Chota Nagpur Plateau
The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south; the total area of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is 65,000 square kilometres. The name Nagpur is taken from Nagavanshis, who ruled in this part of the country. Chhota is the name of a village in the outskirts of Ranchi, which has the remains of an old fort belonging to the Nagavanshis; the Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a continental plateau—an extensive area of land thrust above the general land. The plateau has been formed by continental uplift from forces acting deep inside the earth; the Gondwana substrates attest to the plateau's ancient origin. It is part of the Deccan Plate, which broke free from the southern continent during the Cretaceous to embark on a 50-million-year journey, interrupted by the collision with the Eurasian continent.
The northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, where this ecoregion sits, was the first area of contact with Eurasia. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau consists of three steps; the highest step is in the western part of the plateau, where pats, as a plateau is locally called, are 910 to 1,070 metres above sea level. The highest point is 1,164 metres; the next part contains larger portions of the old Ranchi and Hazaribagh districts and some parts of old Palamu district, before these were broken up into smaller administrative units. The general height is 610 metres; the topography in undulating with prominent gneissic hills dome-like in outline. The lowest step of the plateau is at an average level of around 300 metres, it covers the old Singhbhum districts. High hills are a striking part of this section - Parasnath Hills rise to a height of 1,370 metres and Dalma Hills to 1,038 metres; the large plateau is subdivided into several small sub plateaux. The western plateau with an average elevation of 1,000 metres above mean sea level merges into the plateau of the Surguja district of Chhattisgarh.
The flat topped plateaux, locally known as pats are characterized by level surface and accordance of their summit levels shows they are part of one large plateau. Examples include Jamira Pat, Khamar Pat, Rudni Pat and others; the area is referred to as Western Ranchi Plateau. It is believed to be composed of Deccan basalt lava; the Ranchi Plateau is the largest part of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The elevation of the plateau surface in this part is about 700 m and slopes down towards south-east into the hilly and undulating region of Singhbhum; the plateau is dissected. The Damodar River flows through a rift valley. To the north it is separated from the Hazaribagh plateau by the Damodar trough. To the west is a group of plateaux called pat. There are many waterfalls at the edges of the Ranchi plateau where rivers coming from over the plateau surface form waterfalls when they descend through the precipitous escarpments of the plateau and enter the area of lower elevation; the North Karo River has formed the 17 m high Pheruaghaugh Falls at the southern margin of the Ranchi plateau.
Such falls are called. Hundru Falls on the Subarnarekha River near Ranchi, Dassam Falls on the Kanchi River, east of Ranchi, Sadni Falls on the Sankh River are examples of scarp falls. Sometimes waterfalls of various dimensions are formed when tributary streams join the master stream from great heights forming hanging valleys. At Rajrappa, the Bhera River coming over from the Ranchi Plateau hangs above the Damodar River at its point of confluence with the latter; the Jonha Falls is another example of this category of falls. The Gunga River hangs over its master stream, the Raru River and forms the said; the Hazaribagh plateau is subdivided into two parts – the higher plateau and the lower plateau. Here the higher plateau is referred to as Hazaribagh plateau and the lower plateau as Koderma plateau; the Hazaribagh plateau on which Hazaribagh town is built is about 64 km east by west and 24 km north by south with an average elevation of 610 m. The north-eastern and southern faces are abrupt, it is separated from the Ranchi plateau by the Damodar trough.
The western portion of Hazaribagh plateau constitutes a broad watershed between the Damodar drainage on the south and the Lilajan and Mohana rivers on the north. The highest hills in this area are called after the villages of Kasiatu and Hudu, rise fronting the south 180 m above the general level of the plateau. Further east along the southern face a long spur projects right up to the Damodar river where it ends in Aswa Pahar, elevation 751 metres. At the south-eastern corner of the plateau is Jilinga Hill at 932 metres. Mahabar Jarimo at 666 m and Barsot at 660 m stand in isolation to the east, on the north-west edge of the plateau Sendraili at 670 m and Mahuda at 734 m are the most prominent features. Isolated on the plateau, in the neighbourhood of Hazaribagh town are four hills of which the highest Chendwar rises to 860 m. On all sides it has an exceedingly abrupt scarp, modified only on the south-east
Bokaro Steel Plant
Bokaro Steel Plant is located in the Bokaro district of Jharkhand. It is the fourth integrated public sector steel plant in India built with Soviet help, it was incorporated as a limited company in 1964. It was merged with the state-owned Steel Authority of India Limited, it houses five blast furnaces with a total capacity to produce 5.2 MT of liquid steel. The plant is undergoing a mass modernisation drive after which its output capacity is expected to cross 10 MT The plant's yearly profit stood at ₹11.2 billion for the financial year 2003–04 and has increased every year since reaching to 84.26 billion INR in the financial year 2007–08. Bokaro Steel Plant is designed to produce a wide range of flat products: Hot rolled coils Hot rolled plates Hot rolled sheets Cold rolled coils Cold rolled sheets Tin mill black plates Galvanised plain and corrugated sheets Oxygen Gas Produced in Oxygen Plant. Hydrogen Gas Coke Oven byproducts Cowdung Mannure Sutinder Bhatia. Bokaro steel plant: some economic aspects.
Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-540-7. Padma Desai; the Bokaro steel plant: a study of Soviet economic assistance. North-Holland Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-444-10388-8
The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw. Most do not tilt. An exception is in Cambodia, where two different types of vehicles are called tuk-tuks, one of which has four wheels and is composed of a motorcycle and trailer; the auto rickshaw is a common form of urban transport, both as a vehicle for hire and for private use, in many countries around the world those with tropical or subtropical climates, including many developing countries. Bajaj Auto of Pune, India is the world's largest auto rickshaw manufacturer. Japan has exported three-wheelers to Thailand since 1934. Moreover, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan donated about 20,000 used three-wheelers to Southeast Asia. In Japan, three-wheelers went out of use in the latter half of the 1960s. In 1947 Corradino D'Ascanio, aircraft designer at Piaggio and inventor of the Vespa, came up with the idea of building a light three-wheeled commercial vehicle to power Italy's post-war economic reconstruction.
The Piaggio Ape followed suit. Auto rickshaws in Southeast Asia started from the knockdown production of the Daihatsu Midget, introduced in 1959. There are many different auto rickshaw types and variations; the most common type is characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame resting on three wheels. Locally named the "toktok," the rickshaw is used to provide transportation in some parts of Egypt. Together with the recent boom of recreational facilities in Gaza for the local residents, donkey carts have all but been displaced by tuk-tuks in 2010. Due to the ban by Egypt and Israel on the import of most motorised vehicles, the tuk-tuks have had to be smuggled in parts through the tunnel network connecting Gaza with Egypt. In Madagascar, man-powered rickshaws are a common form of transportation in a number of cities Antsirabe, they are known as "posy" from pousse-pousse. Cycle rickshaws took off since 2006 in a number of flat cities like Toamasina and replaced the major part of the posy, are now threatened by the auto rickshaws, introduced in 2009.
Provincial capitals like Toamasina, Mahajanga and Antsiranana are taking to them rapidly. They are known as "bajaji" in the north and "tuk-tuk" or "tik-tik" in the east, are now licensed to operate as taxis, they are not yet allowed an operating licence in the congested, more polluted national capital, Antananarivo. The auto rickshaw is used to provide transportation in cities all over Nigeria. Popularity and use varies across the country however. In Lagos, for example, the "keke" is regulated and transportation around the state's highways is prohibited. Tuk-tuks, introduced in Durban in the late 1980s enjoyed growing popularity in recent years in Gauteng. In Cape Town they are used to deliver groceries and, more transport tourists. Rickshaws, known as "Raksha" in Sudan, is the most common mean of transportation followed by the bus in the capital Khartoum. Rickshaws are a common mode of transportation in Dar es Salaam. Auto rickshaws are one of the more popular modes of transport in Bangladesh due to their size and speed.
They are best suited to narrow, crowded streets, are thus the principal means of covering longer distances within urban areas. Two-stroke engines had been identified as one of the leading sources of air pollution in Dhaka. Thus, since January 2003, traditional auto rickshaws were banned from the capital. All CNGs are painted green to signify that the vehicles are eco-friendly and that each one has a meter built-in. Farhad Ilias and brother in-law Adil Ali imported the first auto rickshaws in the late 1940s following the first successful turbo-prop engine factory launch. In Cambodia, the term tuk-tuk refers to a passenger-carrying remorque pulled by a motorcycle, it is a used form of transportation in the capital of Phnom Penh and for visitors touring the Angkor temples in Siem Reap. In Phnom Penh and other Cambodian cities tuk-tuk fares are negotiated with the driver, while at Angkor Wat they are rented on daily basis. Cambodian cities have a much lower volume of automobile traffic than Thai cities, tuk-tuks are still the most common form of urban transport.
There are more than 6,000 tuk-tuks in Phnom Penh, according to the Independent Democracy of Informal Economy Association, a union that represents tuk-tuk drivers among other members. Various types of auto rickshaw are used around China, where they are called sān lún chē and sometimes sān bèng zǐ, meaning three wheeler or tricycle, they may be used to transport cargo or passengers in the more rural areas. However, in many urban areas the auto rickshaws for passengers are operated illegally as they are considered unsafe and an eyesore, they are permitted in some cities, however. The Southeast Asian word tuk tuk is transliterated as dū dū chē. Most cities offer auto rickshaw service, although cycle rickshaws are common and hand-pulled rickshaws exist in certain areas such as Kolkata. Auto rickshaws are used in towns for short distances. Auto rickshaws provide
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region