Deism is the philosophical belief which posits that although God exists as the uncaused First Cause – responsible for the creation of the universe – God does not interact directly with that subsequently created world. Equivalently, deism can be defined as the view which asserts God's existence as the cause of all things, admits its perfection but rejects divine revelation or direct intervention of God in the universe by miracles, it rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator or absolute principle of the universe. Deism as a form of natural theology gained prominence among intellectuals during the Age of Enlightenment in Britain, France and the United States. Deists had been raised as Christians and believed in one God, but had become disenchanted with organized religion and orthodox teachings such as the Trinity, Biblical inerrancy, the supernatural interpretation of events, such as miracles.
Included in those influenced by its ideas were leaders of the American and French Revolutions. Deism is considered to exist in the classical and modern forms, where the classical view takes what is called a "cold" approach by asserting the non-intervention of a deity in the natural behavior of the created universe, while the modern deist formulation can be either "warm" or "cold"; these lead to many subdivisions of modern deism. Deism is a theological theory concerning the relationship between the natural world. Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th-century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the 18th-century Enlightenment. Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the skepticism. Though deists rejected atheism, they were called "atheists" by more traditional theists. There were a number of different forms in the 18th centuries. In England, deists included a range of people from anti-Christian to non-Christian theists. For deists, human beings can know God only via reason and the observation of nature, but not by revelation or by supernatural manifestations – phenomena which deists regard with caution if not skepticism.
Deism is related to naturalism because it credits the formation of life and the universe to a higher power, using only natural processes. The classical deism of the 17th and 18th centuries is a form of natural theology and denies that that power has any continuing involvement with the world. Modern deism may include a spiritual element, involving experiences of God and nature; the words deism and theism synonyms in English, both derive from words for "god": the former from Latin deus, the latter from Greek theos. By the 17th century the English terms were starting to diverge, with deism referring to the new form of belief; the term deist first appeared in its new sense in Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy. Deism is thought of as having taken root first in England and subsequently spread to mainland Europe, but the term déiste appears in French, in the new sense, as early as 1564. Pierre Viret, a Swiss Calvinist, wrote of deism as a heretical development from Italian Renaissance naturalism, resulting from misuse of the liberty conferred by the Reformation to criticise idolatry and superstition.
Lord Herbert of Cherbury is considered the "father of English deism", his book De Veritate the first major statement of deism. Deism flourished in England between 1690 and 1740, at which time Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation called "The Deist's Bible," gained much attention. Deism spread to France, to Germany, to North America; the concept of deism covers a wide variety of positions on a wide variety of religious issues. Reviewing classical deism a century Sir Leslie Stephen presented it as having "constructive" and "critical" aspects. Elements common to the deist writers, on the constructive side, identify deism as a form of natural theology, include: God exists and created the universe. God gave humans the ability to reason. Most regarded themselves as Christians. Deists differed more from one another in their critical concerns, these were their chief differences from their orthodox contemporaries. Critical elements common to deist thought include: Rejection of religion based on books claiming to contain the revealed word of God.
Rejection of religious dogma and demagogy. Skepticism of reports of miracles and religious "mysteries". Most, at least, rejected the doctrine of the Trinity; some deists rejected the claim of Jesus' divinity but continued to hold him in high regard as a moral teacher, a position known as Christian deism, exemplified by Thomas Jefferson's famous Jefferson Bible and Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation. According to the deists reason provides all the information needed, they attempted to use it as a critical tool for exposing and rejecting what they saw as nonsense; some deists used the cosmological argument for the existence of God - as did Thomas Hobbes in several of his writings. A central theme of deist thinking was that the religions of their day were corruptions of an original, natural religion and rational: subsequently corrupted by "priests" manipulating it for personal gain and for the class interests of the priesthood in general, thus encrus
Robert Clayton (bishop)
Robert Clayton was an Irish Protestant bishop, now known for his Essay on Spirit. In his own lifetime he was notorious for his unorthodox beliefs, which led his critics to question whether he could properly be called a Christian at all, at the time of his death he was facing charges of heresy. Clayton was born at Dublin in 1695, a descendant of the Claytons of Fulwood, whose estates came to him by inheritance, he was the eldest of eight children of Dr. Robert Clayton, minister of St. Michael's Church and dean of Kildare, Eleanor, daughter of John Atherton of Busie. Zachary Pearce educated him at Westminster School. Clayton entered Trinity College, became B. A. 1714, a fellow the same year, M. A. 1717, LL. D. 1722, D. D. 1730. He made a tour of Italy and France, on his father's death in 1728 came into possession of a good estate and married Katherine, daughter of Lord Chief Baron Nehemiah Donnellan and his second wife Martha Ussher, he gave his wife's fortune to her sister Anne, doubled the bequest, under his father's will, to his own three sisters.
A wealthy man, he lived in Dublin in. One of the two houses that make up the current Iveagh House was designed for Clayton by Richard Castle, built in 1736–7. A gift to a distressed scholar recommended to him by Samuel Clarke brought him Clarke's friendship. Clayton held to them through life. Queen Caroline, hearing from Clarke of Clayton, had him appointed bishop of Killala and Achonry in 1729–1730. In 1735 he was translated to the diocese of Cork and Ross, in 1745 to the diocese of Clogher. In 1752 he was made Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, having some years before been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Clayton proposed, 2 February 1756, in the Irish House of Lords, that the Athanasian creed and Nicene creed should be removed from the liturgy of the Church of Ireland. Despite the controversy this aroused, no proceedings were taken against him until the publication of the third part of the'Vindication of... the Old and New Testament,' Dublin, 1757, when he renewed his attack on the Trinity and advanced doctrines contrary to the Thirty-nine Articles.
Horace Walpole said caustically that his Vindication seemed calculated to destroy anyone's faith in the Testaments. The government, by now alarmed by the heterodoxy of Clayton's opinions, ordered that he be prosecuted for heresy: a meeting of Irish prelates was called at the house of the Primate, Clayton was summoned to attend. Before the appointed time he died, on 26 February 1758. Horace Walpole, in a satirical sketch of the Bishop's life, attributes his death to panic at the thought of having to defend his religious notions, but acknowledges that he was at least sincere in his beliefs if nobody else was able to understand what they were, his wife Katherine Donnellan had a reputation for arrogance: the artist and letter-writer Mary Delaney described her as giving herself "the airs of a Queen" after her husband was made a bishop. His first publication was a letter in the Philosophical Transactions, August 1738. In 1739 he published'The Bishop of Corke's Letter to his Clergy,' Dublin, and'A Sermon preached before the Judges of Assize,' Cork, in 1740'The Religion of Labour,' Dublin, for the Society for Promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland.
In 1743 he published' A Replication... with the History of Popery,' &c. Dublin, directed against the author of'A Brief Historical Account of the Vaudois.' In 1747 appeared'The Chronology of the Hebrew Bible vindicated... to the Death of Moses,' London, pp. 494. In 1749 he published'A Dissertation on Prophesy... with an explanation of the Revelations of St. John,' Dublin; this work aimed at reconciling the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation, proving that the ruin of popery and the end of the dispersion of the Jews would take place in 2000. Two letters followed, printed separately together, 1751, London,'An Impartial Enquiry into the Time of the Coming of the Messiah.' In 1751 appeared the most notable work written by him,'Essay on Spirit... with some remarks on the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds,' London, 1751. This book, full of Arian doctrine, led to a long controversy, it was attacked by William Jones of Nayland, William Warburton, Nathaniel Lardner, others. The Duke of Dorset, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, refused on account of this work to appoint him to the vacant archbishopric of Tuam.
Several editions appeared in. In 1752 a work having appeared called'A Sequel to the Essay on Spirit,' London. Dublin, his next work was'A Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New Testament, in answer to the Objections of... Bolingbroke,' pt. i. Dublin, 1752. In 1753 he published'A Journey from Grand Cairo to Mount Sinai, back again. In Company with some Missionaries de propaganda Fide,' &c. translated from a manuscript, mentioned by Edward Pococke in his'Travels.' It included an account of the supposed inscriptions of the Israelites in the Gebel el Mokatab. The work was addressed to the Society of Antiquaries, the author offered to assist an exploration in Mount Sinai, but the society took no steps in the matter. Edward Wortley Montagu, was induced to visit the spot and give an account of the inscriptions; the same year Clayton published'A Defence of the Essay on Spirit,' London. His next work was'Some Thoughts on Self-love, Innate Ideas, Freewill,' &c. occasioned by David Hume's works, London
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
The Rt. Rev. William Bedell, D. D. was an Anglican churchman who served as Lord Bishop of Kilmore, as well as Provost of Trinity College Dublin. He was born at Black Notley in Essex, educated at Emmanuel College, where he was a pupil of William Perkins, he became a fellow of Emmanuel in 1593, took orders. In 1607 he was appointed chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton English ambassador at Venice, where he remained for four years, acquiring a great reputation as a scholar and theologian, he translated the Book of Common Prayer into Italian, was on terms of close friendship with the reformer, Paolo Sarpi. He wrote a series of sermons with Sarpi's disciple. In 1616 he was appointed to the rectory of Horningsheath. In 1627, he became provost of Trinity College, despite having no prior connection with Ireland; the provostship paid the same as his Horningsheath rectory and he clung to his living in Suffolk until forced to surrender it on grounds of benefice. Despite his evangelical Protestant wish to advance Irish Reformation, Bedell decreed a chapter of the Irish New Testament to be read at dinner by a native Irish speaker and Irish prayers in the Chapel.
In 1629, he was appointed to become Bishop of Ardagh. He set himself to reform the abuses of his diocese, encouraged the use of the Irish language, undertook the duties discharged by the bishop's lay chancellor, he is noted for commissioning the translation of the Bible into the Irish Language, which translation was undertaken by the Protestant Rector of Templeport parish, The Rev. Muircheartach Ó Cionga, he would appoint only Irish speakers to parishes. In 1633, he resigned the see of Ardagh, retaining the more primitive bishopric of Kilmore, where he had encountered some opposition from Anglicans and Catholics alike for his undertaking of reaching out to the Irish, he was determined to rebuild the neglected church buildings throughout the diocese, where, in 1638, he held a synod of all the Anglican priests and officers within the diocese to discuss lax discipline. He was asked by the court of the Plantation Commission to "lay out" the town of Virginia, County Cavan after complaints from the residents there about the landlords' failure to build the town and provide a church for worship.
Bedell was a man of simple life walking miles on foot or on horse, travelling the dangerous byways. Bedell provided assistance to converts to Protestantism enabling them to study for the ministry. Bedell sided with the Catholics of Kilmore against the excess of Alan Cooke, the incumbent chancellor of the diocese. However, the church courts found that Cooke had acquired the right as chancellor, the Bishop was unable to remove him. With the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the local warlords, led by the O'Reillys, took control of the area; the O'Reillys "gave comfortable words to the Bishop" and Bedell's house at Kilmore in County Cavan was left untouched, becoming a place of refuge for those seeking shelter from the rebel insurgents. In the end, the rebels insisted upon the dismissal of all who had taken shelter in his house, on the bishop's refusal he was seized and imprisoned with some others to the nearby island castle of Lough Oughter, Cloughoughter Castle. Here, he was detained for several weeks and was released only after signing a deposition and a remonstrance from his captors, "pleading on their behalf for graces from King Charles."
Bedell was now into the care of his friend Denis Sheridan but the imprisonment and torture had worked their damage. Shortly after his release Bedell died from his wounds and exposure on 7 February 1642. Bishop Bedell was afforded the dignity by his captors of being buried next to his wife Leah at Kilmore, where he received an honourable funeral in the presence of his O'Reilly captors; the story of his life was written by his elder son. Bedell's Last Will and Testament is available through the UK National Archives. A true relation of the life and death of the Right Reverend father in God William Bedell, Lord Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland. Edited by Thomas Wharton Jones. Camden Society, 1872 Trasna na Dtonnta or A Tale of Three Cities fictionalised biography by Christina Eastwood This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bedell, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. Webb, Alfred. "Bedell, William". A Compendium of Irish Biography.
Dublin: M. H. Gill & son – via Wikisource. Descendant Chart
Michael Boyle (archbishop of Armagh)
Michael Boyle, the younger was a Church of Ireland bishop who served as Archbishop of Dublin from 1663 to 1679 and Archbishop of Armagh from 1679 to his death. He served as Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the last time a bishop was appointed to that office. Boyle was born the eldest son of Michael Boyle the elder, his uncle was Richard Archbishop of Tuam. It was through the descendants of his cousin Lieutenant Colonel Richard Boyle that the Boyle name became ennobled over the centuries with multiple peerages, including Earl of Cork, Earl of Orrery and Earl of Shannon. Boyle was educated at Trinity College, where he proceeded M. A. and on 4 November 1637 was incorporated M. A. of Oxford. In 1637 he obtained a rectory in the diocese of Cloyne, received the degree of D. D. and became Dean of Cloyne in 1640. During the war in Ireland acted as chaplain-general to the English army in Munster. In 1650, the Protestant royalists in Ireland employed Boyle, in conjunction with Sir Robert Sterling and Colonel John Daniel, to negotiate on their behalf with Oliver Cromwell.
The Marquess of Ormonde resented the conduct of Boyle in conveying Cromwell's passport to him, which he rejected. At the Restoration, Boyle became a member of the Privy Council of Ireland, was appointed Bishop of Cork and Ross. In addition to the episcopal revenues, he continued to receive for a time the profits of six parishes in his diocese, on the ground of being unable to find clergymen for them. For Boyle's services in England in connection with the Irish Act of Settlement 1662, the Irish House of Lords at Dublin ordered a special memorial of thanks to be entered in their journals in 1662. Boyle was translated to Archbishop of Dublin in 1663, appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland in 1665. Though the appointment of a cleric as Lord Chancellor had been common, Boyle's was the last such appointment and it appears he was offered the position only because no professional lawyer of repute could be found to take it: the aged and ineffective Sir Maurice Eustace had remained in office as Chancellor until his death because of the difficulty in finding a suitable replacement.
In the event Boyle proved to be a hard working and incorruptible Chancellor, who earned the regard of successive Lord Lieutenants. While he undoubtedly used his influence to advance the career of his son-in-law, Sir William Davys, appointed Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1680, such use of patronage was an accepted part of seventeenth-century politics. In the county of Wicklow Boyle established a town, to which he gave the name of Blessington, at his own expense erected there a church, which he supplied with plate and bells. In connection with this town he in 1673 obtained the title of Viscount Blessington for his only surviving son, Murrough Boyle. In 1675 Boyle was promoted from the. On the accession of James II, Boyle was continued in office as Lord Chancellor, appointed for the third time as Lord Justice, in conjunction with the Earl of Granard, held that post until Henry, Earl of Clarendon, arrived as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in December 1685. Clarendon formed a high opinion of Boyle, is said to have objected to his dismissal from the Chancellorship, despite his lack of legal training.
In Boyle's last years his faculties are stated to have been much impaired: "his memory gone and blind, a mere wreck of the past". After about 1683 he was unable to perform the functions of his office, he stepped down as Lord Chancellor in 1686, he died in Dublin on 10 December 1702, in his ninety-third year, was interred in St. Patrick's Cathedral there. Little of the wealth accumulated by Boyle was devoted to charitable uses. Letters and papers of Boyle are extant in the Ormonde archives at Kilkenny Castle and in the Bodleian Library. Portraits of Archbishop Boyle were engraved by others, he married firstly daughter of Rt.. Rev. George Synge, Bishop of Cloyne: she died in a shipwreck in 1641, along with their infant daughter, he married secondly Mary O'Brien, daughter of Dermod O'Brien, 5th Baron Inchiquin and Ellen FitzGerald. In addition to his son Lord Blessington, he had six daughters by his second marriage, named Elizabeth, Margaret, Eleanor and Honora. Elizabeth married Denny Muschamp of Horsely, the Muster Master-General for Ireland, was the grandmother of John Vesey, 1st Baron Knapton.
Margaret married Samuel Synge, Dean of Kildare, the elder brother of Edward Synge, Archbishop of Tuam. Eleanor married William Hill of Hillsborough: they were the parents of Michael Hill. Martha married Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. Honora married three times: firstly to 3rd Earl of Ardglass. Ball, F. Elrington; the Judges in Ireland 1221–1921. London: John Murray. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilbert, John Thomas. "Boyle, Michael". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 6. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 113. Endnotes: Carte's Life of Ormonde, 1736. MSS
Henry Longueville Mansel
The Very Reverend Henry Longueville Mansel, D. D. was an English philosopher and ecclesiastic. He was born at Northamptonshire, he was educated at London and St John's College, Oxford. He took a double first in 1843, became tutor of his college, he was appointed reader in moral and metaphysical philosophy at Magdalen College in 1855, Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy in 1859. He was a great opponent of university reform and of the Hegelianism, beginning to take root in Oxford. In 1867 he succeeded Arthur Penrhyn Stanley as regius professor of ecclesiastical history, in 1868 he was appointed dean of St Paul's, he died in Cosgrove on the first of July 1871. The philosophy of Mansel, like that of Sir William Hamilton, was due to Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Thomas Reid. Like Hamilton, Mansel maintained the purely formal character of logic, the duality of consciousness as testifying to both self and the external world, the limitation of knowledge to the finite and "conditioned." His doctrines were developed in his edition of Aldrich's Artis logicae rudimenta — his chief contribution to the reviving study of Aristotle — and in his Prolegomena logica: an Inquiry into the Psychological Character of Logical Processes, in which the limits of logic as the "science of formal thinking" are rigorously determined.
In his Bampton lectures on The Limits of Religious Thought he applied to Christian theology the metaphysical agnosticism which seemed to result from Kant's criticism, and, developed in Hamilton's Philosophy of the Unconditioned. While denying all knowledge of the supersensuous, Mansel deviated from Kant in contending that cognition of the ego as it is belongs among the facts of experience. Consciousness, he held — agreeing thus with the doctrine of "natural realism" which Hamilton developed from Reid — implies knowledge both of self and of the external world; the latter Mansel's psychology reduces to consciousness of our organism. These lectures led Mansel to a bitter controversy with the Christian socialist theologian Frederick Maurice. A summary of Mansel's philosophy is contained in his article "Metaphysics" in the 5th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, he wrote "Metaphysics or the Philosophy of Consciousness Phenomenal and Real", 408pps, Edinburgh and Charles Black The Philosophy of the Conditioned in reply to John Stuart Mill's criticism of Hamilton.
He contributed a commentary on the first two gospels to the Speaker's Commentary. Mansel was married to the daughter of Admiral Sir Robert Moorsom Cited in Chisholm: John William Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men James Martineau, Essays and Addresses, iii. 117 seq. A. W. Benn, The History of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century, ii. 100–112 David Masson, Recent British Philosophy, pp. 252 seq. Leslie Stephen. "Mansel, Henry Longueville". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Kenneth D. Freeman, "The Role of Reason in Religion: A Study of Henry Mansel" Media related to Henry Longueville Mansel at Wikimedia Commons Works by Henry Longueville Mansel at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Longueville Mansel at Internet Archive Internet Archive book by Henry Longueville Mansel