Christopher C. McGrath
Christopher Columbus McGrath was an American lawyer and politician from New York. Born in New York City, he graduated from Clason Military Academy in the Bronx in 1921 and from Fordham University School of Law in 1924, he was admitted to the bar in 1927, commenced the practice of law in New York City. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934 and 1935, he was elected as a municipal judge of New York City in 1935, was re-elected in 1945, remained on the bench until his resignation on December 31, 1948. McGrath was elected as a Democrat to the 81st and 82nd United States Congresses, holding office from January 3, 1949, to January 3, 1953, he was elected Surrogate of Bronx County in 1952, was re-elected in 1966. He was a member of faculty of Fordham University School of Law, was a resident of New York City until his death there in 1986, he was buried at Gate of Heaven Cemetery in New York. United States Congress. "Christopher C. McGrath". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Christopher C. McGrath at Find a Grave
Fordham University School of Law
Fordham University School of Law is a professional graduate school of Fordham University. The school is located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, is one of eight ABA-approved law schools in that city. In 2013, 91% of the law school's first-time test takers passed the bar exam, placing the law schools' graduates as fifth-best at passing the New York bar exam among New York's 15 law schools. According to Fordham University School of Law's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 67.8% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. The 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Fordham Law School as 27th best in the world. According to the information reported to the American Bar Association, 1,151 J. D. students attended Fordham Law in 2015-2016. There are 195 part-time students. Fordham Law offers Master of Laws degrees in the following specializations: Banking, Corporate, & Finance Law. S. Law. LL. M. Students can take a second concentration after finishing the first one by enrolling in a third semester.
Fordham University offers a "3-3 Program" that allows students to earn a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science and a Juris Doctor in six years of study: three at Fordham College and three at Fordham Law. Fordham Law offers three joint degrees in conjunction with Fordham University's other graduate schools: J. D./M. A. in International Political Economy and Development. D./M. B. A.. D./M. S. W.. The School offers a Master of Studies in Law degree with specializations in Corporate Compliance and Fashion Law, as well as a Doctor of Juridical Science degree, full-time, research-based and culminates in a dissertation of at least 50,000 words. Founded in 1905, Fordham Law commemorated its Centennial during the 2005-2006 academic year, capped the year-long celebration with an alumni gala on Ellis Island on September 28, the school's official birthday; the school used the occasion of its Centennial to launch a new fundraising drive in 2005, in just one year had raised more than $10 million thanks in large part to the more than 100 "Centennial Founders" who each contributed $100,000 or more.
The current dean of Fordham Law School is Matthew Diller. In the 2016 edition of U. S. News & World Report's "Best Graduate Schools," Fordham Law was ranked 34th, it has the highest ranked part-time law program in New York state Additionally, five specialty programs were nationally ranked: Dispute Resolution, 13th. According to the American Universities Admission Program's LL. M Rankings, the Fordham Law LL. M program was ranked 6th nationally in 2012. According to The National Law Journal, Fordham Law ranks 20th in percentage of class of 2014 graduates hired by "NLJ 250" firms and 23rd in the number of alumni promoted to partner. In 2015, 85.2% of the law school's first-time test takers passed the bar exam, placing the law school graduates as fourth-most successful New York State bar exam takers among New York's 15 law schools. In a national study of the scholarly impact of law school faculty, Fordham Law’s tenured professors were tied for 35th; the study looks at citations of faculty articles from 2010 through 2014.
In a survey conducted by Vault in 2017, Fordham Law comes 8th in terms of big law placement and 9th when class size was factored in. Located in New York's downtown Financial District, Fordham Law is located on the West Side of Manhattan, as part of Fordham University's Lincoln Center campus; as part of the university's Lincoln Center Master Plan, unveiled in 2005, a new law school building was built. The building took three years to complete, following the groundbreaking on May 2, 2011; the new law school building is part of the university's Phase 1 redevelopment of its Lincoln Center Campus. The 22-story building was designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners to serve a dual-purpose for Fordham University: a nine-story pedestal houses the law school, a 12-story tower serves as an undergraduate residence hall; the law school portion of the building was dedicated on September 18, 2014. Former New York City mayor Michael R. Bloomberg delivered the keynote address and U. S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor gave a speech before presiding over the ribbon-cutting ceremony.
Fordham offers an extensive legal writing program, with many course offerings beyond the first year. All legal writing courses are taught by adjunct professors; the Clinical education program at Fordham Law is ranked 22nd nationally by U. S. News & World Report in its 2016 edition of America's Best Graduate Schools. At Fordham, clinical education is available but not required. Students are selected for clinics via a competitive application process. Fordham students have an opportunity to enroll in clinics following their first year, after taking the Fundamental Lawyering Skills course. 17 clinics are offered: Fordham's clinics represent clients as "Lincoln Square Legal Services," a small law firm housed within the school. The Crowley Program in International Human Rights, named after the late Professor Joseph R. Crowley, was founded in 1997, it is a program of study in international human rights law undertaken in the 2L year, culminating in a two-week overseas fact-finding mission in the summer.
Students in the program are known as Crowley Scholars. The Leitner Center for International Law a
New York Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the trial-level court of general jurisdiction in the New York State Unified Court System. It is vested with unlimited civil and criminal jurisdiction, although outside New York City it acts as a court of civil jurisdiction, with most criminal matters handled in County Court; the Court is radically different from its counterparts in nearly all other states in two important ways. First, the Supreme Court is not the highest court in the state; the highest court of the State of New York is the Court of Appeals. Second, although it is a trial court, the Supreme Court sits as a "single great tribunal of general state-wide jurisdiction, rather than an aggregation of separate courts sitting in the several counties or judicial districts of the state." There is a branch of the Supreme Court in each of New York's 62 counties. Under the New York State Constitution, the New York State Supreme Court has unlimited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, with the exception of certain monetary claims against the State of New York itself.
In practice, the Supreme Court hears civil actions involving claims above a certain monetary amount that puts the claim beyond the jurisdiction of lower courts. Civil actions about lesser sums are heard by courts of limited jurisdiction, such as the New York City Civil Court, or the County Court, District Court, city courts, or justice courts outside New York City; the Supreme Court hears civil cases involving claims for equitable relief, such as injunctions, specific performance, or rescission of a contract, as well as actions for a declaratory judgment. The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction of matrimonial actions, such as either contested or uncontested actions for a divorce or annulment; the court has exclusive jurisdiction over "Article 78 proceedings" against a body or officer seeking to overturn an official determination on the grounds that it was arbitrary and unreasonable or contrary to law. In 1995, the New York Supreme Court established a trial level Commercial Division, beginning in New York County and Monroe County.
The Commercial Division has expanded to the 8th District, the Albany, Nassau, Queens and Westchester County Supreme Courts. These are specialized Business Courts, with a defined jurisdiction focusing on business and commercial litigation; the jurisdictional amount in controversy required to have a case heard in the Commercial Division varies among these Commercial Division courts, ranging from $50,000 in Albany and Onandaga Counties to $500,000 in New York County, but the Commercial Division rules are otherwise uniform. With respect to criminal cases, the Criminal Branch of Supreme Court tries felony cases in the five counties of New York City, whereas they are heard by the County Court elsewhere. Misdemeanor cases, arraignments in all cases, are handled by lower courts: the New York City Criminal Court. Appeals from Supreme Court decisions, as well as from the Surrogate's Court, Family Court, Court of Claims, are heard by the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division; this court is intermediate between the New York Court of Appeals.
There is one Appellate Division, which for administrative purposes comprises four judicial departments. Decisions of the Appellate Division department panels are binding on the lower courts in that department, on lower courts in other departments unless there is contrary authority from the Appellate Division of that department; the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in each judicial department is authorized to establish "appellate terms". An appellate term is an intermediate appellate court that hears appeals from the inferior courts within their designated counties or judicial districts, are intended to ease the workload on the Appellate Division and provide a less expensive forum closer to the people. Appellate terms are located in the Second Judicial Departments only. In New York City, the Appellate Term hears appeals from the New York City Civil Court and Criminal Court. In the Second Department outside New York City, it hears appeals from the Nassau and Suffolk County District Courts, city courts, justice courts.
Appellate terms consist of between three and five justices of the Supreme Court, appointed by the Chief Administrative Judge with the approval of presiding justice of the appropriate appellate division. The court sits in three-judge panels, with two justices constituting a quorum and being necessary for a decision. Decisions by the Appellate Term must be followed by courts. In New York City, all felony cases are heard in criminal terms; the Criminal Term of the Supreme Court, New York County is divided into 1 all purpose part, 15 conference and trial parts, 1 youth part, 1 narcotics/sci part, 1 felony waiver/sci part, 1 integrated domestic violence part, 16 trial parts, which include 3 Judicial Diversion Parts and 1 Mental Health Part. In New York City, all major civil cases are heard in civil terms; the court system is divided into thirteen judicial districts: seven upstate districts each comprising between five and eleven counties, five districts corresponding to the boroughs of New York City, one district on Long Island.
In each judicial district outside New York
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Hackensack, New Jersey
Hackensack is a city in Bergen County in New Jersey, United States, serves as its county seat. The area was named New Barbadoes Township until 1921, but it was informally known as Hackensack since at least the 18th century; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 43,010, reflecting an increase of 333 from the 42,677 counted in the 2000 Census, which had, in turn, increased by 5,628 from the 37,049 counted in the 1990 Census. An inner suburb of New York City, Hackensack is located 12 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan and about 7 miles from the George Washington Bridge. From a number of locations, the New York City skyline can be seen; the Metropolitan Campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University straddles the Hackensack River in both Hackensack and Teaneck. Hackensack is the home of the New Jersey Naval Museum and the World War II submarine USS Ling. Astronaut Wally Schirra is Hackensack's most famous native son; the city is known for a great diversity of neighborhoods and land uses close to one another.
Within its borders are the prominent Hackensack University Medical Center, a trendy high-rise district about a mile long, classic suburban neighborhoods of single-family houses, stately older homes on acre-plus lots, older two-family neighborhoods, large garden apartment complexes, industrial areas, the Bergen County Jail, a tidal river, Hackensack River County Park, Borg's Woods Nature Preserve, various city parks, large office buildings, a major college campus, the Bergen County Court House, a vibrant small-city downtown district, various small neighborhood business districts. The first inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape, an Algonquian people who lived along the valley of what they called the Achinigeu-hach, or "Ackingsah-sack", meaning stony ground. A representation of Chief Oratam of the Achkinhenhcky appears on the Hackensack municipal seal; the most common explanation is that the city was named for the Native American tribe, though other sources attribute it to a Native American word variously translated as meaning "hook mouth", "stream that unites with another on low ground", "on low ground" or "land of the big snake", while another version described as "more colorful than probable" attributes the name to an inn called the "Hock and Sack".
Settlement by the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland on west banks of the North River across from New Amsterdam began in the 1630s at Pavonia leading to the establishment of Bergen in 1660. Oratam, sachem of the Lenni Lenape, deeded the land along mid-Hackensack River to the Dutch in 1665; the area kept its Dutch name. Philip Cartaret, governor of what became the proprietary colony of East Jersey granted land to Captain John Berry in the area of Achter Kol and soon after took up residence and called it "New Barbadoes," after having resided on the island of Barbados. In 1666, a deed was confirmed for the 2,260-acre tract, given earlier by Oratem to Sarah Kiersted in gratitude for her work as emissary and interpreter. Other grants were given at the English Neighborhood. In 1675, the East Jersey Legislature established the administrative districts:. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly; the seal of Bergen County bearing this date includes an image of an agreement between the settlers and the natives.
New Barbadoes Township, together with Acquackanonk Township, were formed by Royal charter on October 31, 1693. In 1700, the village of Hackensack was little more than the area around Main Street from the Courthouse to around Anderson Street. New Barbadoes Township included what is now Maywood, Rochelle Park and River Edge, along with those portions of Oradell that are west of the Hackensack River; these areas were all sparsely populated and consisted of farm fields and swamplands. The few roads that existed included the streets now known as Kinderkamack Road, Paramus Road/Passaic Street and Essex Street; the southernmost portions of what is now Hackensack were not part of New Barbadoes Township at that time. The neighborhood that came to be known as the village of Hackensack was a part of Essex County until 1710, when Bergen County, by royal decree of Queen Anne of Great Britain, was enlarged and the Township of New Barbadoes was removed from Essex County and added to Bergen County. In 1710, the village of Hackensack in the newly formed Township of New Barbadoes was designated as being more centrally located and more reached by the majority of the Bergen County's inhabitants, hence was chosen as the county seat of Bergen County, as it remains today.
The earliest records of the Bergen County Board of Chosen Freeholders date back to 1715, at which time agreement was made to build a courthouse and jail complex, completed in 1716. During the American Revolutionary War, George Washington headquartered in the village of Hackensack in November 1776 during the retreat from Fort Lee via New Bridge Landing and camped on'The Green' across from the First Dutch Reformed Church on November 20, 1776. A raid by British forces against Hackensack on March 23, 1780, resulted in the destruction by fire of the original courthouse structure; the Hackensack Improvement Commission was incorporated by an Act of the state legislature approved on April 1, 1868, within New Barbadoes township and including the village of Hackensack, with authority to develop sewers and other improv