Rhodes is the principal city and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit, it has a population of 90,000 in its metropolitan area. Rhodes has been famous since antiquity as the site of Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; the citadel of Rhodes, built by the Hospitalliers, is one of the best-preserved medieval towns in Europe, which in 1988 was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city of Rhodes is popular international tourist destination; the city of Rhodes is situated in the north-east tip of the island and forms a triangle from north to south. The municipal unit has an area of 19.481 km2. It is the smallest municipal unit of the island in the largest in population, it borders the Aegean Sea to the north, the east and the west and with the municipalities of Ialysos and Kallithea in the south. The island of Rhodes is at a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, Africa.
This has given the city and the island many different identities, cultures and languages over its long history. Its position in major sea routes has given Rhodes a rich history; the island has been inhabited since about 4000 BC. The city of Rhodes was formed by the cities of Ialyssos and Lindos in 408 BC, prospered for three centuries during its Golden Age, when sea trade, skilled shipbuilders, open-minded politicians of the city kept it prosperous until Roman times; the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was built by the Lindian sculptor Chares between 304 and 293 BC, which took 12 years and was completed in 282 BC. The statue represented their sun god Helios; the ancient city had a well-constructed sewage system as well as a water supply network as designed by Hippodamus. A strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC, badly toppling the Colossus. In 164 BC, Rhodes came under Roman control, it was able to develop into a leading center of learning for arts and science.
The Romans applied it to their shipping. Many traces of the Roman period still exist throughout the city and give an insight into the level of civilization at the time. According to Acts 21:1, the Apostle Paul stopped at Rhodes near the end of his third missionary journey. In medieval times, Rhodes was an important Byzantine trading post, as a crossroads for ships sailing between Constantinople and Alexandria. In the early years of the divided Roman Empire, the Isaurians, a mountain tribe from Cilicia, invaded the island and burned the city. In the 7th century AD it was captured by the Arabs; the latter were the ones who removed the scattered pieces of the Colossus from the port and moved them to Syria where they destroyed them to make coins. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the native noble Leo Gabalas took control of the island, but after his death and succession by his brother John, the island was occupied by the Genoese before being returned to the Emperor of Nicaea, though ushering in a new, but short-lived, Byzantine period.
The Knights Hospitallers captured and established their headquarters on Rhodes when they left Cyprus after the persecution of the Knights Templar in 1307. Pope Clement V confirmed the Hospitallers possession of the Island in 1309; the Knights remained on the Island for the next two centuries. In 1444, the Mamluk fleet of Egypt laid a siege to Rhodes, but the Knights aided by the Burgundian naval commander Geoffroy de Thoisy beat off the Muslim attack. After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Ottoman Empire began a rapid expansion and in 1480 Sultan Mehmet launched an invasion of Rhodes commanded by Mesic Pasha; the defenders repelled Turkish attacks from both landward and seaward sides and the invaders left the Island in defeat. The defeat halted a concurrent invasion of the Italian peninsula by Ottoman forces and prevented possible Muslim incursion and control of Western Europe. After the Ottoman defeat in 1480 the Knights Grand Master, Pierre d'Aubusson, oversaw the strengthening of the cities over the next few decades.
By the time of his death in 1521 Rhodes possessed the strongest fortifications of any Christian Bastion in the World. The Knights continued naval attacks launched from Rhodes on Muslim merchants until 1522 when the newly enthroned Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent led a second Siege of Rhodes in 1522; the vastly outnumbered Knights made a spirited defense of the city and inflicted heavy casualties upon the Ottoman besiegers. In December 1522 the Knights and Suleiman came to terms and the Knights were allowed to leave the city with all the wealth they could carry, in return there would be no retribution upon the inhabitants of the city and they would be allowed to continue to practice Christianity. On January 1, 1523 the Knights departed from the island. In the Ottoman era, new buildings were constructed: mosques, public baths and mansions for the new patrons; the Greeks were forced to move to new suburbs outside its walls. The city maintained its main economic function as a market for the agricultural products of the interior of the island and the surrounding small islands.
After the establishment of their sovereignty οn the island, the Ottoman Turks converted most of the churches into mosques and transformed the major houses into private mansions or public buildings. This transformation was a long-term process that aimed to adapt the buildings to the Ottoman way of living; the Knig
Ialysos is a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 16,7 km2. It is the second-largest town on the island of Rhodes, it has a population of 11,300, is located eight kilometres west of the town of Rhodes, the island's capital, on the island's northwestern coast. The town is situated near the site of the ancient Doric polis of Ialysos, homeland of the famous ancient boxer Diagoras of Rhodes; the municipal unit consists of the surrounding areas. While official sources use Trianta as a name for the town, Ialysos for the whole municipal unit, unofficial usage tend to favour Ialysos to describe both the modern town and the municipal unit; until the mid-1980s Trianta/Ialysos was a village with a population of around 2500 people, but during the following years population grew to an official 10,107 at the 2001 census, as it to an increasing degree became a suburban district to the town of Rhodes.
Ialysos has in addition become a tourist destination, with several hotels and resorts located on the coast in the new settlement of Ixia, situated between the towns of Ialysos and Rhodes. Being on the windward north-western coast of the island, it is a noted location for wind-surfing; the municipal unit has a land area of the smallest of any on Rhodes. State facilities by category: Primary Education: 3 primary schools Secondary Education: 1 high school and 1 lyceum Town football team GAS Ialysos competes at national level third tier while in the 90s team competed at Beta Ethniki losing promotion to Greece's top league during 1994-95 season. GAS Ialysos competes on local league but in the past reached national league C. Town municipal "Ekonomideio" stadium hosts Ialysos indoor hall basketball. Timocreon poet Diagoras of Rhodes boxer Ialysos Official website Temple of Athena Polias at Ialysus Museum of mineralogy & paleontology Stamatiadis
Kattavia is a small village located on the southernmost tip of the island of Rhodes. It is located within the municipal unit of South Rhodes and was at the epicentre of the 2008 Dodecanese earthquake. Kattavia is a part of the Municipality of Southern Rhodes, one of 10 municipalities on Rhodes; the municipality seat is Gennadi, located about 14 km north of Kattavia. Kattavia village square or platia is situated over a creek, dry for most of the year; the village has five full-service cafes and two general stores. Kattavia is considered to be a traditional village which hasn't been affected much by overdevelopment; the Municipality of Southern Rhodes requires all new construction to adhere to strict traditional building designs when located within the village limits. In recent years, the village has become a destination due to its proximity to Prasonisi, a popular windsurfing beach; when the Knights Hospitaller ruled Rhodes, Kattavia was turned into a fortified village where the population could find refuge when attacked by forces of the Ottoman Empire.
The church of Agia Paraskevi, the patron saint of the village, the church of Panagia Katholiki a 10th-century church located within the villages cemetery. On the way to Prasonisi on the right hand side, the archaeological site of “Vroulia” is found, it is an ancient coastal settlement that many to believe to the predessecor to modern day Kattavia known for its terracotta vessels called “vessels of Vroulia”. Other historical sites include: Saint George Saint Minas Prophet Elias Apostle Paul Saint Panteleimonas Saint Mark Kattavia's current population is 250 people, but its registered population is around 600. In the summer months the population of Kattavia swells to over 700, due to the Greek Diaspora returning home from countries such as the United States and Australia; the village's patron saint is Aghia Paraskevi. Her feast day is July 26. Festivals throughout the year include: Saint Paraskevi on July 26; the festival ends the next evening. Saint Panteleimonas on July 27; the festival takes place the night before and ends the next evening Dormition of the Virgin Mary on August 15.
Fürst, Florian Rhodes: An Up-to-date Travel Guide Nelles, Munich, p. 59, ISBN 3-88618-239-8 Dubin, Marc Stephen "Kattaviá and Prassoníssi" The Dodecanese and the East Aegean islands: Includes Rhodes, Kos and Lesvos Rough Guides, London, pp. 140–142 ISBN 1-84353-472-X Riak, Patricia Concealing and Revealing. The Sousta as Honorable Dance on the Island of Rhodes. Ph. D. Thesis, School of Politics and Anthropology, La Trobe University, Australia; this is a postgraduate thesis in Social Anthropology reconstructing the traditional wedding in the village of Kattavia during the inter-war period 1925-1940. A copy of the thesis is housed at the Municipal Library of Rhodes in the Old Medieval Town. South Rhodes website
Koskinou is a village on the Greek island of Rhodes. It is located 5 miles from Rhodes town and 6 miles from the island resort of Faliraki and the Music School of Rhodes. Koskinou is famous for its unique traditional houses decorated with vibrant colours. There is a major festival on July 17 when the village celebrates the name day of St. Marina with customary music and dancing; the village is part of the Kallitea-Rhodes Municipality. The local football team called Diyenis Koskinou reside in the fourth division of the Greek league. Discover Rhodes
Liquidambar orientalis known as oriental sweetgum or Turkish sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar, native to the eastern Mediterranean region, that occurs as pure stands in the floodplains of southwestern Turkey and on the Greek island of Rhodes. Oriental sweet gum is 30 -- 35 m in height with a trunk of 100 cm in diameter; the unisexual flowers bloom from March to April. The fruits ripen in November to December and the seeds are wind dispersed; the tree is attractive and valued for its colourful autumn leaves. Oriental sweet gum trees favour an elevation of between 0–400 m, a mean annual rainfall of 1,000–1,200 mm and a mean annual temperature of 18 °C; the tree's optimal growth is on rich and moist soils such as bogs, river banks and coastal areas but it is able to grow on slopes and dry soil. The forests of this Tertiary relict endemic taxon are found notably within a specially protected area between Dalyan and Köyceğiz in Muğla Province, where a 286 ha zone is set aside as a nature reserve and arboretum for the preservation of the species.
A large stand surrounds Marmaris. These two areas are the better known oriental sweetgum forests due to their respective regions being prominent centers of tourism, although a big population covering nearly 100 ha is found in an inland region within Aydın Province extending between Çine, Köşk and Umurlu districts, yet another sweetgum forest area of 88.5 ha under protection is situated in Burdur's depending district of Bucak alongside Karacaören dam reservoir on the road to Antalya. The trees are found locally in Denizli's depending districts of Beyağaç and Tavas; the total area of pure sweetgum forests in Turkey covers 1,348 ha, all in the southwestern regions of the country. The present-day extension corresponds to a marked decrease since the 1940s level of 6,000–7,000 ha, although the protective measures and infrastructure in place since the 1980s helped stop loss of stands and led to slight improvements; the name in Turkish for the particular species is Günlük ağacı, while the trees of the genus as a whole are called Sığala ağacı, a name used in sole reference to oriental sweeetgum itself.
Günlük ağacı means "a frankincense/myrrh tree " in which the first element is of unknown origin, whereas sığala refers to "a boggy place". The extraction of its sap and the production of an oil based thereof, as well as exports of these products, play an important role in the local economies of Greece and Turkey; the harvest of the sap and the preparation of the oil involve quite strenuous tasks lasting from May to November and consisting of several separate phases. The thick sap is obtained in the period June to September by stripping ¼ of the total trunk lengthwise. Wounding the trunk causes sap to emerge, which can be further stimulated by tapping the trunk. In the village of Kavakarası near Köyceğiz in the Turkish province of Muğla, locals scrape the sap from the wounded tree trunks using the sharp edge of plastic bottles; the stripped sap is put in boiling water to soften pressed. The styrax is diluted with ¼ water, keeping it soft and preserving its aroma. By steam distillation a light yellow oil is obtained.
There is a danger for the present generation of master oil makers not being replaced in near future. In English, this oil is known under several names, shortly as Storax to include all sweetgum oils, or as Styrax Levant, Asiatic Storax, Balsam Storax, Liquid Storax, Oriental Sweetgum Oil, or Turkish Sweetgum Oil. Diluted with a suitable carrier oil, it is used externally in traditional medicine, it is a different product from the benzoin resin produced from tropical trees in the genus Styrax. The hydrocarbon styrene is named for Levant styrax from Liquidambar orientalis, from which it was first isolated, not for the genus Styrax itself; the status of and developments regarding the protection of Turkish sweetgum continues to occupy local and national environmental agenda at a critical level in Turkey. Among the main causes for the loss of sweetgum forests was the cutting and felling of trees for opening new fields for agriculture, as well as the construction of three separate dams at localities which corresponded to important habitats for the species.
As such, Liquidambar orientalis holds an important position in Turkey's biodiversity and among endemic species, is one of its best-known symbols. Melis Or - Zeki Kaya. Identification of Turkish Sweetgum varieties by studying ten regions of Chloroplast DNA, p.166 In Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 2 Joint Conference: Low Input Breeding and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources. Akdeniz University. A. Çelik, A. Güvensen, Ö. Seçmen, M. Öztürk. Studies on the Ecology of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Distributed on Aydın Mountains p. 165. Food and Agriculture Organization. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Yahya Ayaşlıgil; the Yunus Emre Arboretum as a conservation tool for a relict Liquidambar Orientalis wood in the specially protected area of Dalyan - Köyceğiz p. 165. Food and Agriculture Organization. Full text, p. 3 Levent Keskin, Eyüp Yüksel Liquidambar orientalis - distribution map, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Kritinia is a Greek village in the municipal unit of Attavyros, on the island of Rhodes, South Aegean region. In 2011 its population was 503; the village, meaning New Crete, was founded by some families escaped from Crete during the Turkish rule in the island. The settlement was located by the coast, in the current position of Kameiros Skala. In 1658, the Venetian Doge Francesco Morosini tried to conquer Rhodes entering at Kameiros Skala beach, but the Venetian army was rejected; the castle above Kritinia, named Kastellos, was built in 1472 by Giorgio Orsini to protect the inhabitants of the village from the attacks of the Ottoman fleets. Until the liberation of the Dodecanese, the village was named Kastelli, from the Latin Castellum, meaning castle. Kritinia is located on a hillside between Mount Attavyros and the western coast of the island of Rhodes, it is 10 km from Embonas, 51 km from the town of Rhodes, 53 km from Lindos and 35 km from Rhodes International Airport. The locality of Kameiros Skala is located by 5 km from Kritinia.
It has a little port with a ferry service to the island of Halki. Despite the name Kameiros Skala is some 14 km from Kameiros. Close to it is Mandriko, a locality, part of the community of Embonas. Media related to Kritinia at Wikimedia Commons Kritinia official website
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece