The Copenhagen S-train, is the S-train of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a hybrid urban-suburban rail serving the Greater Copenhagen region, the average distance between stations is 2.0 km, shorter in the city core and inner boroughs, longer at the end of lines that serves suburbs. Of the 85 stations,32 are located within the ticket fare zones,1 and 2. The S-tog is analogous to S-Bahn systems in Germany, and is a system from the Copenhagen Metro, which operates in the city centre, Frederiksberg. On weekdays all stations are served at least every 10 minutes until the evening, There are six main lines and one peak hour support line. Since all lines, with exception of one, use the path through the city core, train departures occur every second minute there. On most suburban lines, trains depart every five minutes, on Sundays these time intervals are doubled. The first line was opened in 1934, which was Klampenborg-Copenhagen H-Vanløse-Frederiksberg, most were converted from steam operated railways to electric, metro-like operation and stations.
Today the network forms the heart of public transport in the city, the S-train is owned and run by DSB S-tog A/S. Similar to the S-Bahns of Berlin and Hamburg, the S-train network covers the greater urban area. The different networks use a system for fare zones and tickets. Copenhagens two different city rail systems, the S-train and the Metro, serve more than half a million people a day, as of January 2009 there are 170 km of dual track and 84 S-train stations, of which eight are in neighbouring towns outside greater Copenhagen. Trains across Øresund to Scania and its city, Malmö. In the city centre, the trains run underground in two tunnel sections, elsewhere they are in the open, occasionally above or below street level. There is only one station, Nørreport, but many stations are elevated above street level. Flintholm, Ny Ellebjerg and Danshøj stations have tracks crossing each other at different levels with platforms on each level, while at Ryparken they are on the same level. The ring line or F line has a section including Nørrebro Station.
Also, the junctions of the Farumbane with the lines at Ryparken and Svanemøllen include a short elevated section
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to pragmatic and cost-effective reasons, an alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks. The historical use of island platforms depends greatly upon the location, the island platform layout is a popular, cost-effective and practical solution in modern railway systems. Island platforms allow facilities such as escalators, shops and this is essential for wheelchair accessible stations. An island platform makes it easier for users and the infirm to change services between tracks. Additionally, an island platform layout eliminates the need to construct a crossover or subway between two platforms, island platforms may become overcrowded, especially at busy stations, and this can lead to safety issues such as Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground.
However, for the tracks to diverge around the platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are normally 3 to 5 meters, if the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks have to slew out by the same distance. While this is not a problem on a new line that is being constructed, in addition, a single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are usually between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, high-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms. This arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where trains can be passed by faster trains. The purpose of this design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form and this was because the line was planned to connect to a Channel Tunnel.
Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. Almost all railway stations in India consist of island platforms, in Toronto,29 subway stations use island platforms. A slight disadvantage is that crossovers have to be rather long, in southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 stations, to facilitate one-person train operation. Most elevated stations in Singapores Mass Rapid Transit system use island platforms, the exception is Dover MRT Station, which uses side platforms as it is built on an existing rail line. The planned Canberra MRT Station will use side platforms, as it be built on an existing rail line
Flintholm Station is a key S-train and Metro interchange junction station in Copenhagen, Denmark. Opened on 24 January 2004, it is located in the west of Copenhagen where the Frederikssund S-train Line crosses the S-train Ring Line and it is located in fare zone 2. On the lower level the Ring Line runs roughly north-south with side platforms, on the upper level, tracks on Frederikssund Line and the Metro run on bridge constructions with a center platform for each above the ring line tracks. The bridges continue west of the station, above a bus terminal, a large monumental glass roof covers all the tracks and the bus terminal. The design of the station has earned it various awards, among others the European Steel Design Awards
Farum station is the terminus of the Hareskovbanen radial of the S-train network around Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located about 1 km east of the old village Farum, but is the center of the modern Farum, the station opened in 1906 as an intermediate station on the Copenhagen-Slangerup railway. The line between Farum and Slangerup closed in 1954, the station was remodeled completely prior to the lines conversion to S-trains in 1977. Media related to Farum Station at Wikimedia Commons
Klampenborg Station is a regional and commuter railway station serving the suburb of Klampenborg north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The station is located on the Coast Line between Copenhagen and Helsingør, and is the terminus of the Klampenborg radial of Copenhagens S-train network. It is served by a frequent Oresundtrain service between Helsingør and Malmö, operated by the railway company DSB Øresund, as well as line C of the S-train network. Train service began by DSJS in 1863 and was taken over by DSB in 1864. The current station building was built in 1897, like the other stations on the Øresund line, it was designed by Heinrich Wenck. The station was among the first served by the S-train, as service began on the 3 of April 1934 when the line Frederiksberg-Vanløse-Hellerup-Klampenborg was opened. In line with the stations on the Coast line, as well as of Heinrich Wencks work in general, the station site include an open waiting area covered by an elaborate cast iron roof
DSB (railway company)
DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner, is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia. While DSB is responsible for train operation on most of the Danish railways, goods transport. DSB runs a rail system, called S-train, in the area around the Danish capital, Copenhagen. DSB operates some trains in Sweden, DSB was founded in 1885 when the state-owned companies De jysk-fynske Statsbaner and De sjællandske Statsbaner merged. The first railways in Denmark were built and operated by private companies, the railways in Funen and Jutland were built by Peto and Betts who supplied the locomotives. Most of the staff was recruited from Britain, notably from the Eastern Counties Railway. The network was extended by new construction and by acquisition of the privately operated lines from Silkeborg to Herning and from Grenaa to Randers, the Danish state took over Det sjællandske Jernbaneselskab on January 1,1880, forming De sjællandske Statsbaner. After the merger, new lines were constructed and a new generation of rolling stock, after Busses retirement, however, DSB ceased to design its own locomotives and increasingly came to rely on outside suppliers, mainly Borsig of Berlin.
The nineteen-thirties were a decade of innovation and modernisation for DSB, new railway bridges were built across the Little Belt, the Storstrøm and Oddesund, eliminating the costly and time-consuming process of transfer by steam ferry. The suburban lines in and around Copenhagen were electrified for multiple-unit operation at 1,500 Volts DC, coinciding with the opening of the Little Belt Bridge in 1935, DSB introduced their new express train concept known as lyntog. Instead, DSB looked to foreign suppliers, general Motors diesel-electric locomotives had proved themselves in the US and Canada before the war. They were followed by the successful class MX with a lower axle load for branch line services. After the success of the Deutsche Bundesbahns VT11.5 class on Trans Europ Express services, DSB acquired eleven power cars, the 1960s were marked by an increasingly poor economy for DSB, leading to a steady staff reduction throughout the decade. However, this was accompanied by the appearance of new technology, notably the utilisation of electronic equipment, improving the safety.
DSBs position was strengthened by the oil crisis in 1973. On regional services in Funen and Jutland, the prewar design MO class railcars were displaced by MR class DMUs, in 1990, after a delay of several years, the IC3 trains came into use, initially as lyntog, and in 1991 as ordinary intercity trains. The IC3 trains, being a specimen of the Flexliner type of units, have a distinct appearance due to the rubber-framed ends. The Great Belt fixed link was opened for traffic in 1997
H is an S-train service in Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark that serves mainly the outer part of Frederikssundbanen, running partially non-stop between Ballerup and Flintholm. It is one of the six lines of the S-train network. On Friday and Saturday nights there is a 30 minutes service throughout the night, frederikssund opened September 29,1989 Ølstykke opened September 29,1989 Gl. The service letter disappeared in the 1979 timetable, but was reinvented in 1989, a limited-stop daytime line called H+ ran from 1993 to 2007, initially superseding rush-hour services Cx and Bx on the Ballerup and Farum radials