1.
Toowoomba
–
Toowoomba is a city in the Darling Downs region in the Australian state of Queensland. It is located 125 km west of Queenslands capital city Brisbane by road, the estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of June 2015 was 114,622. A university and cathedral city, it hosts the Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers each September and national events for the sports of mountain biking. There are more than 150 public parks and gardens in Toowoomba and it has developed into a regional centre for business and government services. It is also referred to as the capital of the Darling Downs and it is the 16th-largest city in Australia and the sixth-largest in Queensland after Brisbane, Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast, Townsville and Cairns. Toowoomba is the most populous city in the country after the national capital of Canberra. Land for the town was first surveyed in 1849, then again in 1853, horton is regarded as the true founder of Toowoomba, despite the fact that he was not the first man to live there. Drovers and wagon masters spread the news of the new settlement at Toowoomba, by 1858 Toowoomba was growing fast. It had a population of 700, three hotels and many stores, Land selling at £4 an acre in 1850 was now £150 an acre. Governor Bowen granted the wish of locals and a new municipality was proclaimed on 24 November 1860, the first town council election took place on 4 January 1861 and William Henry Groom won. The railway from Ipswich was opened in 1867, bringing with it business development, in 1892, the Under Secretary of Public Land proclaimed Toowoomba and the surrounding areas as a township and in 1904 Toowoomba was declared a city. Pastoralism replaced agriculture and dairying by the 1900s, Toowoomba was named as Australias Tidiest Town in 2008. Toowoomba is situated on the crest of the Great Dividing Range, a few streets are on the eastern side of the edge of the range, but most of the city is west of the divide. The city occupies the edge of the range and the low ridges behind it, two valleys run north from the southern boundary, each arising from springs either side of Middle Ridge near Spring Street at an altitude of around 680 m. These waterways, East Creek and West Creek, flow together just north of the CBD to form Gowrie Creek, Gowrie Creek drains to the west across the Darling Downs and is a tributary of the Condamine River, part of the Murray–Darling basin. The water flowing down Gowrie Creek makes its way some 3,000 km to the mouth of the Murray River near Adelaide in South Australia, rain which falls on the easternmost streets of Toowoomba flows east to Moreton Bay a distance of around 170 km. The rich volcanic soil in the region maintain the 150 public parks that are scattered across the city. Jacaranda, camphor laurel and plane trees line many of the city streets, the citys reputation as The Garden City is highlighted during the Australian Carnival of Flowers festival held in September each year
2.
Queensland
–
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
3.
Australia
–
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
4.
University of Queensland
–
The University of Queensland is an Australian research university primarily located in Queensland state capital city, Brisbane. UQ is Australias top ranked university for business and life sciences, the main campus occupies much of the riverside inner suburb of St Lucia, southwest of the Brisbane central business district. Other UQ campuses and facilities are located throughout Queensland, the largest of which are the Gatton campus, UQ also has establishments overseas, such as the Brunei Clinical School and the UQ-Ochsner Clinical School in Louisiana, United States. Founded in 1911, UQ is colloquially known as a sandstone university, the University of Queensland is a founding member of online higher education consortium edX, Australias research-intensive Group of Eight, and the global Universitas 21 network. The university offers associate, bachelor, master and doctoral degrees through a college, graduate school, two Nobel laureates have been associated with UQ as alumni and staff. Over recent decades, UQ has produced notable alumni across a range of professions, proposals for a university in Queensland began in the 1870s. A royal commission in 1874, chaired by Sir Charles Lilley and those against a university argued that technical rather than academic education was more important in an economy dominated by primary industry. A second royal commission in 1891 recommended the inclusion of five faculties in a new university, arts, law, medicine, science, the government, despite the findings of the royal commissions, was unwilling to commit funds to the establishment of a university. In 1894,245 students were enrolled in the extension classes, in 1906 the University Extension Movement staged the University Congress, a forum for interested delegates to promote the idea of a university. Opinion was mobilised, a fund was started and a bill for a Queensland university was prepared. Stress was laid on the aspects of university education and its importance for the commerce of Queensland. The proceedings of the congress were forwarded to the Premier of Queensland, in October 1906, sixty acres in Victoria Park were gazetted for university purposes. The University of Queensland was established by an act of parliament on 10 December 1909 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Queenslands separation from the colony of New South Wales. In 1910 the first teaching faculties were created and these included engineering, classics, mathematics and chemistry. In 1911 the first students enrolled, the universitys first classes in the Government House were held in 1911 with 83 commencing students and Sir William MacGregor is the first chancellor. The University of Queensland began to award degrees to its first group of graduating students in 1914, thus, in the early 1920s the growing university had to look for a more spacious campus as its original site in George Street, Brisbane, had limited room for expansion. In the same year, the pitch drop experiment was started by Thomas Parnell, the experiment has been described as the worlds oldest and continues to this day. Lack of finance delayed development of the St Lucia campus, hence, the construction of the universitys first building in St Lucia only began in 1938
5.
University of Oxford
–
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, instead, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In later centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus, Oxford and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
6.
Algebra
–
Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols, as such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra, the abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine, abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x +2 =5 the letter x is unknown, in E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, and the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for solving equations and expressing formulas that are easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of object in abstract algebra is called an algebra. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist, the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wal-muḳābala by Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the century, from either Spanish, Italian. It originally referred to the procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century, the word algebra has several related meanings in mathematics, as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, algebra names a broad part of mathematics, as a single word with an article or in plural, an algebra or algebras denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. Usually the structure has an addition, multiplication, and a scalar multiplication, when some authors use the term algebra, they make a subset of the following additional assumptions, associative, commutative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word refers to a generalization of the above concept. With a qualifier, there is the distinction, Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence, Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers
7.
Group theory
–
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have influenced many parts of algebra, linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced advances and have become subject areas in their own right. Various physical systems, such as crystals and the hydrogen atom, thus group theory and the closely related representation theory have many important applications in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Group theory is central to public key cryptography. The first class of groups to undergo a systematic study was permutation groups, given any set X and a collection G of bijections of X into itself that is closed under compositions and inverses, G is a group acting on X. If X consists of n elements and G consists of all permutations, G is the symmetric group Sn, in general, an early construction due to Cayley exhibited any group as a permutation group, acting on itself by means of the left regular representation. In many cases, the structure of a group can be studied using the properties of its action on the corresponding set. For example, in this way one proves that for n ≥5 and this fact plays a key role in the impossibility of solving a general algebraic equation of degree n ≥5 in radicals. The next important class of groups is given by matrix groups, here G is a set consisting of invertible matrices of given order n over a field K that is closed under the products and inverses. Such a group acts on the vector space Kn by linear transformations. In the case of groups, X is a set, for matrix groups. The concept of a group is closely related with the concept of a symmetry group. The theory of groups forms a bridge connecting group theory with differential geometry. A long line of research, originating with Lie and Klein, the groups themselves may be discrete or continuous. Most groups considered in the first stage of the development of group theory were concrete, having been realized through numbers, permutations, or matrices. It was not until the nineteenth century that the idea of an abstract group as a set with operations satisfying a certain system of axioms began to take hold. A typical way of specifying an abstract group is through a presentation by generators and relations, a significant source of abstract groups is given by the construction of a factor group, or quotient group, G/H, of a group G by a normal subgroup H. Class groups of algebraic number fields were among the earliest examples of factor groups, of much interest in number theory
8.
Combinatorics
–
Combinatorics is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures. Many combinatorial questions have historically been considered in isolation, giving an ad hoc solution to a problem arising in some mathematical context. In the later twentieth century, however, powerful and general methods were developed. One of the oldest and most accessible parts of combinatorics is graph theory, Combinatorics is used frequently in computer science to obtain formulas and estimates in the analysis of algorithms. A mathematician who studies combinatorics is called a combinatorialist or a combinatorist, basic combinatorial concepts and enumerative results appeared throughout the ancient world. Greek historian Plutarch discusses an argument between Chrysippus and Hipparchus of a rather delicate enumerative problem, which was shown to be related to Schröder–Hipparchus numbers. In the Ostomachion, Archimedes considers a tiling puzzle, in the Middle Ages, combinatorics continued to be studied, largely outside of the European civilization. The Indian mathematician Mahāvīra provided formulae for the number of permutations and combinations, later, in Medieval England, campanology provided examples of what is now known as Hamiltonian cycles in certain Cayley graphs on permutations. During the Renaissance, together with the rest of mathematics and the sciences, works of Pascal, Newton, Jacob Bernoulli and Euler became foundational in the emerging field. In modern times, the works of J. J. Sylvester and Percy MacMahon helped lay the foundation for enumerative, graph theory also enjoyed an explosion of interest at the same time, especially in connection with the four color problem. In the second half of the 20th century, combinatorics enjoyed a rapid growth, in part, the growth was spurred by new connections and applications to other fields, ranging from algebra to probability, from functional analysis to number theory, etc. These connections shed the boundaries between combinatorics and parts of mathematics and theoretical science, but at the same time led to a partial fragmentation of the field. Enumerative combinatorics is the most classical area of combinatorics and concentrates on counting the number of combinatorial objects. Although counting the number of elements in a set is a rather broad mathematical problem, fibonacci numbers is the basic example of a problem in enumerative combinatorics. The twelvefold way provides a framework for counting permutations, combinations and partitions. Analytic combinatorics concerns the enumeration of combinatorial structures using tools from complex analysis, in contrast with enumerative combinatorics, which uses explicit combinatorial formulae and generating functions to describe the results, analytic combinatorics aims at obtaining asymptotic formulae. Partition theory studies various enumeration and asymptotic problems related to integer partitions, originally a part of number theory and analysis, it is now considered a part of combinatorics or an independent field. It incorporates the bijective approach and various tools in analysis and analytic number theory, graphs are basic objects in combinatorics
9.
Coding theory
–
Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications. Codes are used for compression, cryptography, error-correction. This typically involves the removal of redundancy and the correction or detection of errors in the transmitted data, for example, Zip data compression makes data files smaller to reduce Internet traffic. Data compression and error correction may be studied in combination, error correction adds extra data bits to make the transmission of data more robust to disturbances present on the transmission channel. The ordinary user may not be aware of many applications using error correction, a typical music CD uses the Reed-Solomon code to correct for scratches and dust. In this application the transmission channel is the CD itself, cell phones also use coding techniques to correct for the fading and noise of high frequency radio transmission. Data modems, telephone transmissions, and NASA all employ channel coding techniques to get the bits through, for example the turbo code and LDPC codes. In 1948, Claude Shannon published A Mathematical Theory of Communication and this work focuses on the problem of how best to encode the information a sender wants to transmit. In this fundamental work he used tools in probability theory, developed by Norbert Wiener, Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory. The binary Golay code was developed in 1949 and it is an error-correcting code capable of correcting up to three errors in each 24-bit word, and detecting a fourth. Richard Hamming won the Turing Award in 1968 for his work at Bell Labs in numerical methods, automatic coding systems and he invented the concepts known as Hamming codes, Hamming windows, Hamming numbers, and Hamming distance. The aim of source coding is to take the source data, data can be seen as a random variable X, Ω → X, where x ∈ X appears with probability P. Data are encoded by strings over an alphabet Σ, a code is a function C, X → Σ ∗. C is the code associated with x. Length of the word is written as l. Expected length of a code is l = ∑ x ∈ X l P The concatenation of code words C = C C. C. The code word of the empty string is the empty string itself, C, X ∗ → Σ ∗ is uniquely decodable if injective. C, X → Σ ∗ is instantaneous if C is not a prefix of C, Entropy of a source is the measure of information
10.
University of St Andrews
–
The University of St Andrews is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is the oldest of the four ancient universities of Scotland, St Andrews was founded between 1410 and 1413, when the Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII issued a papal bull to a small founding group of Augustinian clergy. St Andrews is made up from a variety of institutions, including three constituent colleges and 18 academic schools organised into four faculties, the university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. The academic year is divided into two terms, Martinmas and Candlemas, in term time, over one-third of the towns population is either a staff member or student of the university. It is ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom in national league tables, the Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking names St Andrews among the worlds Top 50 universities for Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities. St Andrews has the highest student satisfaction amongst all multi-faculty universities in the United Kingdom, St Andrews has many notable alumni and affiliated faculty, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, theologians, philosophers, and politicians. Six Nobel Laureates are among St Andrews alumni and former staff, a charter of privilege was bestowed upon the society of masters and scholars by the Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw, on 28 February 1411. Wardlaw then successfully petitioned the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII to grant the university status by issuing a series of papal bulls. King James I of Scotland confirmed the charter of the university in 1432, subsequent kings supported the university with King James V confirming privileges of the university in 1532. A college of theology and arts called St Johns College was founded in 1418 by Robert of Montrose, St Salvators College was established in 1450, by Bishop James Kennedy. St Leonards College was founded in 1511 by Archbishop Alexander Stewart, St Johns College was refounded by Cardinal James Beaton under the name St Marys College in 1538 for the study of divinity and law. Some university buildings that date from this period are still in use today, such as St Salvators Chapel, St Leonards College Chapel, at this time, the majority of the teaching was of a religious nature and was conducted by clerics associated with the cathedral. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the university had mixed fortunes and was beset by civil. He described it as pining in decay and struggling for life, in the second half of the 19th century, pressure was building upon universities to open up higher education to women. In 1876, the University Senate decided to allow women to receive an education at St Andrews at a roughly equal to the Master of Arts degree that men were able to take at the time. The scheme came to be known as the L. L. A and it required women to pass five subjects at an ordinary level and one at honours level and entitled them to hold a degree from the university. In 1889 the Universities Act made it possible to admit women to St Andrews. Agnes Forbes Blackadder became the first woman to graduate from St Andrews on the level as men in October 1894
11.
Queen Mary University of London
–
Queen Mary University of London is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It dates back to the foundation of London Hospital Medical College in 1785, Queen Mary College, named after Mary of Teck, was admitted to the University of London in 1915 and in 1989 merged with Westfield College to form Queen Mary and Westfield College. In 1995 Queen Mary and Westfield College merged with St Bartholomews Hospital Medical College and its main campus is in the Mile End area of Tower Hamlets, with other campuses in Holborn, Smithfield and Whitechapel. In 2015/16 it had 17,140 students and 4,000 staff, Queen Mary is a member of the Russell Group of leading British research universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and Universities UK. Queen Mary is a centre for medical teaching and research and is part of UCL Partners. It has a partnership with the University of Warwick, including research collaboration and joint teaching of English, history. Queen Mary also collaborates with Royal Holloway, University of London, for 2015-16, Queen Mary had a turnover of £404.3 million, including £101.0 million from research grants and contracts. Queen Mary has been ranked between 30-40th in the UK according to national university rankings, according to The Guardian, it has been ranked ahead of other London institutions in the fields of law, dentistry, media and film studies, and second in medicine and history. The trustees of the Beaumont Trust, administering funds left by Barber Beaumont, on 20 May 1885 the Drapers Court of Assistants resolved to grant £20,000 for the provision of the technical schools of the Peoples Palace. The technical schools were opened on 5 October 1888, with the palace completed by 1892. In 1895 John Leigh Smeathman Hatton, Director of Evening Classes, by the start of the 20th century the first degrees were awarded and Hatton, along with several other Professors, were recognised as Teachers of the University of London. Teaching of aeronautical engineering began in 1907 which led to the first UK aeronautical engineering department being established in 1909 which boasted a wind tunnel. Thus creating the oldest Aeronautical Programme in the World, in 1910 the Colleges status in the University of London was extended for a further five years, with unlimited membership achieved in May 1915. After the war, the College grew, albeit constrained by the rest of the Peoples Palace to the west, in 1920 it obtained both the Palaces Rotunda and rooms under the winter gardens at the west of the palace, which became chemical laboratories. In the coming days discussions on reconstruction led to the proposal that the site be transferred to the College which would then apply for a Charter alone. The Charter was now pursued, but the Academic Board asked for a change, feeling that east London carried unfortunate associations that would hinder the College. With the initial proposed name, Queens College, having already taken by The Queens College, Oxford and Victoria College felt to be unoriginal. The Charter of Incorporation was presented on 12 December 1934 by Queen Mary herself. 57–62 During the Second World War the College was evacuated to Cambridge, where it shared with Kings College
12.
Peter M. Neumann
–
Peter Michael Neumann OBE is a British mathematician. He is a son of the mathematicians Bernhard Neumann and Hanna Neumann and, after gaining a B. A. from The Queens College, Oxford in 1963 and he was a Tutorial Fellow at the Queens College, Oxford and a lecturer at Oxford University. After retiring in 2008, he became an Emeritus Fellow at the Queens College and his work has been in the field of group theory. He is also known for solving Alhazens problem in 1997, in 1987, he won the Lester R. Ford Award of the Mathematical Association of America for his review of Harold Edwards book Galois Theory. In 2003, the London Mathematical Society awarded him the Senior Whitehead Prize and he was the first Chairman of the United Kingdom Mathematics Trust, from October 1996 to April 2004, succeeded by Bernard Silverman. He was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours, peter M. Neumann at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
13.
Eric Lander
–
He was co-chair of U. S. President Barack Obamas Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Lander was raised in a Jewish family, the son of Harold and he was captain of the math team at Stuyvesant High School and an International Mathematical Olympiad Silver Medalist for the United States, graduating from high school in 1974. At the age of seventeen, he wrote a paper on quasiperfect numbers for which he won the Westinghouse Prize, Lander attended Princeton University, where he graduated in 1978 as valedictorian. He then attended the University of Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, thesis on algebraic coding theory and symmetric block designs, under the supervision of Peter Cameron. As a mathematician, Lander studied combinatorics and applications of theory to coding theory. He enjoyed mathematics, but did not wish to spend his life in such a monastic career, unsure of what to do next, he took up a job teaching managerial economics at Harvard Business School, Lander also began writing a book on information theory. At the suggestion of his brother, developmental biologist Arthur Lander, in order to understand mathematical neurobiology, he felt he had to study cellular neurobiology, in turn, this led to studying microbiology and eventually, genetics. When I finally feel I have learned genetics, I should get back to other problems. But Im still trying to get the genetics right and he later became acquainted with David Botstein, a geneticist working at MIT. Botstein was working on a way to unravel how subtle differences in complex systems can become disorders like cancer, diabetes, schizophrenia. The two collaborated to develop an algorithm to analyze the maps of genes. Lander then joined the Whitehead Institute in 1986, that same year, in 1990, he founded the Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research. The WICGR became one of the leading centers of genome research. Many research groups from all over the world were involved in this collaborative effort. The second effort was undertaken by Celera Genomics, which intended to patent the information obtained, established first, the HGP moved slowly in the early phases of research as the role of the Department of Energy was unclear and sequencing technology was in its infancy. When Celera entered the race to discover the genome, the pressure was on the HGP to establish as much of the genome in the domain as quickly as possible. This was a change of strategy for the HGP, because many scientists at the time wanted a complete copy of the genome. Along with other members of the HGP, Lander pushed for quicker discovery so that genes would not be discovered and patented by Celera first, in 2001, a draft of the human genome was published in the journal Nature
14.
Dugald Macpherson
–
H. Dugald Macpherson is a mathematician and logician. He is Professor of Pure Mathematics at the University of Leeds and he obtained his DPhil from the University of Oxford in 1983 for his thesis entitled Enumeration of Orbits of Infinite Permutation Groups under the supervision of Peter Cameron. In 1997 he was awarded the Junior Berwick Prize by the London Mathematical Society and he continues to research into permutation groups and model theory. He is scientist in charge of the MODNET team at the University of Leeds and he co-authored the book Notes on Infinite Permutation Groups Prof. Macphersons homepage
15.
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
–
Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh judges to be eminently distinguished in their subject. Around 50 new fellows are elected each year in March, as of 2016 there are around 1650 Fellows, including 71 Honorary Fellows and 76 Corresponding Fellows. Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSE, examples of fellows include Peter Higgs and Jocelyn Bell Burnell. Previous fellows have included Melvin Calvin and Benjamin Franklin, see the Category, Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for more examples
16.
Merton College, Oxford
–
Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The important feature of Walters foundation was that this college was to be self-governing, the hall and the chapel and the rest of the front quad were complete before the end of the 13th century. Notable alumni and academics past and present include four Nobel Laureates and writer J. R. R. Tolkien who was Merton Professor of English Language, Merton is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford and had a financial endowment of £212.8 million as of July 2014. Merton has a reputation for academic success, having regularly ranked first in the Norrington Table in recent years. Merton College was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor and it has a claim to be the oldest college in Oxford, although this claim is disputed between Merton College, Balliol College and University College. The substance of Mertons claim is that it was the first college to be provided with statutes, Mertons statutes date back to 1264, whereas neither Balliol nor University College had statutes until the 1280s. Merton was also the first college to be conceived as a community working to achieve academic ends, Merton has an unbroken line of wardens dating back to 1264. Of these, many had great influences over the development of the college, Henry Savile was one notable leader whose vision led the college to flourish in the early 17th century. St Alban Hall was an independent academic hall owned by the convent of Littlemore until it was purchased by Merton College in 1548 following the dissolution of the convent and it continued as a separate institution until it was finally annexed by the college in 1881. During the English Civil War, Merton was the only Oxford college to side with Parliament, the reason for this was Mertons annoyance with the interference of their Visitor William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This included the Kings French wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, who was housed in or near what is now the Queens Room, the room above the arch between Front and Fellows Quads. Differences were quickly settled after the war, however, and a portrait of Charles I hangs near the Queens Room as a reminder of the role it played in his court. The college was consolidated on this site by 1274, when Walter made his final revisions to the college statutes, the initial acquisition included the parish church of St John and three houses to the east of the church which now form the north range of Front Quad. Walter also obtained permission from the king to extend from these properties south to the old city wall to form a square site. The college continued to other properties as they became available on both sides of Merton Street. At one time, the college owned all the land from the site that is now Christ Church to the eastern corner of the city. The land to the east eventually became the current Fellows garden, by the late 1280s the old church of St John the Baptist had fallen into a ruinous condition, and the college accounts show that work on a new church began in about 1290. The present choir, with its enormous east window, was complete by 1294, the window is an important example of how the strict geometrical conventions of the Early English Period of architecture were beginning to be relaxed at the end of the 13th century
17.
Bedford College, London
–
Bedford College was founded in London in 1849 as the first higher education college for the education of women in the United Kingdom. In 1900, the became a constituent school of the University of London. It played a role in the advancement of women in higher education. The college became coeducational in the 1960s. In 1985, Bedford College merged with another of the University of Londons colleges – Royal Holloway College, the merged institution was named Royal Holloway and Bedford New College. While this is still the name, for day-to-day use the college is called Royal Holloway. Mrs. Reid and her circle of well-educated friends were believers in the need for improving education for women. In 1849, she leased a house at 47 Bedford Square in the Bloomsbury area of London, the intention was to provide a liberal and non-sectarian education for women, something no other institution in the United Kingdom provided at the time. Reid placed £1,500 with three trustees and persuaded a number of her friends to serve on the management committees. At the outset, the governance of the College was in the hands of the Ladies Committee and the General Committee made up of the Ladies, the professors of the college and three trustees. Initially the professors were shocked by the low educational standards of the women entering the college. In response to this, Reid founded a school close to the college in 1853 in an attempt to provide a standard of entry. In 1860, the college expanded into 48 Bedford Square which enabled it to become a residential establishment, the Residence was under the charge of a matron, who introduced the practice of students helping towards the running of the house and keeping their own accounts. Elizabeth Reid died in 1866 and left the college in the hands of three female trustees, the trustees insisted upon a new constitution. The Council was replaced by a Committee of Management, and the college was reconstituted as an Association under the Board of Trade, in 1874, the Bedford Square lease expired and the college moved to 8 and 9 York Place, off Baker Street. The two houses acted as one, with the using the downstairs rooms and the upstairs being the Residence. As numbers began to rise, the college expanded with the addition of extensions housing science laboratories, in the late-1870s, an entrance examination was introduced and a preparatory department set up for those who did not meet the standards required for college-level entry. In 1878, degree examinations of the University of London were opened to women, Bedford College students began gaining University of London Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science and Masters degrees from the early-1880s
18.
Permutation group
–
In mathematics, a permutation group is a group G whose elements are permutations of a given set M and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in G. The group of all permutations of a set M is the group of M. The term permutation group thus means a subgroup of the symmetric group, if M = then, Sym, the symmetric group on n letters is usually denoted by Sn. The way in which the elements of a permutation group permute the elements of the set is called its group action, group actions have applications in the study of symmetries, combinatorics and many other branches of mathematics, physics and chemistry. A general property of finite groups implies that a finite nonempty subset of a group is again a group if. The degree of a group of permutations of a set is the number of elements in the set. The order of a group is the number of elements in the group, by Lagranges theorem, the order of any finite permutation group of degree n must divide n. Since permutations are bijections of a set, they can be represented by Cauchys two-line notation and this notation lists each of the elements of M in the first row, and for each element, its image under the permutation below it in the second row. If σ is a permutation of the set M = then, for instance, a particular permutation of the set can be written as, σ =, this means that σ satisfies σ=2, σ=5, σ=4, σ=3, and σ=1. The elements of M need not appear in any order in the first row. This permutation could also be written as, σ =, the permutation written above in 2-line notation would be written in cyclic notation as σ =. The product of two permutations is defined as their composition as functions, in other words σ·π is the function maps any element x of the set to σ. Note that the rightmost permutation is applied to the argument first, with this convention, the product is given by xσ·π = π. However, this gives a different rule for multiplying permutations and this convention is commonly used in the permutation group literature, but this article uses the convention where the rightmost permutation is applied first. Since the composition of two bijections always gives another bijection, the product of two permutations is again a permutation. In two-line notation, the product of two permutations is obtained by rearranging the columns of the second permutation so that its first row is identical with the row of the first permutation. The product can then be written as the first row of the first permutation over the row of the modified second permutation. For example, given the permutations, P = and Q =, the composition of permutations, when they are written in cyclic form, is obtained by juxtaposing the two permutations and then simplifying to a disjoint cycle form if desired
19.
London Mathematical Society
–
The London Mathematical Society is one of the United Kingdoms learned societies for mathematics. The Society was established on 16 January 1865, the first president being Augustus De Morgan, the earliest meetings were held in University College, but the Society soon moved into Burlington House, Piccadilly. The initial activities of the Society included talks and publication of a journal, the LMS was used as a model for the establishment of the American Mathematical Society in 1888. The Society was granted a charter in 1965, a century after its foundation. In 1998 the Society moved from rooms in Burlington House into De Morgan House, at 57–58 Russell Square, Bloomsbury, the Society is also a member of the UK Science Council. On 4 July 2008, the Joint Planning Group for the LMS, the proposal was the result of eight years of consultations and the councils of both societies commended the report to their members. Those in favour of the merger argued a single society would give mathematics in the UK a coherent voice when dealing with Research Councils, while accepted by the IMA membership, the proposal was rejected by the LMS membership on 29 May 2009 by 591 to 458. It also publishes the journal Compositio Mathematica on behalf of its owning foundation, in addition, the Society jointly with the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications awards the David Crighton Medal every three years. London Mathematical Society website A History of the London Mathematical Society MacTutor, The London Mathematical Society
20.
Royal Society of Edinburgh
–
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotlands national academy of science and letters. It is a charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis. As of 2014 it has more than 1,500 Fellows, the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a range of disciplines – science & technology, arts, humanities, medicine, social science, business. The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation, past winners include, The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical, Engineering and Informatics Sciences. It is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, winners receive a silver medal and are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland. The award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who was a mathematical physicist and engineer. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world, the Keith medal has been historically awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the societys scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Mathematics or Earth and Environmental Sciences, the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunottar, the first Treasurer of the Society. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. Under the leadership of Prof. Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, by the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society produced many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences, from the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotlands eminent scientists, but also the arts and humanities. It still exists today and continues to promote research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the societys first female president, taking up her position in October
21.
Kathleen Ollerenshaw
–
Born Kathleen Mary Timpson, Ollerenshaw was born in Withington, Manchester, where she attended Lady Barn House School. Deaf since the age of eight, her fascination with mathematics was inspired by her Lady Barn headmistress, Miss Jenkin Jones and it was during her time at Lady Barn that she met her future husband, Robert Ollerenshaw. Today, Lady Barn House School recognises her as a Lady Barn legend, as a young woman, she attended St Leonards School and Sixth Form College in St Andrews, Scotland where today the house of young male boarders is named after her. At the age of 19 she gained admittance to Somerville College, Oxford and she completed her doctorate at Somerville in 1945 on Critical Lattices under the supervision of Theo Chaundy. She wrote five original research papers which were sufficient for her to earn her DPhil degree without the need of a written thesis. While an undergraduate, she engaged to Colonel Robert Ollerenshaw, who became a distinguished military surgeon. They married in September 1939 and had two children, Charles and Florence, in 1942 she suffered a miscarriage and cried nonstop for three days as a result of stress when her husband was suddenly mobilised and deployed for war. In 1949, at the age of 37, she received her first effective hearing aid and she was made a Freeman of the City of Manchester and was an advisor on educational matters to Margaret Thatchers government in the 1980s. She was President of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications from 1978 to 1979 and she published at least 26 mathematical papers, her best-known contribution being to most-perfect pandiagonal magic squares. Upon her death, she left a legacy in trust to support distinguished research visitors and public engagement activities at the School of Mathematics, an annual public lecture at the University is named in her honour. An amateur astronomer, Ollerenshaw donated her telescope to Lancaster University, and she was an honorary member of the Manchester Astronomical Society and held the post of Vice President for a number of years. Ollerenshaw attended St Leonards School in St Andrews, Fife, and she was succeeded by Baroness Byford, Conservative spokeswoman in the House of Lords. She turned 100 in October 2012 and she died in Didsbury on 10 August 2014, at the age of 101. Her husband and both their children had predeceased her, composer Sir Peter Maxwell Davies dedicated his Naxos Quartet No.9 to her. In 1970, Ollerenshaw was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for services to education, D. S. Brée and K. M. Ollerenshaw, Pandiagonal magic-squares from mixed auxiliary squares, in, Mathematics Today,1998, vol
22.
School of Mathematics, University of Manchester
–
The school was formed in 2004 by the merger of the mathematics departments of University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. In July 2007 the school moved from the Mathematics Tower into a purpose-designed building – the first three floors of the Alan Turing Building – on Upper Brook Street, the current head of the school is Peter Duck. The Manchester Institute for Mathematical Sciences is a unit of the focusing on the organising of mathematical colloquia and conferences. MIMS is headed by Nick Higham FRS, who is also Director of Research, Numerical analyst Jack Dongarra, famous as one of the authors of LINPACK, was appointed in 2007 as Turing Fellow. In the autumn of 2007 another corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Albert Shiryaev was appointed to a 20% chair, Shiryaev is famous for his work on probability theory and for his work on financial mathematics. The school also has a tradition in Numerical analysis and well established groups in Probability theory. Manchester mathematicians have a tradition of applying mathematics to industrial problems. Nowadays this involves not only the applications in engineering and the physical sciences, but also in the life sciences. Some of the recent industrial partners include Qinetiq, Hewlett Packard, NAg, MathWorks, Comsol, Philips Labs, Thales Underwater Systems, Rapiscan Systems, the School of Mathematics entered research into three units of assessment. In Pure Mathematics 20% of submissions from 27 FTE category A staff were rated 4*, in Applied Mathematics 25% of submissions from 28.8 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. And in Statistics and Operational Research, 20% of submissions from 10.9 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, many famous mathematicians have worked at the precursor departments to the school. In 1885 Horace Lamb, famous for his contribution to fluid dynamics accepted a chair at the VUM, Newman wrote, His lecture courses were numerous, and his books provide a record of his methods. Many of his students were engineers, and they found in him a guide, one who understood their difficulties. In 1907 famous analyst and number theorist J. E. Littlewood was appointed to the Richardson Lectureship which he held for three years, during 1912–1913 the pioneer of weather forecasting and numerical analysis Lewis Fry Richardson worked at Manchester College of Science and Technology. Number theorist Louis Mordell joined the College in 1920, during this time he discovered the result for which he is best known, namely the finite basis theorem, which proved a conjecture of Henri Poincaré. Mordell then went on to become Fielden Reader in Pure Mathematics at VUM in 1922, Mordell built up the department, offering posts to a number of outstanding mathematicians who had been forced from posts on the continent of Europe. He brought in Reinhold Baer, G. Billing, Paul Erdős, Chao Ko, Kurt Mahler and he also recruited J. A. Todd, Patrick du Val, Harold Davenport, L. C. Although Manchester was later to be known as the birthplace of the electronic computer, the machine was used for ballistics calculations as well calculating railway timetables
23.
J. H. van Lint
–
Jacobus Hendricus van Lint was a Dutch mathematician, professor at the Eindhoven University of Technology, of which he was rector magnificus from 1991 till 1996. He gained his Ph. D. from Utrecht University in 1957 under the supervision of Fred van der Blij and he was professor of mathematics at Eindhoven University of Technology from 1959 to 1997. He was appointed a professor at Eindhoven University of Technology at the age of 26 years. His field of research was initially number theory, but he worked mainly in combinatorics, van Lint was honored with a great number of awards. Introduction to Coding Theory, Springer, Graduate Texts in Mathematics,1982, with Peter Cameron, Designs, Graphs, Codes and their Links, London Mathematical Society Lecture Notes, Cambridge University Press,1980. With Richard M. Wilson, A Course in Combinatorics, Cambridge University Press,1992, with Gerard van der Geer, Introduction to Coding theory and Algebraic Geometry, Birkhäuser,1988. Personal web site OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Jacobus Hendricus van Lint, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
24.
Integrated Authority File
–
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
25.
Virtual International Authority File
–
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records