual strands of fur, New shaders were written that accounted for the scattering of light from within each hair that added to the volumetric quality of the fur.
Large chunks of fur were ripped out and filled in with scars, each frame of fur took 2 gigabytes of data
Long and short scales
Thus, billion means a million millions, trillion means a million billions, and so on. Short scale Every new term greater than million is one thousand times larger than the previous term, billion means a thousand millions, trillion means a thousand billions, and so on. For whole numbers less than a million the two scales are identical. From a thousand million up the two scales diverge, using the words for different numbers, this can cause misunderstanding. Countries where the scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most French-speaking, Spanish-speaking. The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil, in former Soviet Union, number names are rendered in the language of the country, but are similar everywhere due to shared etymology. Some languages, particularly in East Asia and South Asia, have large number naming systems that are different from both the long and short scales, for example the Indian numbering system.
After several decades of increasing informal British usage of the scale, in 1974 the government of the UK adopted it. With very few exceptions, the British usage and American usage are now identical, the first recorded use of the terms short scale and long scale was by the French mathematician Geneviève Guitel in 1975. At and above a million the same names are used to refer to numbers differing by a factor of an integer power of 1,000. Each scale has a justification to explain the use of each such differing numerical name. The short-scale logic is based on powers of one thousand, whereas the long-scale logic is based on powers of one million, in both scales, the prefix bi- refers to 2 and tri- refers to 3, etc. However only in the scale do the prefixes beyond one million indicate the actual power or exponent. In the short scale, the prefixes refer to one less than the exponent, the word, derives from the Old French, from the earlier Old Italian, milione, an intensification of the Latin word, mille, a thousand.
That is, a million is a big thousand, much as a great gross is a dozen gross or 12×144 =1728, the word, milliard, or its translation, is found in many European languages and is used in those languages for 109. However, it is unknown in American English, which uses billion, and not used in British English, which preferred to use thousand million before the current usage of billion. The financial term, which derives from milliard, is used on financial markets, as, unlike the term, billion, it is internationally unambiguous and phonetically distinct from million. Likewise, many long scale use the word billiard for one thousand long scale billions
Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application and they are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption, while P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster, originally released in 1999. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction, in such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general. While P2P systems had previously used in many application domains. The peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers.
The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments. The early Internet was more open than present day, where two machines connected to the Internet could send packets to each other without firewalls and other security measures and this contrasts to the broadcasting-like structure of the web as it has developed over the years. As a precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a successful client-server network where every participating node could request, however, ARPANET was not self-organized, and it lacked the ability to provide any means for context or content-based routing beyond simple address-based routing. Therefore, a messaging system that is often likened as an early peer-to-peer architecture was established. USENET was developed in 1979 and is a system that enforces a decentralized model of control, the basic model is a client-server model from the user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers.
However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the group of network servers. In May 1999, with more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music. A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes simultaneously functioning as both clients and servers to the nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the model where communication is usually to. Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate each other directly. Overlays are used for indexing and peer discovery, and make the P2P system independent from the network topology. Based on how the nodes are linked to each other within the overlay network, unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other
Backblaze is an online backup tool that allows Windows and macOS users to back up their data to an offsite data center. The service is designed for end-users, providing unlimited storage space, Backblaze allows the user to back up data continuously, when the computer is idle, or on an hourly schedule. The service makes use of AES encryption for security, and uses data compression, files that need to be restored can be delivered in the form of a digital download, on an external USB hard drive up to 4 TB or a USB flash drive up to 128 GB. In September 2015, Backblaze launches a new product, B2 Cloud Storage, data uploaded onto Backblazes data center is sharded into 17 data shards plus three parity shards for each file. Parity shard bits are computed by the Reed–Solomon error correction algorithm, the shards are stored in 20 storage pods, each in a separate cabinet to increase resilience to a power loss to an entire cabinet. While Backblaze only has a data center, Backblaze states that its Vault architecture is designed with 99. 99999% annual durability.
Backblaze utilizes a combination of AES and SSL encryption to protect user data, all data is stored on Backblaze StoragePods encrypted with the users private key, which is secured with the users password and username. However, because decryption of private keys is done server side, in 2009 and 2011, Backblaze released CAD drawings of the computer case used by the storage servers in its datacenters. With commercial off-the-shelf components such as x64 processors and motherboards, in February 2013, version 3.0 of the pod was introduced with increased storage capacity and other upgrades. In March 2014, version 4.0 of the pod was introduced which is faster and less expensive, and a tweaked version 4.5 in March 2015. In November 2015, version 5.0 of the pod was released, in which the motherboard, CPU, and SATA cards were upgraded. Official website Review in Macworld Magazine Review in the Washington Post
Imgur is an online image sharing community and image host founded by Alan Schaaf. The company was started in 2009 in Athens, Ohio as Alan Schaafs side project while he attended Ohio University for computer science, Imgur was created as a response to the usability problems encountered in similar services. Designed to be a gift to the community of Reddit, it took off almost instantly. Imgur became widely recognized following its rise to popularity on social websites such as Facebook, Reddit. In the beginning, Imgur relied on donations to help with the web hosting costs, as the site grew, it needed additional sources of revenue to keep up with demand. Display ads were introduced in May 2009, sponsored images and self-service ads were introduced in 2013, in order to scale and manage its growth, Imgur used three different hosting providers in the first year before settling on Voxel, switching to Amazon Web Services in late 2011. In January 2011, the company moved from Ohio to San Francisco, as of June 2013 they had 10 employees, and won the Best Bootstrapped Startup award at TechCrunchs 2012 Crunchies Awards.
In April 2014, five years after it was founded, Imgur raised $40 million from Andreessen Horowitz, Andreessen Horowitzs Lars Dalgaard joined Imgurs board. Imgur has a history of playing April Fools Day jokes on its users, the first joke in 2011 was the Catification feature, which allowed users to automatically add cats to any image with one click. The official Imgur mascot is the Imguraffe, which was created as an April Fools Day joke, on April 1,2016, Imgur for Pets was added for the day. The category was pet pictures and gifs for pets, the voting systems icons of Upvotes and Favorite were changed into paws facing up and down and a bone, respectively. In 2013, Imgur overtook other image hosts in interest, such as Photobucket, ImageShack, as of April 2016, it is ranked 16th among Alexas Top Sites in the United States. In its first month, Imgur had 93,000 page views, according to EdgeCast in 2012, Imgurs former content delivery network, Imgur served more images in 10 minutes than there are in the entire Library of Congress.
In 2012, there were 300 million images uploaded,364 billion image views counted, albums were introduced on October 11,2010. Album layouts are customizable and embeddable, on January 9,2010, Alan Schaaf introduced Imgur accounts, which allow users to create custom image galleries and manage their images. Accounts allow full image management including editing, album creation and embedding, gallery profiles give the user the ability to view their past public activity. According to the section on imgurl, there is no image upload limit per account. Paid pro accounts were created in 2010 to remove these limitations and allows infinite image storage, Imgur used to have a policy to keep images unless they went three months without receiving any views, at which point they might be removed in response to space needs
Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is the worlds largest and most powerful particle collider, most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres in circumference, as deep as 175 metres beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva, on 13 February 2013 the LHCs first run officially ended, and it was shut down for planned upgrades. Test collisions restarted in the collider on 5 April 2015. Its second research run commenced on schedule, on 3 June 2015, the collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can use beams of lead nuclei, proton–lead collisions were performed for short periods in 2013 and 2016, and lead–lead collisions took place in 2010,2011,2013, and 2015. The LHCs computing grid is a record holder. The term hadron refers to composite particles composed of quarks held together by the strong force, a collider is a type of a particle accelerator with two directed beams of particles.
In particle physics, colliders are used as a tool, they accelerate particles to very high kinetic energies. Analysis of the byproducts of these collisions gives scientists good evidence of the structure of the subatomic world, many of these byproducts are produced only by high-energy collisions, and they decay after very short periods of time. Thus many of them are hard or nearly impossible to study in other ways, many theorists expect new physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge at the TeV energy level, as the Standard Model appears to be unsatisfactory. Issues possibly to be explored by LHC collisions include, Are the masses of particles actually generated by the Higgs mechanism via electroweak symmetry breaking. The experiments found a particle appears to be the Higgs boson. Is supersymmetry, an extension of the Standard Model and Poincaré symmetry, realized in nature, are there extra dimensions, as predicted by various models based on string theory, and can we detect them. What is the nature of the matter that appears to account for 27% of the mass-energy of the universe.
Why is the fundamental force so many orders of magnitude weaker than the other three fundamental forces. Are there additional sources of quark mixing, beyond those already present within the Standard Model. Why are there apparent violations of the symmetry between matter and antimatter, what are the nature and properties of quark–gluon plasma, thought to have existed in the early universe and in certain compact and strange astronomical objects today. This will be investigated by heavy ion collisions, mainly in ALICE, first observed in 2010, findings published in 2012 confirmed the phenomenon of jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions
The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border, Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. The main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, which is used to store and analyse data from experiments. Researchers need remote access to facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area network hub. CERN is the birthplace of the World Wide Web, the convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the council was dissolved. CERNs first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser, edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General was Felix Bloch. The laboratory was originally devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics, which better describes the research being performed there.
Several important achievements in physics have been made through experiments at CERN. The 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia, the 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber. The World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers, the first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, a copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortiums website as a historical document. Prior to the Webs development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, a short history of this period can be found at CERN. ch.
More recently, CERN has become a facility for the development of computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE. It hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point, one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. 48×10−5, a measurement with 6. 0-sigma significance. However, on 23 February, CERN stated in a release that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS-synchronization cable. In March 2012, the ICARUS Collaboration reported that the measurement would be reproduced by both OPERA and ICARUS, further tests, after fixing the GPS connector, showed speed measurements consistent with the speed of light from four experiments at Gran Sasso, including OPERA
Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California. Facebook gradually added support for students at other universities. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students, Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, schools attended and so on. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, hobbies or other topics, in groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people, because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies.
Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13,2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poors 500 Index to reach a market cap of $250 billion, Facebook has more than 1.86 billion monthly active users as of December 31,2016. As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, Facebook classifies users from the ages of 13 to 18 as minors and therefore sets their profiles to share content with friends only. Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28,2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore, to accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvards computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online, the site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by the Harvard administration.
Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section and he shared the site with his classmates, and people started sharing notes. The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004 and he said that he was inspired by an editorial about the Facemash incident in The Harvard Crimson. On February 4,2004, Zuckerberg launched Thefacebook, originally located at thefacebook. com. com and they claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation and they filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, within the first month, eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the excitation of the Higgs field, a fundamental field of crucial importance to particle physics theory first suspected to exist in the 1960s. Unlike other known fields such as the field, it has a non-zero constant value in vacuum. The question of the Higgs fields existence became the last unverified part of the Standard Model of particle physics and it resolves several other long-standing puzzles, such as the reason for the weak forces extremely short range. Although the Higgs field is believed to permeate the entire Universe, in principle, it can be proved to exist by detecting its excitations, which manifest as Higgs particles, but these are extremely difficult to produce and to detect. On 4 July 2012, the discovery of a new particle with a mass between 125 and 127 GeV/c2 was announced, physicists suspected that it was the Higgs boson and this means it is the first elementary scalar particle discovered in nature.
The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers, on December 10,2013, two of them, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction. Although Higgss name has come to be associated with this theory, in the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson with no spin, electric charge, or colour charge. It is unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. It is an excitation of one of the four components of the Higgs field. The latter constitutes a field, with two neutral and two electrically charged components that form a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU symmetry. The Higgs field is tachyonic, which does not refer to faster-than-light speeds, the Higgs field has a Mexican hat shaped potential with nonzero strength everywhere, which in its vacuum state breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction. When this happens, three components of the Higgs field are absorbed by the SU and U gauge bosons to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons of the weak force.
The remaining electrically neutral component either manifests as a Higgs particle, or can couple separately to other known as fermions. Some versions of the theory predicted more than one kind of Higgs fields, alternative Higgsless models might have been considered if the Higgs boson had not been discovered. In this model, the forces in nature arise from properties of our universe called gauge invariance. The forces themselves are transmitted by particles known as gauge bosons, field theories had been used with great success in understanding the electromagnetic field and the strong force. The problem was that the requirements in gauge theory predicted that both electromagnetisms gauge boson and the weak forces gauge bosons should have zero mass