Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Italian Connection
The Italian Connection is a 1972 poliziotteschi film directed by Fernando Di Leo. Small-time pimp Luca Canali is hunted by local mobsters and two killers sent by the New York mafia after a shipment of heroin fails to arrive. But it becomes apparent he is not as soft as he appears as a deadly cat-and-mouse game is played out on the streets of Milan, the film contains a dramatic chase scene where Canali pursues an assassin both on car and on foot. The two American hitmen have contrasting personalities, dave is something of a playboy and loudmouth, while Frank is quiet and professional. The concept of two hitmen teamed up, one black and one white, appears to have been an inspiration for the characters played by John Travolta. It was filmed at Dear Studios in Rome and on location in Milan, the Italian Connection was released theatrically in Italy on 2 September 1972 where it was distributed by Alpherat. The film grossed 852.404 million Italian lira on its run in Italy. It was released in West Germany on 1 December 1972 under the title Der Mafia-Boss-Sie toten wie Schakale, the film received a release in the United States as The Italian Connection in 1973 with a 87 minute running time.
The film has since been released under the titles Hired to Kill, Black Kingpin, the film was released by Raro on DVD an blu-ray in the United States. The Italian Connection at the Internet Movie Database
Cobra Verde is a 1987 German drama film directed by Werner Herzog and starring Klaus Kinski. It was based upon Bruce Chatwins 1980 novel, The Viceroy of Ouidah, the film depicts the life of a fictional slave trader. It was filmed on location in Brazil and Ghana, francisco Manoel da Silva is a debauched Brazilian rancher who reluctantly goes to work at a gold mining company after his ranch is ruined by drought. When he discovers that he is being exploited, he murders his boss. He becomes the notorious Cobra Verde, the most vicious bandit of the sertão, in his travels, da Silva encounters and subdues an escaped slave, an act that impresses wealthy sugar baron Don Octávio Coutinho. Don Coutinho, unaware that he is dealing with the legendary bandit, as punishment, rather than kill him or have him prosecuted, Don Coutinho decides to send da Silva on the impossible mission of re-opening the slave trade with Western Africa. The bandit is aware he is likely to be killed in Africa and he travels by sea to Dahomey, West Africa, where he must negotiate with the fearsome King Bossa Ahadee of Dahomey.
Amazingly, da Silva succeeds in convincing the King to exchange slaves for new rifles and he takes over Elmina Castle and takes Taparica, sole survivor of the previous expedition, for a partner. They begin operating the slave trade across the Atlantic to Brazil, however, the fickle king has them captured and brought before him. The King accuses da Silva of various crimes that he has no knowledge of, including poisoning the Kings greyhound, and sentences him to death. He and Taparica are rescued the night prior to da Silvas decapitation by the Kings nephew, the ambitious bandit trains an enormous army of native women, and leads them on a raid to successfully overthrow King Bossa. Against all expectations, the trade is successfully maintained under the new King. Despite the adversity, da Silva is glad that finally a change has come, the exhausted bandit tries desperately to take a boat to water, but despite his best efforts, he is unable to accomplish the task. He collapses next to the ship as the tide slowly laps in, the film ends with the hauntingly symbolic image of an African man stricken with polio walking along the shore, and a group of young native women laughingly chant over the credits.
The film was shot in Ghana and Colombia, Herzog showed Kinski photographs of the places where he would like to work. Kinski was interested in landscapes in Colombia, but Herzog did not agree. Herzog finally decided on Villa de Leyva and Valle del Cauca, Kinski said then, Herzog does not know that I give life to the dead scenery. Cobra Verde was the last film that Werner Herzog would make with Klaus Kinski and their now-legendary personality conflict peaked during the film
Aguirre, the Wrath of God
Aguirre, the Wrath of God, known in the UK as Aguirre, Wrath of God, is a 1972 West German epic film written and directed by Werner Herzog. Klaus Kinski stars in the title role, the soundtrack was composed and performed by West German progressive/Krautrock band Popol Vuh. Using a minimalist story and dialogue, the film creates a vision of madness and folly, counterpointed by the lush but unforgiving Amazonian jungle. Although based loosely on what is known of the figure of Aguirre, the films storyline is, as Herzog acknowledged years after the films release. Some of the people and situations may have inspired by Gaspar de Carvajals account of an earlier Amazonian expedition. Other accounts state that the expedition went into the jungles but never returned to civilization, Aguirre was the first of five collaborations between Herzog and the volatile Kinski. Shooting was entirely on location, and was fraught with difficulties, filming took place in the Peruvian rainforest on the Amazon River during an arduous five-week period, shooting on tributaries of the Ucayali region.
The cast and crew climbed mountains, cut through heavy vines to open routes to the jungle locations. Aguirre opened to critical acclaim, and quickly developed a large international cult film following. It was given an extensive arthouse theatrical release in the United States in 1977, several critics have declared the film a masterpiece, and it has appeared on Time magazines list of All Time 100 Best Films. Aguirre’s visual style and narrative elements had a influence on Francis Ford Coppolas 1979 film Apocalypse Now. Under the command of Gonzalo Pizarro, the men, clad in armor, pull cannons down narrow mountainous paths and through dense. On New Years Eve, reaching the end of his supplies and unable to go on more information. If they do not return to the party within one week with news of what lies beyond. Also accompanying the expedition, against Pizarros better judgment, are Ursúas mistress, Doña Inés and Aguirres teenage daughter, traveling through rapids, one of the four rafts gets caught in an eddy, and the others are unable to help free it.
That night, gunfire erupts on the raft, in the morning the men on board are found dead. Ursúa wants the bodies to be back to camp for proper burial. Knowing this would slow down the expedition, Aguirre hints to Perucho to keep the rust off of the cannon, Perucho proceeds to fire the cannon at the raft, destroying it and throwing the bodies into the river
Haunted Summer is a 1988 drama film directed by Ivan Passer. It stars Philip Anglim as Lord Byron, Eric Stoltz as Percy Shelley, Alice Krige as Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, Alex Winter as Dr. John William Polidori, like the 1986 film Gothic, Haunted Summer is set in 1816. Authors Lord Byron, Mary Shelley and Percy Shelley get together for some philosophical discussions, but the situation deteriorates into mind games, drugs. It is a fictionalization of the summer that Lord Byron and the Shelleys, together with Lord Byrons ex-lover and his doctor, John Polidori and it is there they devise a contest to adduce the best horror story to kill the dullness of summer. It is there that one of the worlds most famous books was given life—Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, Haunted Summer at the Internet Movie Database Haunted Summer at Rotten Tomatoes
Tex and the Lord of the Deep
Tex Willer is the main fictional character of the Italian comics series Tex, created by writer Gian Luigi Bonelli and illustrator Aurelio Galleppini, and first published in Italy on 30 September 1948. It is among the most popular characters of Italian comics, with translations to numerous languages all around the world. The fan base in Brazil is especially large, but it is popular in Finland, Greece, Croatia, Tamil Nadu, Serbia. The Tex Willer series is an Italian-made interpretation of the American Old West, inspired by the classical characters, Native Americans are portrayed in a complex way, emphasizing positive and negative aspects of their culture. The same can be said of the American authorities, like the U. S. Army, the politicians, the business-men, Tex had a son, named Kit Willer, with a Native American woman, named Lilyth, the daughter of a Navajo Chief. Later, Tex himself went on to become the Chief of the Navajo tribe, Tex is not only featured in a monthly comic book series, but in a special series called Tex Albo Speciale.
The Texone have around 240 pages and some artists known outside the Tex universe have been involved, like Jordi Bernet, Joe Kubert, the first Tex Willers adventure appeared on 30 September 1948, as a comic strip. The first Tex is an unwillingly outlawed man with a code of honour. Almost immediately, Tex becomes a ranger, thanks to the marriage with the beautiful Navajo girl Lilyth, he becomes Chief of the Navajos, known as Eagle of the Night, and a defender of Native American rights. Texs closest friend in almost every adventure, since he became a ranger, is Kit Carson, a main role has been held by Tex Willers son, Kit Willer, and by the Navajo warrior Tiger Jack, though importance of last two has been diminishing in recent stories. Tex Willers nemesis is Mefisto, a magician and illusionist. Other enemies include Yama, The Black Tiger, and Proteus, during the American Civil War Tex fought for the Union, although his home state, sided with the Confederacy. He participated in the battle of Glorieta Pass and briefly served in the 7th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, Proteus, a man who can camouflage himself and change appearance with ease.
El Muerto, a Mexican pistolero, one of three brothers, who were killed by Tex, the Black Tiger, a malay prince from Borneo. The Master, a mad scientist In Argentina, Tex was published in the 1950s by Editorial Abril in his weekly magazine Rayo Rojo, in Brazil, Tex has been published uninterruptedly since 1971. Currently, it is being published by Mythos Editora, in Finland, Tex Willer was published 1953–1965. After a break of five years, Tex Willer has been published continuously since 1971, the series is still popular and 16 numbers are published a year. In Greece, Tex was published in the 70s, 80s and 2010s under three different titles, in India, Tex was published in the 80s by the South Indian Tamil Comics publisher, Lion comics
The Name of the Rose (film)
The Name of the Rose is a 1986 Italian-French-German drama mystery film directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, based on the book of the same name by Umberto Eco. Sean Connery stars as the Franciscan friar William of Baskerville and Christian Slater is his apprentice Adso of Melk, the abbey boasts a famed scriptorium where scribes copy, translate or illuminate books. The monk Adelmo of Otranto —a young but famous manuscript illuminator— has suspiciously died, the abbot seeks help from William, renowned for his deductive powers. It cannot be a suicide because the body was found below a tower with only a window which cannot be opened, William is reluctantly drawn in by the intellectual challenge and his desire to disprove fears of a demonic culprit. William worries the abbot will summon officials of the Inquisition if the mystery remains unsolved, William soon concludes that Adelmos death was indeed suicide, he fell from a different tower. Nevertheless, Venantius, a Greek translator and the last to speak with Adelmo, is dead in a vat of pig blood.
The corpse bears a black stain on a finger and the tongue, the monks suspect a supernatural cause, fears reinforced when the saintly Fransciscan monk Ubertino of Casale warns that the deaths resemble signs mentioned in the Book of Revelation. In the scriptorium, William inspects Adelmos desk, but is blocked by Brother Berengar, Brother Malachia, the head librarian, denies William access to the rest of the building. William encounters Salvatore, a hunchback, and his protector, Remigio da Varagine. William deduces that both were Dulcinites, members of a sect that believes that clergy should be impoverished. William does not suspect them of murder though, since Dulcinites target wealthy bishops, Remigios past gives William leverage in learning the abbeys secrets. Salvatore tells William that Adelmo had crossed paths with Venantius on the night that Adelmo died, Adso encounters a beautiful semi-feral peasant girl who has apparently sneaked into the abbey to trade sexual favours for food, she seduces him.
Brother Berengar sneaks into the library, distracts William and steals the book. Berengar is found drowned in a bath and bearing stains similar to those on Venantius, William confronts the abbot with the parchment, proving its links to Venantius and Adelmo and Berengar, the only left-handed man in the abbey. William theorizes that the translator transcribed the Greek notes on the parchment from a book, the abbot is unconvinced and insists that William end his investigations. Burning the parchment, he informs William that the Inquisition —in the person of Bernardo Gui— has already been summoned, determined to solve the mystery before Gui arrives and Adso discover a vast, hidden library above the scriptorium. William suspects the abbey hid the books because much of their contents comes from pagan philosophers, William tells Adso that he and Gui have clashed years before. Like the abbot, the monks and even Williams fellow Franciscans, Gui finds Salvatore and the peasant girl fighting over a black cockerel while in the presence of a black cat