Aquinas College, Perth
Aquinas College is a Catholic independent and boarding school for boys at Salter Point, Western Australia. Its sister school is Santa Maria Ladies College in Attadale, which they meet and interact with often. Aquinas opened in 1938 when boarders and day students from Christian Brothers College moved to the new campus at Salter Point; the history of Aquinas begins with CBC Perth, founded in 1894 in the centre of Perth. Aquinas was the beneficiary of CBC Perth history and achievements for the period 1894–1937; the campus at Aquinas was built on elevated land, part of the 62-hectare site at Salter Point. The site includes a large area of bushland on the Mount Henry Peninsula with over two kilometres of water frontage on the Canning River. Aquinas College accepts day students from Years 4 to 12 and boarding as well as day students from Years 7 to 12. Aquinas has years K – 2 and will add Year 3 in 2018. School fees range from $5,937 for a Kindergarten day student to $46,404 for a Year 12 international boarding student.
The campus includes expansive sporting grounds, boarding facilities for 210 students. Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia Association of Independent Schools of Western Australia Junior School Heads Association of Australia Public Schools Association The Christian Brothers opened Christian Brothers College, on 31 January 1894. CBC Perth was built on the corner of St Georges Victoria Avenue in Perth; the college was commonly called CBC Terrace. CBC Perth was the first Christian Brothers school as well as the second oldest high school and the second oldest boarding school in Western Australia; the Brothers were invited to the colony by Bishop Matthew Gibney who knew of the work of the Brothers in Ireland, in the eastern colonies of Australia. At first, CBC Perth was a day school. However, due to the rapid population growth in Western Australia during the gold rush, the Christian Brothers were pressured to allow boarders to live in makeshift conditions at the college; the first boarding students were enrolled in June 1896.
Accommodation at the site was limited and overcrowded. In 1917, Brother Paul Nunan, headmaster of the college, set-about acquiring a larger property away from the city center in order to reside the whole school on a much larger campus. At first, the brothers entered into negotiations for the purchase of 8 hectares at Point Heathcote on the Swan River; the negotiations fell through and in 1928 the brothers purchased 95 hectares on the Canning River, just east of the Riverton Bridge, they named the property Clune Park. The following year the Great Depression started and plans to develop this site were shelved. In 1936, at the instigation of Br. Paul Keaney, the superior of nearby Clontarf Orphanage, 62.4 hectares were purchased from the Manning family at Mount Henry Peninsula on the Canning River at a cost of £9,925. In April 1937, builders Snooks and Sons tendered to build the college at a cost of ₤21,350. Earlier that year, the work of clearing the grounds and preparing the site was taken up vigorously with squads of boys from the old college playing a major role.
In 1937, CBC Perth began to splinter. Boarders and some day boys started moving to the fast developing Aquinas College campus at Salter Point. In 1937, the PSA committee agreed to transfer PSA membership and records of CBC Perth to Aquinas. Although CBC Perth continued as a day school until 1961, Aquinas inherited the college colours red and black, as well as the college honour boards and history for the period 1894–1937; the inheritance was due to the driving efforts of Brother C. P. Foley, headmaster of CBC Perth and the founding headmaster of Aquinas. Brother Foley was steadfast Aquinas; the brothers obeyed and in the ensuring schism the heritage of CBC Perth was removed. CBC Perth was no longer a member of the PSA; the colours of CBC Perth became blue, light blue, green, the college raised new honour boards from 1938 onwards. In 1962 CBC Perth moved to the new campus at Trinity College by the Swan River on the East Perth foreshore; the Aquinas College foundation stone was laid on 11 July 1937, the school opened in February 1938 with 160 boarders and 55 day pupils.
Brother C. P. Foley was the first headmaster; the Catholic Archbishop of Perth, Most Reverend Redmond Prendiville, addressed the headmaster and students on 19 November 1938: "With the proud traditions of St Georges Terrace to sustain it, with the additional advantages of new quarters and ideal surroundings, I have no doubt that Aquinas College will achieve still greater results in the moral and intellectual training of good Catholics and good citizens". The Edmund Rice Administration wing was built in 1937; the main wing was brick in the late tradition of Federation Romanesque architecture, similar in style to CBC Perth. In its early years, the college extensively used wood framed and galvanized iron clad buildings for both dormitories and classrooms in order to cope with the growing number of pupils. In 1951, the college's premier oval, overlooked by the Edmund Rice Administration wing was named Memorial Oval to commemorate Aquinians who lost their lives at war. A scoreboard was constructed on the oval and is named after Brother C. P. Foley the first headmaster of Aquinas.
The first major classroom block was built in 1955, named the'Murphy Wing' in honour of Brother V. I. Murphy, headmaster of the college from 1951 to 1956; the construction of the McKenna wing, named after Brother V. C. McKenna, the deputy headmaster of the college from 1963 to 1966 was completed in 1962, soon followe
Handball (Australian rules football)
Handball or handpass is a skill in the sport of Australian rules football. It is the primary means of disposing of the football by hand, is executed by holding the ball with one hand and punching it with the other. Handball is a method of disposing of possession of the football by hand, it is the most used alternative to kicking the ball. In order to be a legal method to dispose of the ball, the player holds the ball with one hand and punches the ball away with the clenched fist of the other hand. A player punches with his dominant hand; when a player receives a handpass from another player, play continues – unlike the kick where if a player catches the ball on the full from a kick, he is entitled to take his next kick unimpeded. Failure to execute a handball is deemed a throw or illegal disposal and results in a free kick to the nearest opposition player. Moving the hand that holds the ball excessively in the direction of the handpass, using an open hand instead of a clenched fist to tap the ball away, throwing the ball off the carrying hand before punching it away, or handing the ball directly to a teammate will all attract a free kick for illegal disposal.
The rule defines it to the open hand tap/handpass in Gaelic football, but differentiates the hand skills from codes of football derived from rugby football. Unlike Gaelic football, punching the oval ball was more used as it was the most effective technique to move the heavier ball larger distances. Although the rules allowed for the handball, for most Australian rules leagues handball was a secondary skill to the kick. Strategically Australian football was viewed as a territorial sport – where the prime aim was not so much possession, but to cover as much distance through the air as possible; as the holding hand could not move, this was best achieved by means of kicking the ball as far as possible. The principally used handpass was top-spin in nature; this was used with the belief that the ball could be contained more locally and executed more off the hands when the ball was held in preparation for kicking, as smaller handpasses were used when in trouble. The other thought was that, as in tennis, a top-spun ball was more directed, dipped faster and possessed more stability in the air.
One notable variant of the handpass which began to develop was known as the flick pass, in which a player used his open hand instead of his fist to propel the ball. The legality of the flick pass has varied throughout the history of the game: it began to gain prominence in the early 1920s, before the Australian National Football Council voted to abolish it before the 1925 season, making the handpass with a clenched fist the only legal form of handpass; this was not popular, as the style of punch pass used at the time a much more cumbersome disposal than a flick pass, it resulted in the game being played at a slower pace. The flick pass was re-instated before the 1934 season. In the late 1950s and early 1960s it re-emerged as a common technique to achieve centre square clearances from scrimmages at VFL club Fitzroy. Of the 88 handballs executed during the 1961 VFL Grand Final, 18 were flick passes; the flick pass was abolished permanently in 1966. The flick pass had the significant drawback that its action was close to that of a throw, different umpires had different interpretations of what was legal.
In 1938, motivated by a desire to eliminate this inconsistency, to speed up the game further, the Victorian Football Association legalised throwing the ball, provided the throw was with two hands and both hands were below shoulder-height. The throw-pass was legal in the VFA and in some other competitions affiliated with it from 1938 until 1949, but it was never legal under ANFC rules; the emergence of handball as a more used skill took place in the 1960s and 1970s. A running handball game emerged in the South Australian National Football League with Sturt coach Jack Oatey credited with encouraging the skill through the late 1960s, leading to Sturt winning five premierships from 1966 to 1970. In Western Australia, Graham'Polly' Farmer and Barry Cable brought a new dimension to the game using handball, with Farmer looking for a runner to handpass to after each mark, to speed up the ball movement; the kick and catch style of play in the Victorian Football League is credited to the Carlton Football Club's 1970 VFL Grand Final victory under Ron Barassi, in which Carlton's extensive use of handpassing in the second half helped it recover from a 44-point half time deficit.
The modern handpass technique, known as the rocket handball, was pioneered by Kevin Sheedy. It is executed so that the ball rotates backwards in an end-to-end fashion, similar to the drop punt kick; the ball is held on a slight angle with the fist ending up in or close to the other open hand. This enables a handpass to achieve distance and speed comparable to a short kick and is easier for teammates to catch. Professional Australian footballers are competent at handballing using either punching arm. With the wide adoption of the handball in the 1980s, midfielders such as Greg Williams and Dale Weightman became handball specialists, renowned their playmaking ability by preferring to handball in the midfield. In the 1980s, Richmond Football Club wingman Kevin Bartlett became famous for a style of play which involved use of the handball to dispose of the ball before an opponent was about to tackle. Although rules were uniform across the country, local interpretations and customs var
Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.
In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.
To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.
Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.
A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force
St Kilda Football Club
The St Kilda Football Club, nicknamed the Saints, is an Australian rules football club based in Melbourne, Australia. The club plays in the sport's premier league; the club's name originates from its original home base in the bayside Melbourne suburb of St Kilda in which the club was established in 1873. The club has strong links to the south-eastern suburb of Moorabbin, where it was based between 1965 and 2010. St Kilda were a foundation team of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and in 1897, became a foundation team in the Victorian Football League, the basis of an evolved National Football league that took on a number of clubs from other states of Australia; the primary focus of this was to enhance the game and throw off the parochial and localised nature of suburban club Football that the VFL represented. The decision was made to begin the new decade with a fresh non Suburban competition and it was duly named the Australian Football League prior to the start of the 1990 season. Collingwood were the inaugural winners of a National competition Premiership, an enormous achievement for a club with a strong history in Melbourne suburban football.
St Kilda have won a single premiership to a famous one-point win in the 1966 VFL Grand Final. St Kilda most won the minor premiership in the 2009 AFL season and were grand finalists in 2009 and 2010. St Kilda developed a reputation as perennial underachievers, much of this attributed to their record of finishing last more than any other club in the league, as well as having the second lowest all-time win percentage of any team still playing in the league; the St Kilda Football Club was formed on 2 April 1873, containing many elements of the previous South Yarra Football Club which had disbanded a year earlier. Soon after a decision was made to amalgamate St Kilda FC with nearby Prahran Football Club. St Kilda retained their colours and ground, as well as picking up a number of Prahran players. St Kilda competed as a senior club in the VFA from 1877 to 1879, 1881–1882 and 1886–1896 before moving into the breakaway competition – The Victorian Football League – from 1897 onwards. St Kilda were one of the eight clubs that took part in the inaugural VFL season in 1897.
They made their debut in an away game against Collingwood on 8 May 1897, which they lost 2.4. to 5.11.. The club's home ground in the new league was the Junction Oval in the suburb of St Kilda in Melbourne and the club's first home game was against Fitzroy; the score was St Kilda 3.8. to 10.6.. St Kilda's early years in the VFL were not successful and, in 1899, they had the lowest score recorded in a VFL/AFL match, one point against Geelong. In 1902, Charlie Baker became the first St Kilda player to be the league's leading goalkicker in a home and away season with 30 goals. Six successive wins at the start of the 1907 season saw St Kilda make the finals for the first time, qualifying third with nine wins and eight losses. St Kilda were beaten by Carlton in their first VFL final by 56 points, they qualified in third position again in 1908 and were once again eliminated by Carlton in the semi-finals, this time by 58 points. The 1913 season saw major improvement in which the team qualified fourth, but were beaten in the 1913 grand final by Fitzroy.
At the time a challenge system was in place, which allowed the team that qualified in first position as minor premiers to challenge any team that won through to be the top ranked team in the finals series if it was not the minor premiers. St Kilda won its semi-final against South Melbourne and defeated Fitzroy two weeks 10.10. to 6.9. in what was a match between the two teams that won the semi-finals. Fitzroy as minor premiers were allowed to challenge St Kilda – the number one ranked team in the finals series at that point – and the two teams played again the following week in the grand final which Fitzroy won 7.14. to 5.13.. Due to World War I the St Kilda Football Club was in recess in 1916 and 1917 but resumed in 1918 and fared well, making the finals in fourth position but were eliminated by Collingwood in a semi final by nine points, 58 to 49. Colin Watson became the first St Kilda player to win the league's highest individual award, the Brownlow Medal; the following years saw St Kilda establish itself as a more competitive club.
They made the finals in 1929 and were eliminated once again by Carlton, 12.9 to 11.7 in the semi-finals. In 1936, Bill Mohr became the second St Kilda player to be the league's leading goalkicker in a home and away season. Bill Mohr kicked 101 goals in 1936 and was the first St Kilda player to kick 100 goals or more in a season; the mid-1930s saw the club vying for finals berths making it in 1939 by qualifying fourth after a record run of eight consecutive victories and an overall record of 13 wins and five losses. The team had its first finals win since 1913, against Richmond, but were eliminated in the 1939 finals series by Collingwood in the preliminary final. St Kilda won three of the first four games early in the 1940 season and were on top of the ladder after Round 4 before finishing second last. Although there were some prominent players like Harold Bray, Keith Drinan, Peter Bennett and Neil Roberts, St Kilda were competitive in the 1940s; the 1950 season saw St Kilda win the first five games before fading to finish with eight wins and a draw in ninth place.
In 1955, after one of the club's worst seasons, Alan Killigrew was appointed coach. His first action was one of the largest clean-outs of players in the history of any VFL club, it is believed that only 17 players from 1955 played for St Kilda again in 1956, with 11 new
University of Western Australia
The University of Western Australia is a public research university in the Australian state of Western Australia. The university's main campus is in Perth, the state capital, with a secondary campus in Albany and various other facilities elsewhere. UWA was established in 1911 by an act of the Parliament of Western Australia, began teaching students two years later, it is the sixth-oldest university in Australia, was Western Australia's only university until the establishment of Murdoch University in 1973. Because of its age and reputation, UWA is classed one of the "sandstone universities", an informal designation given to the oldest university in each state; the university belongs to several more formal groupings, including the Group of Eight and the Matariki Network of Universities. In recent years, UWA has been ranked either in the bottom half or just outside the world's top 100 universities, depending on the system used. Alumni of UWA include one Prime Minister of Australia, five Justices of the High Court of Australia, one Governor of the Reserve Bank, various federal cabinet ministers, seven of Western Australia's eight most recent premiers.
In 2018 alumnus mathematician Akshay Venkatesh was a recipient of the Fields Medal. In 2014, the university produced its 100th Rhodes Scholar. Two members of the UWA faculty, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, won Nobel Prizes as a result of research at the university; the university was established in 1911 following the tabling of proposals by a royal commission in September 1910. The original campus, which received its first students in March 1913, was located on Irwin Street in the centre of Perth, consisted of several buildings situated between Hay Street and St Georges Terrace. Irwin Street was known as "Tin Pan Alley" as many buildings featured corrugated iron roofs; these buildings served as the university campus until 1932, when the campus relocated to its present-day site in Crawley. The founding chancellor, Sir John Winthrop Hackett, died in 1916, bequeathed property which, after being managed for ten years, yielded £425,000 to the university, a far larger sum than expected; this allowed the construction of the main buildings.
Many buildings and landmarks within the university bear his name, including Winthrop Hall and Hackett Hall. In addition, his bequest funded many scholarships, because he did not wish eager students to be deterred from studying because they could not afford to do so. During UWA's first decade there was controversy about whether the policy of free education was compatible with high expenditure on professorial chairs and faculties. An "old student" publicised his concern in 1921 that there were 13 faculties serving only 280 students. A remnant of the original buildings survives to this day in the form of the "Irwin Street Building", so called after its former location. In the 1930s it was transported to the new campus and served a number of uses till its 1987 restoration, after which it was moved across campus to James Oval; the building has served as the Senate meeting room and is in use as a cricket pavilion and office of the university archives. The building has been heritage-listed by both the National Trust and the Australian Heritage Council.
The university introduced the Doctorate of Philosophy degree in 1946 and made its first award in October 1950 to Warwick Bottomley for his research of the chemistry of native plants in Western Australia. UWA is one of the largest landowners in Perth as a result of government and private bequests, is expanding its infrastructure. Recent developments include the $22 million University Club, opened in June 2005, the UWA Watersports Complex, opened in August 2005. In addition, in September 2005 UWA opened its $64 million Molecular and Chemical Sciences building as part of a commitment to nurturing and developing high quality research and development. In May 2008, a $31 million Business School building opened. In August 2014 a $9 million new CO2 research facility was completed, providing modern facilities for carbon research; the Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, a $62 million research facility on campus, was completed in October 2016. The 65-hectare Crawley campus sits on the Swan River, about five kilometres west of the Perth central business district.
Many of the buildings are coastal limestone and Donnybrook sandstone, including the large and iconic Winthrop Hall with its Romanesque Revival architecture. These buildings are dotted amongst expansive lawns and thickets of trees, such as the Sunken Garden and the Tropical Grove; the beauty of the grounds and rich history of the campus make it a popular spot for weddings. The Arts Faculty building encompasses the New Fortune Theatre; this open-air venue is a replica of the original Elizabethan Fortune Theatre and has hosted regular performances of Shakespeare's plays co-produced by the Graduate Dramatic Society and the University Dramatic Society. The venue is home to a family of peafowl donated to the University by the Perth Zoo in 1975 after a gift by Sir Laurence Brodie-Hall; the Berndt Museum of Anthropology, located in the Lawrence Wilson Art Gallery, contains one of the world's finest collection of Aboriginal art, according to the Collections Australia Network. Its Asian and Melanesian collections are of strong interest.
Established in 1976 by Ronald and Catherine Berndt, it is planned to be incorporated in a purpose-built permanent structure, the Aboriginal Cultures Museum, designed and is awaiting funding. The Cultural Precinct of the University is located in the Northern part of the Crawley campus. University Theatres
Kojonup, Western Australia
Kojonup is a town 256 km south-east of Perth, Western Australia along Albany Highway. The name Kojonup is believed to refer to the "Kodja" or stone axe made by Indigenous Australians, from the local stone; the Noongar people are the traditional inhabitants of Kojonup. The Noongar people of Kojonup today are descendants of the Kaneang tribe; the Noongar people drank from the local freshwater spring and hunted game with the traditional Noongar ‘kodj’, or stone axe. Both Kojonup and The Kodja Place are named after the significant implement. Sovereignty has not been ceded; the first European in the area was surveyor Alfred Hillman who arrived in 1837 and had been guided to freshwater spring by the Noongar people. The site was an important staging place on the road to Albany, in 1837 a military post was established there for the protection of travellers and the mail. By 1845 this outpost had grown to support a military barracks, built on the site of the freshwater spring. Today, the barracks houses the Kojonup Pioneer Museum.
The barracks is one of the oldest buildings in Western Australia. The first farms in Kojonup were set up by soldiers with settlement grants; the appointment in 1865 of a mounted Police Constable marked the phasing out of the military presence at Kojonup. By the late 1860s the military had left and the Barracks became a focus for community gatherings, much as it is today; the town's first Police Station was built in 1869 and the first hotel licence was granted in 1868. In early 1898 the population of the town was 32 men and 35 women. In 1926 the Kojonup Memorial Hall was built at a cost of £5,000, it was opened by Major General Sir Talbot Hobbs. Kojonup has been the home to many important Australian Rules Football players, including several players of Indigenous Australian descent; the early economy of the town was dependent on cutting and transporting sandalwood and kangaroo hunting but by the mid-19th century the wool industry began to boom and by 1906 the shire had 10,500 sheep. By 1989 the shire had seen over 1 million sheep being shorn.
To celebrate the importance of the wool industry the town built a one and a half scale model of a wool wagon. The surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops including organic, conventional and GMO; the Kojonup region has hosted some of Australia's earliest biodynamic and organic agriculture endeavours. The Marsh v Baxter case has put Kojonup at the epicentre of the battle in Australia of organic versus GMO agriculture; the town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling. Sporting facilities include a golf club with 18 holes, a tennis club, a skate park, a 50-metre outdoor swimming pool, football oval, netball courts, hockey ovals. Other attractions rose maze. Town Elder, Jack Cox gives tours at the Kodja Place. Peter Bell, Australian rules football player, member of the Australian Football Hall of Fame Jack Cox, Western Australian champion boxer, Noongar elder Shannon Cox, Australian rules football player Stephen Michael, Australian rules football player, member of the Australian Football Hall of Fame Terry'Tuck' Waldron, Australian rules football player, former member of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly Arnold Potts, Australian grazier who served in both World Wars Kojonup Reserve Shire of Kojonup
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism; this involves evangelism, humanitarian work among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term and ones meant for helping people in need; some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith, provide humanitarian aid. Christian doctrines permit the provision of aid without requiring religious conversion; the earliest Christian mission the Great Commission and Dispersion of the Apostles, was active within Second Temple Judaism. Whether a Jewish proselytism existed or not that would have served as a model for the early Christians is unclear, see Circumcision controversy in early Christianity#Jewish background for details. Soon, the expansion of the Christian mission beyond Judaism to those who were not Jewish became a contested issue, notably at the Council of Jerusalem.
The Apostle Paul was an early proponent of this expansion, contextualized the Christian message for the Greek and Roman cultures, allowing it to reach beyond its Hebrew and Jewish roots. From Late Antiquity onward, much missionary activity was carried out by members of religious orders. Monasteries followed disciplines and supported missions and practical research, all of which were perceived as works to reduce human misery and suffering and glorify the Christian God. For example, Nestorian communities evangelized parts of Central Asia, as well as Tibet and India. Cistercians evangelized much of Northern Europe, as well as developing most of European agriculture's classic techniques. St Patrick evangelized many in Ireland. St David was active in Wales. During the Middle Ages, Ramon Llull advanced the concept of preaching to Muslims and converting them to Christianity by means of non-violent argument. A vision for large-scale mission to Muslims would die with him, not to be revived until the 19th Century.
Additional events can be found at the timeline of Christian missions. During the Middle Ages Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the seventh century Gregory the Great sent missionaries, including Augustine of Canterbury, into England; the Hiberno-Scottish mission began in 563. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, Franciscans such as William of Rubruck, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni ed' Magnolia were sent as missionaries to the Near and Far East, their travels took them as far as China in an attempt to convert the advancing Mongols the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire. One of the main goals of the Christopher Columbus expedition financed by Queen Isabella of Spain was to spread Christianity. During the Age of Discovery and Portugal established many missions in their American and Asian colonies; the most active orders were the Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans.
The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others were peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. In both Portugal and Spain, religion was an integral part of the state and evangelization was seen as having both secular and spiritual benefits. Wherever these powers attempted to expand their territories or influence, missionaries would soon follow. By the Treaty of Tordesillas, the two powers divided the world between them into exclusive spheres of influence and colonization; the proselytization of Asia became linked to Portuguese colonial policy. Portuguese trade with Asia proved profitable from 1499 onwards, as Jesuits arrived in India around 1540, the colonial government in Goa supported the mission with incentives for baptized Christians; the Church sent Jesuits to China and to other countries in Asia. The Reformation unfolded in Europe in the early 16th century.
For over a hundred years, occupied by their struggle with the Catholic Church, the early Protestant churches as a body were not focused on missions to "heathen" lands. Instead, the focus was more on Christian lands in the hope to spread the Protestant faith, identifying the papacy with the Antichrist. In the centuries that followed, Protestant churches began sending out missionaries in increasing numbers, spreading the proclamation of the Christian message to unreached people. In North America, missionaries to the Native Americans included Jonathan Edwards, the well-known preacher of the Great Awakening, who in his years retired from the public life of his early career, he became a missionary to the Housatonic Native Americans and a staunch advocate for them against cultural imperialism. As European culture has been established in the midst of indigenous peoples, the cultural distance between Christians of differing cultures has been difficult to overcome. One early solution was the creation of segregated "praying towns" of Christian natives.
This pattern of grudging acceptance of converts played out again in Hawaii when missionari