United States Census
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce; the first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. The current national census was held in 2010. For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the American Community Survey.
Title 13 of the United States Code governs how its data is handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U. S. C. § 9. Refusing or neglecting to answer the census is punishable by fines of $100, for a property or business agent to fail to provide correct names for the census is punishable by fines of $500, for a business agent to provide false answers for the census is punishable by fines of $10,000, pursuant to 13 U. S. C. § 221-224. The United States Census is a population census, distinct from the U. S. Census of Agriculture, no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau, it is distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions. Decennial U. S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U. S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants; the Census Bureau bases its decision about. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time.
The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted. The Census uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown; this practice is seen by some as controversial. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are excluded from being counted in the census though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U. S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."According to the Census Bureau, "Census Day" has been April 1 since 1930. From 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August, it moved to June in 1830, April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920.
The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U. S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. In 2010 Jaime Grant director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."
Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics. In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census. On March 26, 2018 the U. S. Dept of Commerce announced plans to re-include a citizenship question in the 2020 census questionnaire which has not been included on the long form since 1950 but was part of the short form starting in 1910 until its removal in 2010; the citizenship question will be the same as the one, asked on the yearly American Community Survey. Proponents of including the question claimed it is necessary to gather an accurate statistical count, while opponents claimed it might suppress responses and therefore lead to an inaccurate count. Multiple states have sued the Trump administration arguing that the proposed citizenship question is unconstitutional and will intimidate immigrants, resulting in inaccurate data on minority communities. In January 2019 a federal judge in New York ruled against the proposal.
James B. Longacre
James Barton Longacre was an American portraitist and engraver, the fourth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1844 until his death. Longacre is best known for designing the Indian Head cent, which entered commerce in 1859, for the designs of the Shield nickel, Flying Eagle cent and other coins of the mid-19th century. Longacre was born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, in 1794, he ran away to Philadelphia at age 12. His artistic talent developed and he was released to apprentice in an engraving firm, he struck out on his own in 1819, making a name providing illustrations for popular biographical books. He portrayed the leading men of his day. Calhoun, led to his appointment as chief engraver after the death of Christian Gobrecht in 1844. In Longacre's first years as a chief engraver, the Philadelphia Mint was dominated by Mint Director Robert M. Patterson and Chief Coiner Franklin Peale. Conflict between Longacre and the two men developed after Congress ordered a new gold dollar and double eagle, with both to be designed by Longacre.
Peale and Patterson nearly had Longacre fired, but the chief engraver was able to convince Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith that he should be retained. Both Patterson and Peale left the Mint in the early 1850s. In 1856, Longacre designed the Flying Eagle cent; when that design proved difficult to strike, Longacre was responsible for the replacement, the Indian Head cent, issued beginning in 1859. Other coins designed by Longacre include the silver and nickel three-cent pieces, the Shield nickel, the pattern Washington nickel, the two-cent piece. In 1866–1867, he redesigned the coins of Chile. Longacre died on New Year's Day 1869. Longacre's coins are well-regarded today, although they have been criticized for lack of artistic advancement. James Barton Longacre was born on a farm in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on August 11, 1794, his mother Sarah Longacre died early in his life. When Peter Longacre remarried, his son found the home life intolerable, James Longacre left home at the age of 12, seeking work in the nearby city of Philadelphia.
He apprenticed himself at a bookstore. Over the following years, Longacre worked in the bookstore, but Watson realized that the boy's skill was in portraiture. Watson granted Longacre a release from his apprenticeship in 1813 so that he could follow an artistic muse, but the two remained close, Watson would sell Longacre's works. Longacre became apprenticed to George Murray, principal in the engraving firm Murray, Fairman & Co. at 47 Sansom Street in Philadelphia. This business derived from the firm established by the Philadelphia Mint's first chief engraver, Robert Scot. Longacre remained at the Murray firm until 1819. Employed at the Murray firm from 1816 was the man who would be Longacre's predecessor as chief engraver, Christian Gobrecht. Longacre's work at the company gave him a good reputation as an engraver skilled in rendering other artists' paintings as a printed engraving, in 1819, he set up his own business at 230 Pine Street in Philadelphia. Longacre's first important commission were plates for S.
F. Bradford's Encyclopedia in 1820. Longacre agreed to engrave illustrations for Joseph and John Sanderson's Biographies of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, published in nine volumes between 1820 and 1827. Although the venture was marked by criticism of the writing, sales were good enough that the project was completed. Numismatic writer Richard Snow suggests that the books sold on the strength of the quality of Longacre's illustrations. Longacre completed a series of studies of actors in their roles in 1826 for The American Theatre. With lessons learned from the Sanderson series, Longacre proposed to issue his own set of biographies illustrated with plates of the subjects, he was on the point of launching this project, having invested $1,000 of his own money in preparation, when he learned that James Herring of New York City was planning a similar series. In October 1831, he wrote to Herring, the two men agreed to work together on The American Portrait Gallery, published in four volumes between 1834 and 1839.
Herring was an artist, but much of the work of illustrating fell to Longacre, who traveled in the United States to sketch subjects from life. He again sketched Jackson, by now president, as well as former president James Madison, both in July 1833, he met many of the political leaders of the day. Among these advocates was the former vice president, South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun. In July 1832, Niles' Register described a Longacre engraving, "one of the finest specimens of American advancement in the art". Longacre had married Eliza Stiles in 1827. Sales of the Gallery lagged due to the Panic of 1837.
The gold dollar or gold one-dollar piece is a gold coin, struck as a regular issue by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1849 to 1889. The coin had three types over its lifetime, all designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre; the Type 1 issue has the smallest diameter of any United States coin minted to date. A gold dollar coin had been proposed several times in the 1830s and 1840s, but was not adopted. Congress was galvanized into action by the increased supply of bullion caused by the California gold rush, in 1849 authorized a gold dollar. In its early years, silver coins were being hoarded or exported, the gold dollar found a ready place in commerce. Silver again circulated after Congress in 1853 required that new coins of that metal be made lighter, the gold dollar became a rarity in commerce before federal coins vanished from circulation because of the economic disruption caused by the American Civil War. Gold did not again circulate in most of the nation until 1879. In its final years, it was struck in small numbers.
It was in demand to be mounted in jewelry. The regular issue gold dollar was last struck in 1889. Damaged common date gold dollars tend to be worth anywhere from melt value to about US$110. In proposing his plan for a mint and a coinage system, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1791 proposed that the one-dollar denomination be struck both as a gold coin, as one of silver, representative of the two metals which he proposed be made legal tender. Congress followed Hamilton's recommendation only in part, authorizing a silver dollar, but no coin of that denomination in gold. In 1831, the first gold dollar was minted, at the private mint of Christopher Bechtler in North Carolina. Much of the gold being produced in the United States came from the mountains of North Carolina and Georgia, the dollars and other small gold coins issued by Bechtler circulated through that region, were now and seen further away. Additional one-dollar pieces were struck by Christopher's son. Soon after the Bechtlers began to strike their private issues, Secretary of the Treasury Levi Woodbury became an advocate of having the Mint of the United States strike the one-dollar denomination in gold.
He was opposed by Robert M. Patterson. Woodbury persuaded President Andrew Jackson to have pattern coins struck. In response, Patterson had Mint Second Engraver Christian Gobrecht break off work on the new design for the silver one-dollar coin and work on a pattern for the gold dollar. Gobrecht's design featured a Liberty cap surrounded by rays on one side, a palm branch arranged in a circle with the denomination and name of the country on the other. Consideration was given to including the gold dollar as an authorized denomination in the revisionary legislation that became the Mint Act of 1837; the Philadelphia newspaper Public Ledger, in December 1836, supported a gold dollar, stating that "the dollar is the smallest gold coin that would be convenient, as it would be eminently so, neither silver nor paper should be allowed to take its place." After Mint Director Patterson appeared before a congressional committee, the provision authorizing the gold dollar was deleted from the bill. In January 1844, North Carolina Representative James Iver McKay, the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, solicited the views of Director Patterson on the gold dollar.
Patterson had more of Gobrecht's pattern dollar struck to show to committee members, again advising against a coin that if issued would be only about a half inch in diameter. He told Treasury Secretary John C. Spencer that the only gold coins of that size in commerce, the Spanish and Colombian half-escudos, were unpopular and had not been struck for more than twenty years; this seemed to satisfy the committee as nothing more was done for the time, when a gold dollar was proposed again in 1846, McKay's committee recommended against it. Before 1848, record amounts of gold were flowing to American mints to be struck into coin, but the California Gold Rush vastly increased these quantities; this renewed calls for a gold dollar, as well as for a higher denomination than the eagle the largest gold coin. In January 1849, McKay introduced a bill for a gold dollar, referred to his committee. There was much discussion in the press about the proposed coin. McKay amended his legislation to provide for a double eagle and wrote to Patterson, who replied stating that the annular gold dollar would not work, neither would another proposal to have dollar piece consisting of a gold plug in a silver coin.
Gobrecht's successor as chief engraver, James B. Longacre, prepared patterns, including some with a square hole in the middle. McKay got his fellow Democrat, New Hampshire Senator Charles Atherton, to introduce the bill to authorize the gold dollar and the double eagle in the Senate on February 1, 1849—Atherton was chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. McKay introduced a version into the House on February 20; the dollar was attacked by congressmen from the Whig Party in the minority, on the grounds that it would be too small, would be counterfeited and in bad light might be mistakenly spent as a half dime, the coins being similar in size. McKay did not resp
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Rockledge is a borough in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 2,543 at the 2010 census. Rockledge is surrounded by Abington Township, Philadelphia, shares at ZIP Code with Jenkintown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 95.8% White, 0.4% Black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 2.0% were two or more races. 2.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,577 people, 1,060 households, 645 families residing in the borough; the population density was 7,428.9 people per square mile. There were 1,091 housing units at an average density of 3,145.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.98% White, 0.04% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.58% of the population. There were 1,060 households, out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families.
34.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.24. In the borough the population was spread out, with 23.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $47,958, the median income for a family was $55,455. Males had a median income of $40,349 versus $32,100 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $21,232. About 1.8% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the Poverty threshold, including 0.7% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Rockledge has a borough manager form of government with a seven-member borough council. Mayor: Harold Praediger Borough Manager: Grace MetzingerThe borough is part of the Pennsylvania's 4th congressional district, the 172nd State House District and the 4th State Senate District.
Hampton S. Thomas, a Medal of Honor recipient in the American Civil War, was buried in Rockledge; the Rockledge Model Railroad Museum, located on the corner of Montgomery & Sylvania Avenues, is home to the GATSME Lines Model RR Club and is housed in a historic textile mill building. The club was located in Fort Washington, until 2014, when it relocated to its current location. Official website
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea