A mushroom hat is a millinery style in which the brim of the hat tilts downwards, resembling the shape of a mushroom. It is a style that first emerged in the 1870s and 1880s and it became fashionable again from around 1907 to the late 1920s, these versions featured a distinctly downturned brim although the size and shape of the crown varied according to prevailing fashions. A new and exaggerated version of the hat was popularised by Christian Dior in 1947 as part of his New Look collection. This style generally had a crown and a very wide brim. The defining characteristic of mushroom hats is their downturned brim, resembling a mushroom or toadstool, in the 1870s, designs in straw shaped like a mushroom became popular. These had a small crown trimmed with ribbons, flowers and – in the 1880s – bird decorations, in 1907, mushroom hats in both straw and felt became popular. I suppose there was some attraction in the hat when it was first designed. But this autumnal growth of felt fungi deserves nothing but condemnation and her words fell on deaf ears as the popularity of mushroom shapes persisted.
In 1909, an advertisement in The Times describing Selfridge & Cos millinery choices detailed a mushroom brim hat decorated with ostrich feathers. In the same year, Dickins & Jones offered a, becoming mushroom hat. trimmed with wide Velvet Ribbon, by 1915, variations on the design for younger girls included almost brimless mushroom models – similar to a cloche or bucket hat. The mushroom hat was fashionable throughout the 1920s, with Princess Mary choosing a mushroom shape with a blue lace-covered brim for the day of Ascot in 1920. Five years later, the Duchess of York chose a mushroom design trimmed with vivid orange osprey feathers tucked at either side of the brim for Ascots Ladies Day race meeting and it was a style that could incorporate the fashions for snug-fitting cloche-like designs or taller crowned hats. In the same year, velvet for babies were described as among the newest childrens millinery, the hat design lent itself to ornate decorations with ribbon and feather trims and veils.
A new variety of mushroom hat appeared at Diors first fashion show on 12 February 1947. Of the mushroom look, she added, This may be small and snugly rounded, like the little pink Champignon de Paris. or it is wide, on these wider shapes go flat the airier techniques that the spring hat demands. Laizes of all kinds, fine picot straws, satin straws, gros-grain, short-pile summer velvet, coarse tulle, printed taffeta, organdy, and a great many flowers. Other names for the variations that include the mushroom cloche. Wide-brimmed mushroom hats continued to be throughout the 1950s and early 60s
A cartwheel hat is a wide brimmed circular or saucer-shaped design. It may be made in a variety of materials, including straw or felt and it may be similar to the picture hat and halo-brimmed hat in shape. Typically, it is worn at an angle to show off the curve of the brim, the cartwheel hat became popular in the years leading up to World War I. These early versions might be covered in velvet, taffeta or silk, some included flower, the cartwheel hat appeared in films and fashion during the 1930s – an American newspaper described the latest Paris fashion for straight and curled-brim cartwheel designs in 1934. The correspondent described crowns so shallow that hats had to be secured with a band above or below the hair. In 1936, an Australian newspaper report about racegoers at Brisbanes Ascot racing meeting noted the abundance of, wide-brimmed shady hats of the cartwheel type. While a Hattie Carnegie cartwheel design appeared on the cover of American Vogue in 1938, by 1945, new cartwheel styles were being offered with open crowns.
By spring 1950, the hat was being tipped in Life alongside pleated dresses as the. The hat designs featured were by Mr. John, a month later, Life noted, The recent tendency to go bareheaded has been reversed simply because the new seasons narrow silhouette looks better when balanced with a hat. The article singled out the cartwheel in a new unseasonal coral velvet, the cartwheel became particularly closely associated with New Look fashions. Diors Y-line collection of autumn 1955 showcased cartwheel hats, paired with pearls, the cartwheel hat has continued as a favourite showstopper for weddings and events – with designers such as Philip Somerville, Graham Smith and Frederick Fox including them in their millinery ranges. There have been notable revivals in high fashion, Christian Lacroix featured dramatic forward-angled designs in his 1987 autumn collection and he featured cartwheel shapes in neon orange and shocking pink in 2002
The Thracians were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family, the study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology. Thracians are one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians. The first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, the ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ or Θρᾴκιος/Ionic, Θρηίκιος, and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη/Ion. These forms are all exonyms as applied by the Greeks, in Greek mythology, Thrax was regarded as one of the reputed sons of the god Ares. In the Alcestis, Euripides mentions that one of the names of Ares himself was Thrax since he was regarded as the patron of Thrace, the origins of the Thracians remain obscure, in the absence of written historical records. Evidence of proto-Thracians in the period depends on artifacts of material culture. Leo Klejn identifies proto-Thracians with the multi-cordoned ware culture that was pushed away from Ukraine by the advancing timber grave culture and we speak of proto-Thracians from which during the Iron Age Dacians and Thracians begin developing.
Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a political organization until the Odrysian state was founded in the fifth century BC. A strong Dacian state appeared in the first century BC, during the reign of King Burebista, including the Illyrians, the mountainous regions were home to various peoples regarded as warlike and ferocious Thracian tribes, while the plains peoples were apparently regarded as more peaceable. Thracians inhabited parts of the ancient provinces of Thrace, Macedonia, Scythia Minor, Bithynia, Mysia and other regions of the Balkans and Anatolia. This area extended over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug and including Panonia in the west. Aligning themselves in kingdoms and tribes, they never displayed any form of unity beyond short. Similar to the Celtic and Slavic tribes, most people are thought to have lived simply in small fortified villages, although the concept of an urban center was not developed until the Roman period, various larger fortifications which served as regional market centers were numerous.
Yet, in general, despite Greek colonization in such areas as Byzantium and other cities, the first Greek colonies in Thrace were founded in the eighth century BC. Thrace south of the Danube was ruled for half a century by the Persians under Darius the Great. In the first decade of the sixth century BC, the Persians invaded Thrace, Thracians were forced to join the invasions of European Scythia and Greece. According to Herodotus, the Bithynian Thracians had to contribute a large contingent to Xerxes invasion of Greece in 480 BC, Darius left in Europe one of his commanders named Megabazus whose task was to accomplish conquests in the Balkans
A lampshade hat is a millinery design in which the hat has a small circular crown – typically flat, but sometimes rounded – and flares outwards to create a cone-like profile. Lampshade is a term that is used to describe the Asian conical hat. It may be used – sometimes in a derogatory way – to describe any oversized or lavishly trimmed hat, the lampshade style is said to have been popularised by Christian Dior in the 1950s and remained fashionable through the next decade. Dior continued to feature variations in his collections into the early 1960s, early versions could be trimmed or decorated, or could rely on shape alone for effect. It is unclear when the term lampshade was first used, although it dates to the early 1950s. Writing in The Guardian in 1953 about the London spring collections, Clair Wilson described a, lampshade of a hat designed by Simone Mirman and this model was pleated and matched to a black silk cape. By 1956, lampshades and pillboxes were said to be overtaking the previously popular mushroom, a reviewer of the opening days fashions noted,1956 must be dismissed as an unspectacular year.
Gone were the cartwheels and giant mushrooms of other years, and in their place were pill-boxes, notable examples of the design include the red lampshade hat worn by Doris Day in the 1959 romantic comedy Pillow Talk. Costumes for this film were created by French costume/fashion designer Jean Louis, like the pillbox, the lampshade remained popular into the 1960s, as hems rose and space age fashions took hold. John Galliano, designing for Dior, showed a variety of extreme lampshade-style hats in 2008 – these were created by milliner Stephen Jones, the design duo DSquared2 recreated 1950s-style lampshade hats for their spring/summer 2014 fashion show in September 2013 at Milan Fashion Week. Other designers showing lampshade-inspired designs for 2014, included LWren Scott, mushroom hat Bucket hat Pillbox hat Givenchy lampshade hat with flower decoration in the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, c
The bowler hat, known as a bob hat, bombín or derby, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown, created originally during 1849. The bowler hat is said to have been designed during 1849 by the London hat-makers Thomas, the keepers had previously worn top hats, which were knocked off easily and damaged. The identity of the customer is less certain, with suggesting it was William Coke. The bowler has had varying degrees of significance in British culture, popular among the working classes in the 19th century, from the early 20th century, bowler hats were commonly associated with businessmen working in the financial districts, known as City Gents. The traditional wearing of hats with City business attire ended during the 1980s. During modern times bowlers are not common, although the so-called City Gent remains a stereotype of Englishmen, wearing a bowler, for this reason, two bowler-hatted men were used in the logo of the British building society, Bradford & Bingley. The bowler, not the hat or sombrero, was the most popular hat in the American West.
Both cowboys and railroad workers preferred the hat because it would not blow off easily in strong wind while riding a horse and it was worn by both lawmen and outlaws, including Bat Masterson, Butch Cassidy, Black Bart, and Billy the Kid. In America the hat came to be known commonly as the derby, in South America, the bowler, known as bombín in Spanish, has been worn by Quechua and Aymara women since the 1920s, when it was introduced to Bolivia by British railway workers. For many years, a factory in Italy manufactured such hats for the Bolivian market, the bowler hat became used famously by certain actors, such as Charlie Chaplin and Hardy, John Steed, and John Cleese. The British building society Bradford and Bingley registered more than 100 separate trademarks featuring the bowler hat, in 1995 the bank purchased, for £2,000, a bowler hat which had once belonged to Stan Laurel. There was a chain of restaurants in Los Angeles, California known as The Brown Derby, the first and most famous of these was shaped like a derby.
A chain of Brown Derby restaurants in Ohio are still in business today, many paintings by the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte feature bowler hats. The Son of Man consists of a man in a bowler hat standing in front of a wall, the mans face is largely obscured by a hovering green apple. Golconda depicts raining men all wearing bowler hats, choreographer Bob Fosse frequently incorporated bowler hats into his dance routines. This use of hats as a props, as seen in the 1972 movie Cabaret would become one of his trademarks, the Bob Dylan song On the Road Again includes the lyric The milkman comes in/ Hes wearing a derby hat. The Plug Uglies, a nineteenth-century American street gang, wore bowler hats stuffed with cloth or wool to protect their heads while fighting, matthew Stymie Beard of The Little Rascals wore a bowler hat. John Bonham, drummer for Led Zeppelin, often wore a bowler hat, Charlie Chaplin wore a bowler hat as part of his Little Tramp costume
Formal wear and formal dress wear are general terms for clothing suitable for formal social events, such as a wedding, formal garden party or dinner, débutante cotillion, dance, or race. A dress code is a set of governing a certain combination of clothing, some examples are black tie. Formal dress is the grouping of all the codes which govern clothes worn to formal events. The dress code considered formal in the evening is white tie, in the UK, morning dress is standard formal day time clothing, but in the US/Canada morning dress is rare, having been replaced with the stroller and the lounge, or business suit. Morning dress, does remain in certain settings in Europe, the continual relaxation of formal dress standards since the end of the Second World War is redefining what clothes constitute formal and semi-formal dress. The original term full dress was used in the 19th century and they indicated different clothes, but correspond somewhat to the 21st-century structure of formal, semi-formal, and informal.
Moreover, modern advisers recommend black tie for events traditionally considered to require formal dress, particularly in America, but around the Western world, there has been a relaxation regarding the dress codes themselves, with full formal dress almost unheard of in many places. The dress codes counted as formal wear are the dress codes of white tie for evenings. Although some consider black tie for the evening and strollers for daytime, as formal, they are semi-formal attires, the clothes dictated by these dress codes for women are ball gowns. For many uniforms, the clothing is unisex. Examples of this are law court dress and graduate dress, formal military uniforms, women wear a variety of dresses. See ball gowns, evening gowns, and wedding dresses, business attire for women has a developmental history of its own and generally looks different from formal dress for social occasions. Morning dress is the formal dress code, consisting chiefly for men of a morning coat and striped trousers.
In Western formal state ceremonies and social functions, foreign dignitaries, many cultures have formal evening and day dress, for example, Daura-Suruwal — worn as formal dress by men in Nepal. Scottish kilt — worn as formal dress by men in Scotland or of Scottish descent Bunad — worn as formal dress by women and men in Norway, folkdräkt — worn as formal dress by women and men in Sweden. Hátíðarbúningur — worn by men in Iceland to formal events such as state dinners, dhoti — worn by men in Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Sari — worn by women in India, Bangladesh, shalwar kameez — worn by both men and women in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Sherwani worn by men in India and Pakistan Dashiki — worn by men in West African countries, barong Tagalog — worn by men in the Philippines
A flat cap is a rounded cap with a small stiff brim in front. Cloths used to make the cap include wool, less common materials may include leather, linen or corduroy. The inside of the cap is commonly lined for comfort and warmth. The Bill was not repealed until 1597, though by time, the flat cap had become firmly entrenched as a recognised mark of a non-noble subject, such as a burgher. The style may have been the same as the Tudor bonnet still used in styles of academic dress. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, when men predominantly wore some form of headgear, flat caps were worn throughout Britain. Versions in finer cloth were considered to be suitable casual countryside wear for upper-class Englishmen, Flat caps were worn by fashionable young men in the 1920s. Boys of all classes in the United Kingdom wore flat caps during this period, in the United States the caps were worn from the 1890s. The cap grew in popularity at the turn of the 20th century and was at the time standard boys wear and they were worn to school, for casual wear, and with suits.
Flat caps were almost always worn with suits in the 1910s and 20s. Both flat caps and knickerbockers declined in popularity during the 1930s, the flat cap made its way to southern Italy in the late 1800s, likely brought by British servicemen. In Turkey, the cap became the main headgear for men after it became a replacement for the fez. In the late 20th century and early 21st century British public figures including David Beckham, Guy Ritchie, Harry Styles, Richard Blackwood, and the Prince of Wales wore the flat cap. One of the hats worn in academia is known as a bonnet or Tudor bonnet. It remains ceremonial wear by members of the community in many countries. Commonly it has a round crown and a stiff flat brim. The bonnet is made of black velvet and trimmed, between crown and brim with gold cord and tassels. Some universities opt to trim their bonnets with coloured cord and tassels and it is worn by the holders of higher doctorates of the University of Liverpool, as well as Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
In the past, hats were an indicator of social status. In the military, hats may denote nationality, branch of service, Police typically wear distinctive hats such as peaked caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Some hats have a protective function, some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard, which is worn during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn by members of a profession, such as the Toque worn by chefs. Some hats have religious functions, such as the mitres worn by Bishops, while there are not many official records of hats before 3,000 BC, they probably were commonplace before that. Archaeologists think that the Venus of Brassempouy from 26,000 years ago may depict a hat. One of the earliest known confirmed hats was worn by a bronze age man whose body was frozen in a mountain between Austria and Italy, where hed been since around 3,300 BC. He was found wearing bearskin cap with a strap, made of several hides stitched together.
One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a painting from Thebes, Egypt. Hats were commonly worn in ancient Egypt, many upper-class Egyptians shaved their head, covered it in a headdress intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians often wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase. Other early hats include the Pileus, a skull like cap, the Phrygian cap, worn by freed slaves in Greece and Rome, and the Greek petasos. Women wore veils, hoods and wimples, like Otzi, Tollund Man was preserved to the present day with a hat on, probably having died around 400 BC in a Danish bog, which mummified him. He wore a cap made of sheepskin and wool, fastened under the chin by a hide thong. St. Clement, the saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered wool felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet. In the Middle Ages, hats were a marker of social status, the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat, marking them as targets for anti-Semitism.
The hats were usually yellow and were pointed or square. In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin, structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century
The term applies beyond Europe, to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, Western Culture includes countries in the Americas and Australasia, whose language, before the Cold War era, the traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian countries and culture. Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of Western culture, with the worlds first democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy, Greece was followed by Rome, which made key contributions in law, government and political organization. European culture developed with a range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, and mysticism. Rational thinking developed through an age of change and formation, with the experiments of the Enlightenment. More often an ideology is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category, many parts of the Eastern Roman Empire are considered Western today but were Eastern in the past.
Since the context is highly biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition what the West is and it is difficult to determine which individuals fit into which category and the East–West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary. Globalism has spread Western ideas so widely that almost all cultures are, to some extent. Stereotyped views of the West have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orientalism—the term for the 19th-century stereotyped views of the East, as Europe discovered the wider world, old concepts adapted. The area that had formerly considered the Orient became the Near East, as the interests of the European powers interfered with Meiji Japan and Qing China for the first time. Thus, the Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 occurred in the Far East, the Greeks contrasted themselves to their Eastern neighbors, such as the Trojans in Iliad, setting an example for contrasts between east and west. In the Middle Ages, the Near East provided a contrast to the West, concepts of what is the West arose out of legacies of the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Later, ideas of the west were formed by the concepts of Latin Christendom, Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity. Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners. In the meantime, Greece, under Alexander, had become a capital of the East, the Celts created some significant literature in the ancient world whenever they were given the opportunity
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw makes up half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, rice, rye. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder and it is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale, which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used. Current and historic uses of straw include, Animal feed Straw may be fed as part of the component of the diet to cattle or horses that are on a near maintenance level of energy requirement. It has a low energy and nutrient content. The heat generated when microorganisms in a herbivores gut digest straw can be useful in maintaining body temperature in cold climates, due to the risk of impaction and its poor nutrient profile, it should always be restricted to part of the diet. It may be fed as it is, or chopped into short lengths, basketry Bee skeps and linen baskets are made from coiled and bound together continuous lengths of straw.
The technique is known as lip work, humans or livestock The straw-filled mattress, known as a palliasse, is still used in many parts of the world. It is commonly used as bedding for ruminants and horses and it may be used as bedding and food for small animals, but this often leads to injuries to mouth and eyes as straw is quite sharp. Biofuels The use of straw as an energy source is increasing rapidly, especially for biobutanol. Straw or hay briquettes are a substitute to coal. Biogas Straw, processed first as briquettes, has been fed into a plant in Aarhus University, Denmark. Biomass The use of straw in large-scale biomass power plants is becoming mainstream in the EU, the straw is either used directly in the form of bales, or densified into pellets which allows for the feedstock to be transported over longer distances. Finally, torrefaction of straw with pelletisation is gaining attention, because it increases the density of the resource. This processing step makes storage easier, because torrefied straw pellets are hydrophobic.
Torrefied straw in the form of pellets can be directly co-fired with coal or natural gas at high rates and make use of the processing infrastructures at existing coal. Because the torrefied straw pellets have superior structural and combustion properties to coal, they can replace all coal, first generation pellets are limited to a co-firing rate of 15% in modern IGCC plants