Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh. First established as a radical political paper in 1817, it began daily publication in 1855 and remained a broadsheet until August 2004, its parent company, JPIMedia publishes the Edinburgh Evening News. As of February 2017, it had an audited print circulation of 19,449, with a paid-for circulation of 88.3% of this figure, about 17,000. Its website, Scotsman.com, had an average of 138,000 unique visitors a day as of 2017. The title celebrated its bicentenary on 25 January 2017; the Scotsman was launched in 1817 as a liberal weekly newspaper by lawyer William Ritchie and customs official Charles Maclaren in response to the "unblushing subservience" of competing newspapers to the Edinburgh establishment. The paper was pledged to "impartiality and independence". After the abolition of newspaper stamp tax in Scotland in 1855, The Scotsman was relaunched as a daily newspaper priced at 1d and a circulation of 6,000 copies.
The fledgling paper was based at 257 High Street on the Royal Mile. In 1860, The Scotsman obtained a purpose built office on Cockburn Street in Edinburgh designed in the Scots baronial style by the architects Peddie & Kinnear; this backed onto their original offices on the Royal Mile. The building bears the initials "JR" for John Ritchie the founder of the company. On 19 December 1904, they moved to huge new offices at the top of the street, facing onto North Bridge, designed by Dunn & Findlay; this huge building had taken three years to build and had connected printworks on Market Street. The printworks connected below road level direct to Waverley station in a efficient production line. In 1953 the newspaper was bought by Canadian millionaire Roy Thomson, in the process of building a large media group; the paper was bought in 1995 by Frederick Barclay for £ 85 million. They moved the newspaper from its Edinburgh office on North Bridge, now an upmarket hotel, to modern offices in Holyrood Road designed by Edinburgh architects CDA, near the subsequent location of the Scottish Parliament Building.
The daily was awarded by the Society for News Design the World’s Best Designed Newspaper™ for 1994. In December 2005, The Scotsman along with its sister titles owned by The Scotsman Publications Ltd was acquired, in a £160 million deal, by Johnston Press, a company founded in Scotland and at the time one of the top three largest local newspaper publishers in the UK. Ian Stewart has been the editor since June 2012, after a reshuffle of senior management in April 2012 during which John McLellan, the paper's editor-in-chief was dismissed. Ian Stewart was editor of Edinburgh Evening News and remains as the editor of Scotland on Sunday. In 2012, The Scotsman was named Newspaper of the Year at the Scottish Press Awards. In 2006 Barclay Brothers sold Barclay House to Irish property magnate Lochlann Quinn, in 2013 Scottish video games maker Rockstar North, of Grand Theft Auto fame, signed the lease, causing Johnston Press group to move out in June 2014. Johnston Press have downsized to refurbished premises at Orchard Brae House in Queensferry Road, Edinburgh, a move, quoted as saving the group £1million per annum in rent.
The newspaper backed a'No' vote in the referendum on Scottish independence. In November 2018, Johnston Press filed for administration. Shortly after filing for administration, the company was bought out by JPIMedia. 1817: William Ritchie 1817: Charles Maclaren 1818: John Ramsay McCulloch 1843: John Hill Burton 1846: Alexander Russel 1876: Robert Wallace 1880: Charles Alfred Cooper 1905: John Pettigrew Croal 1924: George A. Waters 1944: James Murray Watson 1955: John Buchanan 1956: Alastair Dunnett 1972: Eric MacKay 1985: Chris Baur 1988: Magnus Linklater 1994: Andrew Jaspan 1995: James Seaton 1997: Martin Clarke 1998: Alan Ruddock 2000: Tim Luckhurst 2000: Rebecca Hardy 2001: Iain Martin 2004: John McGurk 2006: Mike Gilson 2009: John McLellan 2012: Ian StewartSource: The Scotsman Digital Archive In 1998 The Scotsman was among the first UK newspapers to launch a website updated on a daily basis. Scotsman.com has since grown to become the second biggest newspaper website in Scotland in terms of readership, behind the Daily Record.
As well as reproducing articles from the day's paper, it features online features and video content exclusive to the site. List of newspapers in Scotland List of newspapers by date Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 273–79 Official website The Scotsman Digital Archive 1817-1950 Johnston Press Comprehensive Design Architects
Live at the BBC (Richard & Linda Thompson album)
Richard Thompson - Live at the BBC is a compilation of audio and video recordings made by Richard Thompson for the BBC. The set consists of three CDs and a DVD; the included material was recorded over a number of years. Most of the material was recorded for various TV and radio shows broadcast by the BBC. About 40 % of the included material was performed by Linda Thompson; the second half of disc two plays back at 3 -- 4 % faster than intended. The problem wasn't detected during the mastering portion of the release. All songs written by Richard Thompson except where noted "The Little Beggar Girl" "Dragging the River" "The Great Valerio" "The Neasden Hornpipe" "I Want To See The Bright Lights Tonight" "Hokey Pokey" "Georgie On A Spree" "I'll Regret It All In The Morning" "A Heart Needs A Home" "Wishing" "I'm Turning Off A Memory" "A Man In Need" "Withered And Died" "New-Fangled Flogging Reel/Kerry Reel" "Shoot Out The Lights" "Just The Motion" "Back Street Slide" "Night Comes In" "Dimming Of The Day" "Modern Woman "Tracks 1 to 4 were recorded in January 1973 for John Peel's radio show.
Track 5 was recorded in January 1974. Tracks 6 to 11 were recorded in February 1975 for John Peel's radio show. Tracks 12 to 18 were recorded in concert at the Paris Theatre in May 1982. Tracks 19 and 20 were recorded for the BBC Radio show "Folk on 2" in 1982. All songs written by Richard Thompson "She Twists The Knife Again" "You Don't Say" "When The Spell Is Broken" "The Angels Took My Racehorse Away" "Valerie" "Jennie" "You Don't Say" "Fire In The Engine Room" "Wall Of Death" "Nearly In Love" "Valerie" "When The Spell Is Broken" "Two Left Feet" "Turning Of The Tide" "How Will I Ever Be Simple Again" "Ghosts In The Wind" "Shoot Out The Lights" "She Twists The Knife Again" "Withered And Died" "The End of the Rainbow "Tracks 1 to 3 were recorded in July 1985 for Andy Kershaw. Tracks 4 to 10 were recorded in concert at the Hammersmith Palais in November 1986. Tracks 11 to 20 were recorded in January 1987 for Andy Kershaw. All songs written by Richard Thompson except where noted "Gethsemane" "Outside of the Inside" "Wall Of Death" "Word Unspoken, Sight Unseen" "Kidzz" "Did She Jump Or Was She Pushed" "The End of the Rainbow" "One Door Opens" "Outside Of The Inside" "Let It Blow" "Old Thames Side" "Dad's Gonna Kill Me" "Down Where The Drunkards Roll" "I Want To See The Bright Lights Tonight" "Needle and Thread" "So Ben Mi Ca Bon Tempo" "The Cutty Wren" "See My Friends" "Time’s Gonna Break You" "William Brown" "Meet On The Ledge"Tracks 1 to 3 were recorded in September 2001 for Andy Kershaw.
Tracks 4 to 7 were recorded in April 2003 for Andy Kershaw. Tracks 8 and 9 were recorded in May 2004. Tracks 10 to 15 were recorded in July 2007 for Tom Robinson's show on BBC 6 Music. Tracks 16 to 18 were recorded in December 2008 for Bob Harris. Tracks 19 to 21 were recorded in January 2009. All compositions by Richard Thompson except where noted "Jet Plane In A Rocking Chair" "A Heart Needs A Home" "Night Comes In" "I'm A Dreamer" "I Want To See The Bright Lights Tonight" "Shoot Out The Lights" "You're Going to Need Somebody" "Dargai" "Dimming Of The Day" "Pavanne" "Just The Motion" "Fire In The Engine Room" "She Twists The Knife Again" "Wall Of Death" "When The Spell Is Broken" "Did She Jump Or Was She Pushed" "The Wrong Heartbeat" "Tear Stained Letter" "She Twists the Knife Again "Tracks 1 and 2 were recorded in March 1975 for The Old Grey Whistle Test. Tracks 3 to 9 were recorded in August 1981 for the show "A Little Night Music". Tracks 10 and 11 were recorded in January 1981 for Jake Songs.
Tracks 12 to 18 were recorded in April 1985 for Polydor and broadcast on BBC Television in August 1985. Track 19 was recorded in August 1985 for The Old Grey Whistle Test. Musicians: Richard Thompson – guitar and vocals Linda Thompson – vocals Simon Nicol – guitar and backing vocals Timmy Donald – drums Pat Donaldson – bass guitar Ian Whiteman – piano John Kirkpatrick – accordion, concertina Pete Zorn – bass guitar and backing vocals Dave Mattacks – drums Clive Gregson – guitar and backing vocals Christine Collister – backing vocals and acoustic guitar Gerry Conway – drums Rory MacFarlane – bass guitar and backing vocals
Steve Frank Ashley is an English singer-songwriter, recording artist, multi-instrumentalist and graphic designer. Ashley is best known as a songwriter and first gained public recognition for his work with his debut solo album, Stroll On. Taking his inspiration from English traditional songs, Ashley has developed a songwriting style, contemporary in content while reflecting traditional influences in his melodies and vocal delivery. Ashley was born in Perivale, London and grew up in Northolt, Middlesex. In his early teens, he immersed himself in rock'n' roll and American folk music, he saw Buddy Holly, Gene Vincent and Lonnie Donegan perform live during his first years at secondary school. In 1960, he learned to play the mouth organ and developed a blues style influenced by Sonny Terry and Sonny Boy Williamson. After secondary school, he enrolled at Ealing Art College for the two-year Groundcourse under the tuition of Roy Ascott. Among Ashley's contemporaries at the college were many musicians, including Pete Townshend, Ronnie Wood and Roger Ruskin Spear.
By 1962, Ashley was playing blues harmonica in various bands. He became interested in British traditional music, performing unaccompanied songs in West London folk clubs. In 1964, he moved to Kent to study graphic design. There he met Peter Bellamy and joined him as a fellow resident singer in folk clubs in Maidstone and Rochester. At the same time, Ashley led The Tea Set, on vocals and blues harmonica. In 1967, Ashley qualified with a BA Hons and returned to London to start his first job as a graphic designer at The Observer, working with record producer Austin John Marshall. In 1968, now as a folk songwriter, Ashley formed a duo with guitar player Dave Menday called "The Tinderbox". Managed by Marshall, The Tinderbox recorded a single for Polydor and a session for John Peel on his BBC Radio 1 Nightride' show; the A side, "Farewell Britannia" was about the planned removal of the image of Britannia from the British penny. Just before the release of the record the image was saved on the 50 pence piece and the single was scrapped.
Shortly after, The Tinderbox disbanded. In 1971, Marshall landed a production and publishing deal for Ashley with Harbrook Music which gave Ashley free access to recording time at London's Olympic Studios, to record his first album. At this time Marshall played the early demo tapes to the folk critic Karl Dallas, who interviewed Ashley for Melody Maker. Acting as producer for Harbrook Productions, Marshall hired Robert Kirby to create string arrangements for many of Ashley's songs, he hired a number of musicians to back Ashley, including members of Fairport Convention and Pentangle, plus a section of the London Symphony Orchestra, directed by Kirby. By the late summer of 1971, the first version of Ashley's debut album was completed and offered to a number of major and independent labels. By the spring of 1972 however, the album was still unplaced with a label, Ashley was invited by Ashley Hutchings to join the first touring ensemble of The Albion Country Band; this line-up included ex-Fairport members, Simon Nicol and Dave Mattacks, plus American fiddler Sue Draheim and ex-Young Tradition singer, Royston Wood.
Sharing the lead vocal role with Wood, Ashley performed a few of his own songs plus a number of folk songs, including a 17-verse ballad, "Lord Bateman". The Albion Country Band was signed to Island Records but the band broke up before recording, after just nine months together. By 1973, Ashley formed his own short-lived folk-rock outfit Ragged Robin, with Richard Byers, Brian Diprose and John Thompson, they performed in clubs and colleges, at Cambridge Folk Festival, held a residency at Roy Guest's Howff in London's Primrose Hill. After this band folded, Ashley initiated the formation of a contemporary folk club at The New Merlin's Cave near King's Cross, London. With help from Anthea Joseph and Heather Wood "Merlins" was host to many of the folk scene's leading players, including Sandy Denny and A L Lloyd; the club's resident performers with Ashley were Richard Thompson, Linda Peters, Simon Nicol and Barry Dransfield, Lea Nicholson, Ragged Robin's Byers. Writing in Melody Maker in 1973, Dallas described Ashley as "one of the finest singer-songwriters in Britain, if not the entire English-speaking world".
In November, Ashley signed a solo recording deal with Gull Records, with a few track changes, his long-delayed first album was released in April 1974 entitled Stroll On. After a three-year wait to find a deal, Stroll On was met with widespread critical acclaim in the UK. In The Daily Telegraph, Maurice Rosenbaum declared: "Ashley's own songs are the product of an extraordinary gift for creating material of true folk quality" and in Melody Maker, Karl Dallas hailed it as "the finest album since folk became contemporary". By the year's end it was awarded "Contemporary Folk album of the Year" in the leading monthly folk magazine, Folk Review. During this period, Karl Dallas linked Ashley's name with Richard Thompson, as being in the vanguard of a new approach to folk song writing. In 1975, Gull Records licensed the album to Motown in the United States and Ashley's first American tour was underwritten by that company. In spring 1975 Ashley undertook a six-week solo tour of the USA and Canada, opening shows for many artists including Leon Redbone, Tracy Nelson, Gene Clark, Chris Hillman and Jonathan Edwards.
In a review of his performance in New York's Greenwich Village, Variety magazine said: "Steve Ashley... is a delightful surprise... The performer not only has one of the funniest of dry stage raps, his voice
Snakes and Ladders (Gerry Rafferty album)
Snakes and Ladders is the fourth album by Gerry Rafferty. It was released in 1980, following the success of his previous two albums, City to City and Night Owl; the album charted at No. 15 in the UK but only reached No. 61 in the US. The album was released on CD in 1998 but deleted soon after that, it got reissued on CD on August 2012 as a 2-CD set with "Sleepwalking." Some of the songs are available on compilation albums. One of the songs, "The Garden of England", was recorded at Beatles producer George Martin's AIR studio in Montserrat. All the songs were original Rafferty compositions, though one – "Johnny's Song" – was a remake of a song, released by his former band Stealers Wheel, another – "Didn't I" – was a remake of a song from Rafferty's 1971 album Can I Have My Money Back?. All tracks composed by Gerry Rafferty "The Royal Mile" "I Was a Boy Scout" "Welcome to Hollywood" "Wastin' Away" "Look at the Moon" "Bring It All Home" "The Garden of England" "Johnny's Song" "Didn't I" "Syncopatin Sandy" "Cafe Le Cabotin" "Don't Close the Door" Gerry Rafferty – vocals, acoustic guitar, keyboards Mo Foster, Pete Zorn – bass guitar Ian Lynn – keyboards Jerry Donahue, Richard Brunton – guitar Richard Harvey – synthesiser, whistle Bryn Haworth – guitar, slide guitar Mel Collins – saxophone Betsy Cook – backing vocals Liam Genockey – drums Billy Livsey – piano, keyboards Raphael Ravenscroft – saxophone Frank Ricotti – percussion, tambourine Pete Wingfield – piano, Hammond organ Billy Wingfield – piano, synthesiserTechnicalBarry Hammond, Stephen Lipson - engineer John Patrick Byrne - cover Michael Gray - photography, management Album Single Snakes and Ladders at Discogs
A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instruments at a professional level of proficiency. Known as doubling, the practice allows greater ensemble flexibility and more efficient employment of musicians, where a particular instrument may be employed only or sporadically during a performance. Doubling is not uncommon in jazz. In music theatre, a pit orchestra's reed players might be required to perform on multiple instruments. Church piano players are expected to play the church's pipe organ or Hammond organ as well. In popular music it is more common than in classical or jazz for performers to be proficient on instruments not from the same family, for instance to play both guitar and keyboards. Many bluegrass musicians are multi-instrumentalists; some musicians' unions or associations specify a higher rate of pay for musicians who double on two or more instruments for a performance or recording. The European Piffari and Waits were multi-instrumentalists, who played trumpet, shawm, cornett and string-instruments.
Musicians with an education of a Stadtpfeifer were Gottfried Reiche, Johann Joachim Quantz, Johann Christof Pezel and Sigmund Theophil Staden. Many European church musicians of the 17th and 18th centuries were multi-instrumentalists, who played several instruments. Georg Philipp Telemann for example played violin, viola da gamba, flauto traverso, shawm and double bass; some famous classical composer-performers could play multiple instruments at a high level, such as Mozart, a virtuoso on the keyboard and violin. Music written for symphony orchestra calls for a percussion section featuring a number of musicians who might each play a variety of different instruments during a performance. Orchestras will often, but not always, call for several members of the woodwind section to be multi-instrumentalists; this is sometimes referred to as doubling. For example, one flute player in the orchestra will switch to playing the piccolo or alto flute when called to by the score. Clarinet players may double on bass clarinet, oboe players on cor anglais, bassoon players on contrabassoon.
Trumpet players may switch to piccolo trumpet for certain Baroque literature, first trombone players may switch to alto trombone. Organ players are commonly expected to master the harpsichord as well. Doubling elsewhere in the orchestra is rare. With musical theatre pit orchestras, woodwind players are expected to play a large number of woodwind instruments. In the swing era of big band music, woodwind players were expected to play multiple woodwind instruments; the different types of saxophone use similar designs, varying only in size, meaning that once a player has learned to play one it is easy for them to translate the skills into another. As a result, many jazz saxophone players have made careers playing several different instruments, such as John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter, both of whom have used both tenor and soprano saxophones. To a lesser extent this is the case across the range of woodwind instruments: Jazz flute players play other instruments as well, such as Eric Dolphy and Herbie Mann, both of whom played flute and saxophone.
In the early years of jazz, when the genre was still linked to the marching band genre, many double-bass players doubled on tuba. From the 1950s onwards and since the development of jazz-rock fusion in the late 1960s, many double-bass players doubled on electric bass, e.g. Stanley Clarke and John Patitucci; some jazz instrumentalists whose main instrument is a horn or bass play jazz piano, because piano is an excellent instrument for composing and arranging, for developing greater harmonic knowledge. Many famous jazz musicians, including James Morrison, Don Burrows, Brian Landrus, are multi-instrumentalists. In popular music styles, many musicians and songwriters are multi-instrumentalists. Songwriters play both piano, a key instrument for arranging and composing, popular pop or rock instruments such as guitar. A backing band member who doubles will be instructed by the bandleader; when playing live, most multi-instrumentalists will concentrate on their main instrument and/or vocals, hire or recruit backing musicians to play the other instruments, thus benefiting from economies of scope.
Some musicians have pushed the limits of human musical skill on different instruments. British entertainer Roy Castle once set a world record by playing the same tune on 43 different instruments in four minutes. Anton Newcombe, frontman for The Brian Jonestown Massacre, has claimed to be able to play 80 different instruments. In bluegrass music, it is common for musicians to be skilled on a number of different instruments, including guitar, banjo and upright bass. List of multi-instrumentalists One-man band On Being a Multi-Instrumentalist
Steel-string acoustic guitar
The steel-string acoustic guitar is a modern form of guitar that descends from the nylon-strung classical guitar, but is strung with steel strings for a brighter, louder sound. Like the classical guitar, it is referred to as an acoustic guitar; the most common type is called a flat top guitar, to distinguish it from the more specialized archtop guitar and other variations. The standard tuning for an acoustic guitar is E-A-D-G-B-E, although many players fingerpickers, use alternate tunings, such as open G, open D, or drop D. Steel-string guitars vary in construction and materials. Different woods and approach to bracing affect the instrument's tone. Many players and luthiers believe. Decrease in the content of hemicellulose, crystallization of cellulose, changes to lignin over time all result in its wood gaining better resonating properties. Steel-string acoustic guitars are constructed in several body types, varying in size and proportion. In general, the guitar's soundbox can be thought of as composed of two mating chambers: the upper bouts on the neck end of the body, lower bouts.
These meet at the narrowest part of the body face near the soundhole. The proportion and overall size of these two parts helps determine the overall tonal balance and "native sound" of a particular body style – the larger the body, the louder the volume; the 00, double-O or grand concert body type is the major body style most directly derived from the classical guitar. It has the thinnest soundbox and the smallest overall size, making it comfortable to play but lacking in projection -volume - relative to the larger types, its smaller size makes it suitable for smaller-framed players. It is called a "parlor steel", as it is well-suited to smaller rooms. Martin's 00-xxx series and Taylor's x12 series are common examples; the grand auditorium guitar, sometimes called the 000 or the triple-O is similar in design to the grand concert, but wider and deeper. Many 000-style guitars have a convex back to increase the physical volume of the soundbox without making it deeper at the edges, which would affect comfort and playability.
The result is a balanced tone, comparable to the 00 but with greater volume and dynamic range and more low-end response, making this Classically shaped body style popular. Eric Clapton's signature Martin, for example, is of this style. Martin's 000-xxx series and Taylor's x14 series are well-known examples of the grand auditorium style; the dreadnought is a large-bodied guitar which incorporates a deeper soundbox, but a smaller and less-pronounced upper bout than most styles. Its size and power gave rise to its name, from the most formidable class of warship at the time of its creation in the early 20th century; the style was designed by Martin Guitars to produce a deeper sound than "classic"-style guitars, with resonant bass. Its body's combination of compact profile with a deep sound has since been copied by every major steel-string luthier, making it the most popular body type. Martin's "D" series guitars, such as the prized D-28, are classic examples of the dreadnought; the jumbo body type is bigger again than a grand auditorium but proportioned, is designed to provide a deep tone similar to a dreadnought's.
It was designed by Gibson to compete with the dreadnought,) but with maximum resonant space for greater volume and sustain. These come at the expense of being oversized, with a deep sounding box, thus somewhat more difficult to play; the foremost example of the style is the Gibson J-200, but like the dreadnought, most guitar manufacturers have at least one jumbo model. Any of these body type can incorporate a cutaway, where a section of the upper Below the neck is scalloped out; this allows for easier access to the frets located atop the soundbox, at the expense of reduced soundbox volume and altered bracing, which can affect the resonant qualities and resulting tone of the instrument. The 12-string guitar replaces each string with a course of two strings; the lower pairs are tuned an octave apart. Its unique sound was made famous by artists such as Pete Seeger and Leo Kottke. All of these traditional looking and constructed instruments are referred to as flattop guitars. All are used in popular music genres, including rock, blues and folk.
Other styles of guitar which enjoy moderate popularity in more specific genres, include: The archtop, which incorporates an arched, violin-like top either carved out of solid wood or heat-pressed using laminations. It has violin style f-holes rather than a single round sound hole, it is most used by swing and jazz players and incorporates an electric pickup. The Selmer-Maccaferri guitar is played by those who follow the style of Django Reinhardt, it is an unusual-looking instrument, distinguished by a large body with squarish bouts, either a D-shaped or longitudinal oval soundhole. The strings are gathered at the tail like an archtop guitar, it has a wide fingerboard and slotted head like a nylon-string guitar. The loud volume and penetrating tone make it suitable for single-note soloing, it is employed as a lead instrument in gypsy swing; the resonator guitar or resophonic guitar called the Dobro after its most prominent manufacturer, amplifies its sound through one or more metal cone-shaped resonators.
It was designed to overcome the problem of conventional acoustic guitars being overwhelmed by horns and perc