Warren County, Virginia
Warren County is a U. S. county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The 2010 census places Warren County within the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of 37,575; the county seat is Front Royal. By 1672 the entire Shenandoah Valley was claimed for hunting by the Iroquois Confederation following the Beaver Wars; some bands of the Shawnee settled in the area as client groups to the Iroquois and alternately to the Cherokee after 1721. The Iroquois formally sold their entire claim east of the Alleghenies to the Virginia Colony at the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744. Warren County was established in 1836 from Shenandoah counties. At that time the county had a population of 7,000 people. Wedding records show marriages of people born in the 1770s marrying in the 1800s who head households of four to eight "free colored" so the early demographics of the population are unclear. Joist Hite lead the Sixteen Families into the Lower Shenandoah Valley; some consider that group the first European settlers of the area, others believe different claims.
Either way, Presbyterians of Scotch-Irish lineage and Quakers followed. Rail service was established in 1854 with the construction of the Alexandria and Manassas Gap Railroad between Manassas and Riverton; this line was soon extended to Strasburg in time to become a factor in the Battle of Front Royal on May 23, 1862 and throughout the Civil War. Lumber, agriculture and grain mills provided employment in the region for decades after the Civil War; the county is named for Joseph Warren. During the Civil War the Battle of Front Royal took place in the county on May 23, 1862. On September 23, 1864 William Thomas Overby and five others of Lt. Col. John S. Mosby's 43rd Virginia Battalion of Partisan Rangers were captured by cavalry troops under the command of Brig. Gen. George A. Custer in Front Royal out of uniform and were executed as spies. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 217 square miles, of which 213 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. The highest point is Hogback Mountain in Shenandoah National Park, along the border with Rappahannock County.
Frederick County, Virginia – north Clarke County, Virginia – northeast Fauquier County, Virginia – east Rappahannock County, Virginia – southeast Page County, Virginia – southwest Shenandoah County, Virginia – west Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park As of the census of 2000, there were 31,584 people, 12,087 households, 8,521 families residing in the county. The population density was 148 people per square mile. There were 13,299 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile; the demographics of the county is 92.71% White, 4.83% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,087 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families.
24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,422, the median income for a family was $50,487. Males had a median income of $37,182 versus $25,506 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,841. About 6.00% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.70% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. Front Royal Area Transit provides weekday transit for the town of Front Royal. Page County Transit - the People Movers provides weekday transit for the town of Luray and weekday service between Luray and Front Royal.
Skyline Middle School Thomas Ashby, born in Warren County and Maryland state legislator Thomas M. Allen, born in Warren County and university official in Missouri National Register of Historic Places listings in Warren County, Virginia
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the
Shenandoah County, Virginia
Shenandoah County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,993, its county seat is Woodstock. It is part of the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia; the Senedos an Iroquoian group, are thought to have occupied the area at one time, until they were said to have been slaughtered by the Catawba in the 17th century. The name of both the Valley and of the County is most connected with this Native American group, it has been attributed to General George Washington naming it in honor of John Skenandoa, an Oneida chief from New York who helped gain support of Oneida and Tuscarora warriors to aid the rebel colonists during the American Revolutionary War. Colonial Governor Gooch formally purchased the entire Shenandoah Valley from the Six Nations of the Iroquois by the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744; the Iroquois controlled the valley as a hunting ground. European settlement had begun by that time. During Pontiac's War, Shawnee attacks reached as far east as the current county.
Shenandoah County was established in 1772. It was named Dunmore County for Virginia Governor John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore. Woodstock was the county seat. Dunmore was Virginia's last royal governor, was forced from office during the American Revolution. During the war, in 1778 rebels renamed the county as Shenandoah. During the Civil War, the Battle of New Market took place May 15, 1864. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 512 square miles, of which 509 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. The Fort Valley and western slopes of the Massanutten Mountain are located within the county. Hardy County, West Virginia – northwest Frederick County, Virginia – northeast Warren County, Virginia – east Page County, Virginia – southeast Rockingham County, Virginia – southwest Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park George Washington National Forest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,993 people residing in the county. 93.0% were White, 1.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 2.8% of some other race and 1.6% of two or more races.
6.1% were Hispanic or Latino. 26.4 % were of 7.6 % Irish ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,075 people, 14,296 households, 10,064 families residing in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 16,709 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.60% White, 1.17% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.79% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 3.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,296 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 17.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,173, the median income for a family was $45,080. Males had a median income of $29,952 versus $22,312 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,755. About 5.80% of families and 8.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.10% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus Service offers weekday commuter bus service from Northern Shenandoah Valley including Shenandoah County and Warren County to Northern Virginia and Washington, D. C. including Arlington County and Fairfax County. Origination points in Shenandoah County include Woodstock. Origination points in Warren County include Front Linden. I-81 US 11 US 48 US 211 SR 42 SR 55 SR 211 SR 263 Shenandoah Valley Academy Massanutten Military Academy Shenandoah Valley Adventist Elementary School Valley Baptist Christian School Stonewall Jackson High School Strasburg High School Central High School W.
W. Robinson Elementary School Peter Muhlenberg Middle School Ashby Lee Elementary School North Fork Middle School Sandy Hook Elementary School Signal Knob Middle School Triplett Tech Massanutten Regional Governor's School Basye Maurertown Shenandoah County has been a Republican stronghold in presidential elections since the turn of the last century. Being first won by a Republican Presidential nominee in 1896, it began voting 100% Republican in presidential elections from 1936 onwards. It was one of the first counties in Virginia to ditch the Democratic Party; the county began voting Republican in statewide elections around beginning of the 20th century, but was a swing county. In the 1920s it became solidly republican at a statewide level, with the exception of Democratic local hero Harry F Byrd and his son; this voting record came from the county’s rural voters being overwhelmingly populist Republicans, which overpowered the conservative Democrat vote in the county population centers of New Market and Strasburg.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Shenandoah County, Virginia New Market Airport Shenandoah County Sheriff’s Office Shenandoah Local History Collection at James Madison Univer
Schoharie County, New York
Schoharie County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,749; the county seat is Schoharie. "Schoharie" comes from a Mohawk word meaning "floating driftwood." Schoharie County is part of NY Metropolitan Statistical Area. The large territory of the county was long occupied by the Mohawk Indians and, to the west, the other four tribes of the Iroquois League. After European colonization of the Northeast started, the Mohawk had a lucrative fur trade with the French coming down from Canada, as well as the early Dutch colonists, British and German colonists; some Palatine Germans, who worked in camps on the Hudson to pay off their passage in 1710 settled in this county in the 1720s and 30s. In addition, Scots-Irish immigrants settled in the present Schoharie County area before the American Revolutionary War near Cherry Creek. After Great Britain defeated the Dutch and took over their colony in 1664, they began to establish counties in the New York territory in 1683.
The present Schoharie County was first part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont. In theory, it extended westward to the Pacific Ocean, as the colonists wanted to keep their options open; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now part of Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one retaining the name Albany County. Tryon County was formed from the western portion of the territory; the eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated Tryon County was organized into what are now 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York.
In the years preceding 1776, as social and political tensions rose in the colony, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County on the frontier, fled to Canada. In 1784, after the peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War and the establishment of states, the new government changed Tryon County's name to Montgomery County to honor United States General Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died trying to capture the city of Quebec; the state continued to organize new counties. In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County, it was much larger than the present county, including present-day Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties. In 1791, Otsego County was one of three counties split off from Montgomery. In 1795, Schoharie County was created by joining portions of Albany counties; this was an area of fighting during the American Revolutionary War. On the frontier, colonists were subject to raids by their Iroquois allies.
Four of the six tribes allied with the British. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 626 square miles, of which 622 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water. Schoharie County is in west of Albany and southeast of Utica. Much of the southern portion of the county lies within the Catskill Mountains. Land rises in both directions quite from Schoharie Creek in the middle of the county. In contrast, the northern part of the county is predominately small valleys. More than 75% of the county's population lives in the north, closer to the Mohawk River, the historic transportation route east and west through the state. Schoharie Creek is a northward-flowing tributary of the Mohawk River; the Schoharie Creek watershed spans an area of 950 square miles. The course of Schoharie Creek includes two reservoir-dam systems; the Gilboa Dam and the Schoharie Reservoir are part of the New York City Water Supply System. The New York Power Authority operates the Blenheim-Gilboa Dam and its reservoir to produce hydroelectric power.
The headwaters of the Delaware River is located in the Town of Jefferson. Tributaries of the Susquehanna River are located in the Towns of Summit; the highest point is at the summit of Huntersfield Mountain on the southern boundary with Greene County, at 3,423 feet above sea level. The lowest point is where the Montgomery County line meets Schoharie Creek, 520 feet above sea level; the most prominent geological feature is Vroman's Nose, near the village of Middleburgh, New York in the Town of Fulton. Albany County - east Delaware County - southwest Greene County - southeast Montgomery County - north Otsego County - west Schenectady County - northeast As of the census of 2000, there were 31,582 people, 11,991 households and 8,177 families residing in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. There were 15,915 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.06% White, 2.14% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% f
Rockingham County, Virginia
Rockingham County is a county located in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 76,314, its county seat is the independent city of Harrisonburg. Along with Harrisonburg, Rockingham County forms the Harrisonburg, VA, Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is home of the Rockingham County Baseball League. Settlement of the county began in 1727, when Adam Miller staked out a claim on the south fork of the Shenandoah River, near the line that now divides Rockingham County from Page County. On a trip through eastern Virginia, the German-born Miller had heard reports about a lush valley to the west, discovered by Governor Alexander Spotswood's legendary Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition, moved his family down from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In 1741, Miller purchased 820 acres, including a large lithia spring, near Elkton and lived on this property for the remainder of his life. Much-increased settlement of this portion of the Colony of Virginia by Europeans began in the 1740s and 1750s.
Standing between the Tidewater and Piedmont regions to the east in Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley and the area beyond were the Blue Ridge Mountains. Rather than cross such a formidable physical barrier, most early settlers came southerly up the valley across the Potomac River from Maryland and Pennsylvania. Many followed the Great Wagon Trail known as the Valley Pike. Rockingham County was established in 1778 from Augusta County. Harrisonburg was named as the county seat and incorporated as a town in 1780. Harrisonburg was incorporated as a city in 1916 and separated from Rockingham County, but it remains the county seat; the county is named for 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, a British statesman. He was Prime Minister of Great Britain twice, a keen supporter of constitutional rights for the colonists. During his first term, he brought about the repeal of the Stamp Act of 1765, reducing the tax burden on the colonies. Appointed again in 1782, upon taking office, he backed the claim for the independence of the Thirteen Colonies, initiating an end to British involvement in the American Revolutionary War.
However, he died after only 14 weeks in office. By 1778, it was unusual to honor British officials in Virginia; the same year to the north of Rockingham County, Dunmore County, named for Virginia's last Royal Governor, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, an unpopular figure, was renamed. The new name, Shenandoah County, used a Native American name. However, long their political supporter in the British Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham was a popular figure with the citizens of the new United States. Named in his honor were Rockingham County, New Hampshire, Rockingham County, North Carolina, the City of Rockingham in Richmond County, North Carolina. Rockingham County is the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln's father. In 1979 when the Adolf Coors Brewing Company came to Rockingham County it caused an uproar. In 2018, a series of strikes and protests were held in Dayton's Cargill plant. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 853 square miles, of which 849 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water.
It is the third-largest county in Virginia by land area. Large portions of the county fall within the Shenandoah National Park to the east and George Washington National Forest to the west, therefore are subject to development restrictions; the county stretches west to east from the peaks of eastern-most Alleghany mountains to the peaks of the Blue Ridge mountains, encompassing the entire width of the Shenandoah Valley. Rockingham is bisected by another geographic formation, Massanutten Mountain stretching from just east of Harrisonburg, VA to a few miles southwest of Front Royal, VA in Warren County, VA. Massanutten Mountain splits the central Shenandoah Valley as the German River and the North Fork Shenandoah River flow on its western side and the South Fork flows on the eastern. George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park As of the census of 2000, 67,725 people, 25,355 households, 18,889 families resided in the county; the population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 27,328 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.58% White, 1.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. About 3.28 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of 25,355 households, 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.40% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.50% were not families. About 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,748, for a family was $46,262.
Males had a median income of $30,618 versus $21,896 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,795. About
Virginia Secession Convention of 1861
The Virginia Secession Convention of 1861 was called in Richmond to determine secession from the United States, to govern the state during a state of emergency, to write a new Constitution for Virginia, subsequently voted down in referendum under the Confederate regime. Following Abraham Lincoln's constitutional election reflecting the nation's sectional divide, before his inauguration, the Deep South states that had cast Electoral College votes for John C. Breckinridge form the Confederate States of America; the Virginia Assembly called a special convention for the sole purpose of considering secession from the United States. Virginia was divided, returning a convention of delegates amounting to about one-third for secession and two thirds Unionist, but the Unionists would prove to be divided between those who would be labelled Conditional Unionists who would favor Virginia in the Union only if Lincoln made no move at coercion, those who would be called Unconditional Unionists who would be unwavering in their loyalty to the Constitutional government of the United States.
The Convention met from February 3 – December 6, 1861, elected John Janney its presiding officer. The majority at first stayed in session awaiting events. Conditional Unionists objected to Lincoln's call for state quotas to suppress the rebellion, switched from their earlier Unionist vote to secession on April 17. At the outset of the Convention, the Confederate Congress sent three commissioners to address the convened delegates in the first week of meeting. Fulton Anderson, commissioner from Mississippi, warned that the Republican Party now in control of the United States government intended "the ultimate extinction of slavery and the degradation of the Southern people." Henry Lewis Benning, commissioner from Georgia, explained that Georgia had seceded because "a separation from the North was the only thing that could prevent the abolition of her slavery." The Virginia-born John Smith Preston, commissioner from South Carolina, insisted that when the North voted for Lincoln, it decreed annihilation of white Southerners, who must act in self-defense, Virginia should lead the Southern host in an independent Confederacy.
His speech brought the Convention to a standing ovation, but only a third of the delegates were for immediate secession. The Conditional Unionists awaited some overt action of aggression from Lincoln before deciding to secede. At first, the speeches were mixed between Secessionists advocating leaving the Union, Conditional Unionists holding onto the patriotism of earlier times, Unconditional Unionists insisting that secession was bad policy and unlawful. In the second week of the convention debate on February 28, Jeremiah Morton of the Piedmont's Orange County made an early speech for secession; the Abolitionists fanaticism was "inculcated in the Northern mind and ingrained in the Northern heart, so that you may make any compromise you please, still, until you can unlearn and unteach the people, we shall find no peace…for thirty years they have been warring upon the fifteen States of the South." He questioned whether slavery could be safe with Black Republicans taking over all branches of the Federal Government.
The Union was dissolved, Virginia would go with her Southern brethren. If the Confederacy "give us the post of danger, they will give us the post of honor, they want our statesmen. In his inaugural speech, Lincoln supported the Corwin Amendment to constitutionally guarantee slavery in the states; that same day Waitman T. Willey from trans-Alleghany Monongalia County answered Morton with a Unionist speech, he defended Virginia's institutions from Northern attacks against slavery, but sought to bring Virginia's "oppressors to acknowledge those errors and to redress her grievances…The remedy proposed by gentlemen on the other side is secession, there is no constitutional right of secession…" He warned that secession would bring about war and the abolition of slavery in Virginia. As long as Virginia stayed in the Union, the "wandering" states of the Confederacy might return to the Union. John S. Carlile of transmontane Alleghany County, like Willey an Unconditional Unionist, stressed that western Virginians were committed to slavery as "essential to American liberty."
But he would not run away from devotion to the Union. "This government that we are called upon to destroy has never brought us anything but good. No injury has it inflicted on us. No act has every been put upon the statute book of our common country, interfering with the institution of slavery in any shape, manner or form, not put there by and with the consent of the slave-holding States of this Union…" If Virginia joined the Confederacy, the North would no longer be bound by the Constitution to stand by slavery and slave-holding states, it would join with England and Spain to extinguish slavery everywhere. Thomas Jefferson's grandson, George Wythe Randolph, now a Richmond lawyer, made a secessionist speech, observing that although the Republicans had captured the United States Government "in strict accordance with Constitutional forms", it was sectional. "The Government, then…is constitutionally revolutionized, requires a counter-revolution to restore it." But "Let go with us into a Southern Confederacy, receive protection from Northern industry, they will be what they ought
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat